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A comparison of hypothetical survey rankings with consumer shopping behavior and product knowledge AgEcon
Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory; Menapace, Luisa.
Hypothetical surveys are commonly used to elicit consumer behavior to guide product development, marketing, and labeling strategies. However, despite the prevalence of surveys in consumer food studies, previous work has not assessed the relationship between hypothetical responses and actual consumer behavior in real-world purchase situations.We explore whether attributes cited by consumers in surveys as being important to them when making decisions indeed factor into their product decision process in real-world markets. Evidence from a point of sale study of 702 pork purchasers indicates that there is a strong correspondence between hypothetical survey ratings and actual shopping behavior.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Attribute ranking; Consumer shopping behavior; Hypothetical surveys; Origin labeling; Pork; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Marketing; C8; C9; Q1.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120448
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Adaptive Experimental Design Using the Propensity Score AgEcon
Hahn, Jinyong; Hirano, Keisuke; Karlan, Dean S..
Many social experiments are run in multiple waves, or are replications of earlier social experiments. In principle, the sampling design can be modified in later stages or replications to allow for more efficient estimation of causal effects. We consider the design of a two-stage experiment for estimating an average treatment effect, when covariate information is available for experimental subjects. We use data from the first stage to choose a conditional treatment assignment rule for units in the second stage of the experiment. This amounts to choosing the propensity score, the conditional probability of treatment given covariates. We propose to select the propensity score to minimize the asymptotic variance bound for estimating the average treatment...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Experimental design; Propensity score; Efficiency bound; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C1; C14; C9; C93; C13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47107
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Agent-Based Modelling and Sensitivity Analysis by Experimental Design and Metamodelling: An Application to Modelling Regional Structural Change AgEcon
Happe, Kathrin.
This paper presents the application of the sensitivity analysis techniques Design of Experiments (DOE) and metamodelling to the agent-based model AgriPoliS, which is a spatial and dynamic simulation model of regional structural change. DOE and metamodelling provide a more systematic analysis of results of complex simulation models. When summarising the results, it becomes clear that interest rates, technical change and managerial ability influence average economic land rent the most.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Simulation; Design of experiments; Metamodelling; Structural change; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C9; C15.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24464
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Behavioral Economics: A New Heavy weight in Washington? AgEcon
Cash, Sean B.; Schroeter, Christiane.
Honorable Mention, Outstanding Choices Article Award, 2011
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Obesity; Diet; Nutrition; Behavioral economics; Food policy; Health promotion; Consumer/Household Economics; I12; I18; C9.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95755
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Collective Action for Watershed Management: Field Experiments in Colombia and Kenya AgEcon
Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Rodriguez, Luz Angela; Johnson, Nancy L..
The dilemma of collective action around water use and management involves solving both the problems of provision and appropriation. Cooperation in the provision can be affected by the rival nature of the appropriation and the asymmetries in the access. We report two field experiments conducted in Colombia and Kenya. The Irrigation Game was used to explore the provision and appropriation decisions under asymmetric or sequential appropriation, complemented with a Voluntary Contribution Mechanism experiment which looks at provision decisions under symmetric appropriation. The overall results were consistent with the patterns of previous studies: the zero contribution hypotheses is rejected whereas the most effective institution to increase cooperation was...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Collective Action; Watersheds; Field Experiments; Colombia; Kenya; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Q0; Q2; C9; H3; H4.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91169
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Consumer preferences for ground beef packaged under a modified atmosphere AgEcon
Grebitus, Carola; Jensen, Helen H.; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Roosen, Jutta; Anders, Sven M..
The main objective of this paper is to identify factors that determine consumers’ purchase decisions for ground beef offered with different packaging technologies. Consumers’ increasing knowledge about food technologies and changes in food labeling regulation influence agribusiness’ future product development and marketing strategies. Non-hypothetical choice experiments with ground beef, conducted in the USA, are used to quantify consumers’ valuation of technology-related attributes namely shelf life, color and packaging. How alternative types of information affect consumers’ WTP is of particular importance to processors and food safety analysts. This paper’s methodological contribution lies in applying advanced methods to elicit consumers' estimates of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Non-hypothetical choice experiments; Modified atmosphere packaging; Ground beef; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Marketing; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Q13; C9; D12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51649
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GALE-SHAPLEY MATCHING IN AN EVOLUTIONARY TRADE NETWORK GAME AgEcon
Tesfatsion, Leigh.
For a postscript copy of this paper, click <a href="/Data/isu/er43.ps"> here. </A> This study investigates the performance of Gale-Shapley matching in an evolutionary market context. Computational experimental findings are reported for an evolutionary match-and-play trade network game in which resource-constrained traders repeatedly choose and refuse trade partners in accordance with Gale-Shapley matching, participate in risky trades modelled as two-person prisoner's dilemma games, and evolve their trade behavior over time. Particular attention is focused on correlations between ex ante market structure and the formation of trade networks, and between trade network formation and the types of trade behavior and social welfare outcomes that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Evolutionary game; Gale-Shapley matching; Iterated prisoners' dilemma; Trade networks; Endogenous interactions; Agent-based computational economics; International Relations/Trade; C7; C8; C9; D8; D4.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18200
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Gender Differences in Output Quality and Quantity under Competition and Time Constraints: Evidence from a Pilot Study AgEcon
Shurchkov, Olga.
Gender gaps in income and level of position in the workplace are widespread. One explanation for this inequality is that the genders perform differently under competitive conditions, as previous experimental studies have found a significant gender gap in competitive tasks that are perceived to favor men. In this paper, we use a verbal task that is perceived to favor women and find no gender difference under competition per se. We also reject the hypothesis that a .stereotype threat. explains the inability of women to improve performance under competition. We propose an alternative explanation for gender inequality: namely, that women and men respond differently to time pressure. With reduced time pressure, competition in verbal tasks greatly increases the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Gender Differences; Competition; Effects of Time Pressure; Labor and Human Capital; C9; J16; J71.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55294
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Implementing the Efficient Auction: Initial Results from the Lab AgEcon
Margolis, Michael; Shogren, Jason F..
The efficient auction is designed to induce truthful bidding for bidders with affiliated values. Herein we implement the auction in the lab, and observe that inexperienced people can bid systematically in this more complex environment, albeit yielding a flatter bid function than the truthful one.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Auction; Affiliation; Experiments; Valuation; Financial Economics; C9; D44.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10733
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IS CHEAP TALK EFFECTIVE AT ELIMINATING HYPOTHETICAL BIAS IN A PROVISION AgEcon
Murphy, James J.; Stevens, Thomas H.; Weatherhead, Darryl.
Replaced with revised version of paper 10/06/04.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Contingent valuation; Experiments; Hypothetical bias; Voluntary; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C9; Q26; H41.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14510
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Measuring Consumer Willingness to Pay for a Health Risk Reduction of Salmonellosis and Campylobacteriosis AgEcon
Goldberg, Isabell; Roosen, Jutta.
This paper presents an application of the contingent valuation method (CVM) and choice experiments (CEs). We examine consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for different health risk reduction levels of Salmonellosis and Campylobacteriosis acquired from the consumption of chicken breast. We test for the embedding effect. The embedding effect was not found in the CVM format. It was however present in the CEs. The WTP values in the CVM format rages from Euro 1.29 to 3.34, whereas the WTP obtained by the CEs ranges from Euro -0.16 to Euro 6.68 depending on the disease and the corresponding risk reduction levels.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Chicken; Choice experiments; Contingent valuation method; Food safety; Willingness to pay; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; C9; D8; D12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24512
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Observing Unobservables: Identifying Information Asymmetries with a Consumer Credit Field Experiment AgEcon
Karlan, Dean S.; Zinman, Jonathan.
Information asymmetries are important in theory but difficult to identify in practice. We estimate the empirical importance of adverse selection and moral hazard in a consumer credit market using a new field experiment methodology. We randomized 58,000 direct mail offers issued by a major South African lender along three dimensions: 1) the initial "offer interest rate" appearing on direct mail solicitations; 2) a "contract interest rate" equal to or less than the offer interest rate and revealed to the over 4,000 borrowers who agreed to the initial offer rate; and 3) a dynamic repayment incentive that extends preferential pricing on future loans to borrowers who remain in good standing. These three randomizations, combined with complete knowledge of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Information asymmetries; Field experiment; Adverse selection; Moral hazard; Development finance; Credit markets; Microfinance; Financial Economics; C9; D8; G2; G3; O1.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28482
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Smiley or Frowney: The effect of emotions and framing in a downstream water pollution game AgEcon
Czap, Hans J.; Czap, Natalia V.; Khachaturyan, Marianna; Burbach, Mark E.; Lynne, Gary D..
Common-pool resources and other shared resources frequently suffer from overextraction/overuse and associated negative externalities. In this paper we design a framed laboratory experiment on downstream water pollution to investigate (a) the importance of framing in determining the behavior of upstreamers regarding the negative externalities, and (b) the potential of downstreamers to influence the choices of upstreamers using non-monetary sanctions and rewards, alleviating the need for intervention by the local governments and regulatory institutions. Our results show that framing has a significant impact on the behavior of subjects. Subjects behaved more profit-oriented in the self-interest framing and more egalitarian in the empathy framing. In addition,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Empathy framing; Self-interest framing; Emotions; Water pollution; Environmental experiment; Reward and punishment.; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Land Economics/Use; C9; D03; Q25; Q53; Q57.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102696
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Social Norms and Behavior in the Local Commons Through the Lens of Field Experiments AgEcon
Cardenas, Juan-Camilo.
Behavior in the local commons is usually embedded in a context of regulations and social norms that the group of users face. Such norms and rules affect how individuals value material and non-material incentives and therefore determine their decision to cooperate or over extract the resources from the common-pool. This paper discusses the importance of social norms in shaping behavior in the commons through the lens of experiments, and in particular experiments conducted in the field with people that usually face these social dilemmas in their daily life. Through a large sample of experimental sessions with around one thousand people between villagers and students, I test some hypothesis about behavior in the commons when regulations and social norms...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social norms; Regulations; Cooperation; Collective action; Common-pool resources; Experimental economics; Field experiments.; Public Economics; D71; Q0; Q2; C9; H3; H4.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91168
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Teaching with Technology to Engage Students and Enhance Learning AgEcon
Lass, Daniel A.; Morzuch, Bernard J.; Rogers, Richard T..
Teaching technology effects on student learning in a large lecture introductory statistics course were tested. Findings show in-class personal response systems and on-line homework/quizzes significantly improve student exam scores. We infer proven small class techniques, participating in class and doing homework via technologies, can restore sound pedagogy in larger classes. The experiment was conducted using just one class, but factors usually unaccounted for in assessment research were controlled, especially the instructor and other materials. The technologies investigated here can provide learning benefits to students even in larger courses often criticized for their inability to provide students quality learning experiences.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Teaching; Technology; Statistics; Active learning; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; A22; C9; C21; I21.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14509
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The "more is less" phenomenon in Contingent and Inferred valuation AgEcon
Stachtiaris, Spiros; Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Klonaris, Stathis.
2011) using the Contingent valuation (CV) as well as the Inferred valuation (IV) method (Lusk and Norwood 2009b). We find that when moving in the context of a familiar market for consumers (i.e., the food market) we only observe weak effects of inconsistencies. In addition, we find that the IV method is no better (and no worse) than the CV method in generating more consistent preference orderings. Surprisingly, we also find that the IV method generates higher valuations than CV, rendering one of its advantages of mitigating social desirability bias questionable.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Willingness-to-pay (WTP); Contingent Valuation (CV); Inferred Valuation(IV); Preference reversals; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C9; C93; D12; Q51.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116013
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Transcending the Limitations of Environmental Economic Framing: Toward a Metaeconomics of Environmental Choice AgEcon
Czap, Natalia V.; Czap, Hans J.; Khachaturyan, Marianna; Lynne, Gary D.; Burbach, Mark E..
This paper further tests dual interest theory and the metaeconomics approach to environmental choice, recognizing a possible role for empathy-sympathy (the basis for an internalized, shared other-interest) in tempering and conditioning the more fundamental tendency to pursue self-interest. To test, we focus on rivers flowing through agricultural areas carrying sediments, chemicals, and fertilizers which are making their way into downstream rivers and lakes. We use data from a framed experiment. Farmers decide on the usage of conservation technology to lessen impacts on the water quality in downstream areas, which is more costly. The results confirm our hypotheses, demonstrating that upstream farmers who practice conservation are tempering profit...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Dual-interest model; Metaeconomics; Empathy; Sympathy; Selfism; Environmental experiment; Behavioral economics; Water quality; Conservation tillage; Conservation policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; C9; D03; Q25; Q53; Q57..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102866
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Using Experimental Economics to Measure Social Capital and Predict Financial Decisions AgEcon
Karlan, Dean S..
Questions remain as to whether results from experimental economics games are generalizable to real decisions in non-laboratory settings. Furthermore, important questions persist about whether social capital can help solve seemingly missing credit markets. I conduct two experiments, a Trust game and a Public Goods game, and a survey to measure social capital. I then examine whether behavior in the games predicts repayment of loans to a Peruvian group lending microfinance program. Since the structure of these loans relies heavily on social capital to enforce repayment, this is a relevant and important test of the games, as well as of other measures of social capital. I find that individuals identified as "trustworthy" by the Trust game are in fact less...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Trust game; Experimental economics; Microfinance; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; B4; C9; D8; O1.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28429
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