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Registros recuperados: 15
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A taxonomic revision of Bulbophyllum, sections Adelopetalum, Lepanthanthe, Macrouris, Pelma, Peltopus, and Uncifera (Orchidaceae) Naturalis
Vermeulen, J.J..
A revision is presented of six sections of the genus Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae): sect. Adelopetalum (mainly occurring in Australia), sect. Lepanthanthe, sect. Macrouris, sect. Pelma, sect. Peltopus, and sect. Uncifera (all mainly occurring in New Guinea). Together these include 110 species and 9 subspecies. Fortyseven species and 4 subspecies are new; they are either described in this revision or in precursors to this revision. The genus Dactylorhynchus is reduced to Bulbophyllum. Keys to the species, as well as synonymy, descriptions and illustrations of each species are provided. Some aspects of the morphology of the plants are discussed. A cladistic analysis of each revised section is given. A method to select the closest outgroup species from a number...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Orchidaceae; Bulbophyllum; East Malesia; New Guinea; Australia; Cladistics; Biogeography.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/509470
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Análise filogenética de Questidae e Clitellata: o problema da parafilia de "Polychaeta" Iheringia, Sér. Zool.
Garraffoni,André R. S.; Amorim,Dalton S..
Hypotheses about the phylogenetic relationships within Questidae, and the relationships of this taxon with Clitellata using parsimony analysis of 35 external and internal morphological characters of 36 terminal taxons are presented. The results show the position of Questidae within Scolecida and Clitellata. Within the Polychaeta, Clitellata is the sister group of the Questidae. The results also indicate that the Scolecida, Microdrilli, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta and Tubificidae are paraphyletic. Clitellata, Megadrilli, Questidae, Hirudinae are monophyletic.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Polychaeta; Questidae; Clitellata; Cladistics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0073-47212003000100011
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Analysis of generic relationships in Anacardiaceae Naturalis
Wannan, B.S..
Cladistic analyses were undertaken of Anacardiaceae using non-sequence data (30 genera and 81 characters from morphology, anatomy, palynology and chemotaxonomy), sequence data (26 genera – rbcL) and a combined dataset of 16 genera. All analyses supported a group of genera which can be recognised at the subfamily level: Anacardioideae. Sequence data and combined datasets supported the recognition of a second subfamily: Spondiadioideae Kunth emend. Wannan. Both datasets also suggested that Buchanania lies outside both subfamily groups.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Anacardiaceae; Cladistics; Phylogeny; RbcL sequence data.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/525167
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Cladistic analyses of molecular characters: The good, the bad and the ugly Naturalis
Telford, Maximilian J..
Molecular cladistics is an emerging discipline in which any heritable molecular characteristic can be treated in the same way that a traditional cladist would treat a morphological character. Taxa that share specific derived molecular characters (synapomorphies) are recognized as more closely related to each other than they are to other taxa without these characters. Herein, I point out that molecular characters are susceptible to the same problems of homoplasy and uncertain polarity as morphological characters and illustrate these problems (and point towards a general solution) using examples from the Metazoa.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Molecular synapomorphy; Phylogeny; Rare genomic change; RGC; Metazoa; Cladistics.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/534289
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Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) Naturalis
Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C..
The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as terminal taxa. The analysis yielded 149 equally parsimonious cladograms, each with 206 steps, CI = 0.35, and RI = 0.60; the successive weighting procedure resulted in eight cladograms (CI = 0.79 and RI = 0.91). In the strict consensus cladogram, two major clades are delimited: one comprising the species R. rufiventris, R. hamatus, R. arcitenens, R. arcuiger, R. amapaensis, R. thoracicus, R. biguttatus, R. argentinensis, R. limai, R. grandis, and R. angulatus; and...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Cladistics; Biogeography; Rasahus; Heteroptera; 42.75.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/215077
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Conceptual issues in phylogeny, taxonomy, and nomenclature Naturalis
Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P..
Phylogenetic hypotheses are designed and tested (usually in implicit form) on the basis of a set of presumptions, that is, of statements describing a certain order of things in nature. These statements are to be accepted as such, no matter whatever evidence for them exists, but only in the absence of reasonably sound evidence pleading against them. A set of the most current phylogenetic presumptions is discussed, and a factual example of a practical realization of the approach is presented. A comparison is made of the three main taxonomic approaches hitherto developed, viz., phenetics, cladistics, and phylistics (= evolutionary systematics). The latter term denotes an approach that tries explicitly to represent the basic features of traditional taxonomy...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Phylogeny; Taxonomy; Phenetics; Cladistics; Phylistics; Principles of nomenclature; Type concept; Paleoentomology; Xyelidae (Vespida).
Ano: 1996 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/504631
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Descriptive morphology and phylogenetic relationships among species of the Neotropical annual killifish genera Nematolebias and Simpsonichthys (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae) Neotropical Ichthyology
Costa,Wilson J. E. M..
Structures of the external morphology and skeleton of the annual fish genera Nematolebias and Simpsonichthys are described and illustrated. Phylogenetic relationships among all included species of both genera and other cynolebiatins are estimated, based on 116 morphological characters in a total of 50 terminal taxa. Nematolebias is hypothesized to be the sister group of a clade including Simpsonichthys, Austrolebias , Megalebias, and Cynolebias, which is diagnosed by ventral portion of mesopterygoid not overlapping quadrate, third neural spine approximately as wide as fourth neural spine, ventral condyle of coracoid narrow, scales slightly extending over anal-fin base, loss of vomerine teeth, loss of neuromast anterior to infraorbital series, ventral...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Systematics; Cladistics; Cynolebiatinae; Spectrolebias; Xenurolebias; Ophthalmolebias; Hypsolebias.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-62252006000100001
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Fossils and decapod phylogeny Naturalis
Schram, Frederick R.; Dixon, Christopher.
An expanded series of morphological characters developed for a cladistic analysis of extant decapods has yielded a new hypothesis for the phylogeny of the group. Application of this database to selected fossil genera produces some interesting results and demonstrates the feasibility of treating fossils as full and equal partners in the study of decapod phylogenetic relationships. In addition, it seems clear that rigorous cladistic methods can be used to evaluate the phylogenetic positions of fossils, rather than ad hoc speculation.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Decapoda; Phylogeny; Cladistics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/534342
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Frustrating facts about area cladistics and species individuality Naturalis
Gittenberger, E..
Area cladistics suffer from the fact that areas have various “histories”, as such dictated by different groups of taxa. Consequently, a generalized area cladogram has not or hardly any biological meaning. Conflicting area cladograms may be derived from even the same species, when their ranges in different geological periods are used. This is a consequence of the individuality of species.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Cladistics; Area cladogram; Gastropoda; Aciculidae.
Ano: 1990 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/504485
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Hypothetico-deductivism in systematics: fact or fiction? Pap. Avulsos de Zool. (São Paulo)
Rieppel,Olivier.
Phylogenetic systematics (the cladistic analysis of phylogenetic relationships) is not hypotheticodeductively structured (in the sense of a covering law model of scientific explanation). If it were, there would be no reason to call for total evidence, since that requirement is automatically satisfied in a deductively structured explanation. Instead, the appeal to the requirement of total evidence in phylogenetic systematics indicates that phylogenetic inference is inductively, or abductively, structured. The principle of total evidence has been invoked to render inductive inference an argument as strong as it can be, but for this to be the case the total evidence must also be relevant evidence, i.e., evidence 'of the right sort' relative to the state of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Hempel; Popper; Cladistics; Hypothetico-deductivism; Total evidence; Relevant evidence.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492008002300001
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Molecules, morphology, and the monophyly of diapsid reptiles Naturalis
Lee, Michael S.Y..
The morphological and molecular evidence for higher-level reptile relationships is reassessed, A combined analysis of 176 osteological, 40 soft anatomical, and 2903 (1783 aligned) molecular characters in 28 amniote taxa yields the traditional reptile tree. Synapsids (including mammals) are the sister taxon to all other amniotes, including all extant reptiles. Turtles group with anapsid parareptiles and fall outside a monophyletic Diapsida. Within diapsids, squamates and Sphenodon form a monophyletic Lepidosauria, and crocodiles plus birds form a monophyletic Archosauria. This tree is identical to the tree strongly supported by the osteological data alone when fossils are included. In a combined analysis the strong osteological signal linking turtles with...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Reptilia; Testudines; Cladistics; Osteology; Fossils; Molecular phylogenetics.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/534306
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Numerical analysis of Thai members of the Eugenia-Syzygium group (Myrtaceae) Naturalis
Parnell, J..
Four different analyses of Thai Syzygium show, with very small discrepancies, that one smaller monophyletic and one larger polyphyletic group can be recognised. The smaller monophyletic group warrants sectional rank as Syzygium section Jambosa and consists of S. anacardiifolium, S. aqueum, S. diospyrifolium, S. formosum, S. foxworthianum, S. jambos, S. lakshanakarae, S. malaccense, S. megacarpum, S. papillosum, S. pseudoformosum, S. pycnanthum, S. samarangense, S. scortechinii and S. siamense.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Eugenia; Jambosa; Syzygium; Cladistics; Phenetic analysis; Phylogenetic analysis.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/525752
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Phylogenetic analysis of the Antarctic genus Oswaldella Stechow, 1919 (Hydrozoa, Leptomedusae, Kirchenpaueriidae) Naturalis
Peña Cantero, Alvaro L.; Marques, Antonio C..
A cladistic study was carried out on known species of the characteristically Antarctic genus Oswaldella, adopting as outgroups some other genera included in the family Kirchenpaueriidae. The analysis resulted in a cladogram with low CI in which no relationship between genera can be depicted. However, the hypothesis of monophyly of the genus Oswaldella is corroborated, being supported in our cladogram by five synapomorphies (although all are homoplastic with other taxa or reversed within the species of the genus). The basal relationships of the genus are uncertain, but three species groups are distinguishable within Oswaldella: 1) the O. incognita group, 2) the O. antarctica group, and 3) a clade formed by (O. garciacarrascosai, O. elongata ( O. blanconae...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Hydrozoa; Kirchenpaueriidae; Oswaldella; Antarctica; Systematics; Cladistics.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/534328
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The Dakoticancridae (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Late Cretaceous of North America and Mexico Naturalis
Bishop, G.A.; Feldmann, R.M.; Vega, F..
The podotrematous crab family Dakoticancridae includes four genera: Dakoticancer Rathbun, Tetracarcinus Weller, Avitelmessus Rathbun, and Seorsus Bishop, all known solely from the Late Cretaceous of North America. Lathelicocarcinus Bishop, originally referred to the family, must be reassigned. Fine details of anatomy, preserved on specimens of D. overanus Rathbun and A. grapsoideus Rathbun, permit description of genital openings and interpretation of functional morphology of appendages. Although one species, D. australis Rathbun, has been found associated with burrow structures, all were probably vagrant epifaunal animals on fine- to medium-grained siliciclastic substrata. Food was probably obtained by generalized low-level predation and scavenging....
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Dakoticancridae; Brachyura; Paleobiology; Paleobiogeography; Late Cretaceous; North America; Mexico; Taxonomy; Cladistics.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/534324
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Why biogeographical hypotheses need a well supported phylogenetic framework: a conceptual evaluation Pap. Avulsos de Zool. (São Paulo)
Santos,Charles Morphy D.; Amorim,Dalton S..
A growing number of biogeographical methods have attempted to describe formal means of reconstructing the biogeographical history of the organisms. Whatever the biogeographical method, however, the source of systematic information has to be well worked out. Taxonomic noise is sometimes a true impediment to properly deal with the complexity of life in its three-dimensional aspects, the threefold parallelism represented by form, space and time. This paper argues that historical systematics is a necessary basis for a historical biogeography. Organismal phylogenies or at least hypotheses of monophyly should be taken as the basis for the study of distribution patterns. Whenever a non-monophyletic taxon is misleadingly taken as monophyletic, erroneous...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biogeography; Cladistics; Conservation; Endemism; Monophyly; Phylogeny; Species.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492007000400001
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