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Agricultural Growth, Poverty, and Nutrition in Tanzania AgEcon
Pauw, Kalie; Thurlow, James.
Rapid economic growth has failed to significantly improve poverty and nutrition outcomes in Tanzania. This raises concerns over a decoupling of growth, poverty, and nutrition. We link recent production trends to household incomes and caloric availability using a dynamic computable general equilibrium and micro-level poverty and nutrition modules. Results indicate that the structure of economic growth—not the level—is currently constraining the rate of poverty reduction in Tanzania. Agricultural growth has been driven by larger-scale farmers that are less likely to be poor. Growth has further been concentrated in crops grown in only a few regions of the country. Slow expansion of food crops and livestock also explains the weak relationship between...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Poverty; Nutrition; Computable general equilibrium modeling; Tanzania; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95974
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Does Agricultural Trade Liberalization under FTA Reduce Pollution from Agriculture? : The Case of the Japan-Korea FTA AgEcon
Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Sawauchi, Daisuke; Masuda, Kiyotaka.
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate over agricultural trade and environment by asking: Does agricultural trade liberalization under free trade agreement (FTA) reduce pollution from agriculture? In order to contribute to answering the above research question, we measure the potential impact of environmental pollution from agriculture caused by agricultural trade liberalization under the Japan-Korea FTA (JKFTA), using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model and the OECD Nitrogen Balance Database. The scenario we model assumes the complete removal of all import tariffs between Japan and Korea, not only in the agricultural sector but in non-agricultural sectors, as well. The results show the JKFTA is likely to lead to an overall...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade and environment; Free trade agreement; Computable general equilibrium modeling; Agriculture; Japan; Korea; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; C68; F14; F15; F18; Q17; Q56.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9969
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Economic Consequences of Pollinator Declines: A Synthesis AgEcon
Bauer, Dana Marie; Sue Wing, Ian.
This paper surveys the literature on pollinator declines and related concerns regarding global food security. Methods for valuing the economic risks associated with pollinator declines are also reviewed. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach is introduced to assess the effects of a global catastrophic loss of pollinators. There appears to be evidence supporting a trend towards future pollinator shortages in the United States and other regions of the world. Results from the CGE model show economic risks to both direct crop sectors and indirect non-crop sectors in the economy, with some amount of regional heterogeneity.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Ecosystem services; Pollinators; Food security; Valuation; Computable general equilibrium modeling; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95903
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Eight Years of Doha Trade Talks: Where Do We Stand? AgEcon
Bouet, Antoine; Laborde, David.
In 2001 the World Trade Organization launched a highly ambitious program of multilateral liberalization. Eight years later, concluding the negotiations is uncertain, though an opportunity still exists. Since 2001, many proposals on market access have been brought to the negotiating table by the European Union, the United States, and the G20. Because it is politically and economically acceptable to many parties, the final December 2008 package could be the basis of an agreement. An evaluation of these various proposals shows how trade negotiations have been following countries’ strategic interests. In eight years, the ambition of the formula in agricultural market access tariff reduction has increased, but additional flexibilities designed to accommodate...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Computable general equilibrium modeling; Least developed countries; Trade negotiations; Financial Economics; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93256
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Recycling of Eco-Taxes, Labor Market Effects and the True Cost of Labor- a CGE Analysis AgEcon
Conrad, Klaus; Loschel, Andreas.
Computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling has provided a number of important insights about the interplay between environmental tax policy and the pre-existing tax system. In this paper, we emphasize that a labor market policy of recycling tax revenues from an environmental tax to lower employers’ non-wage labor cost depends on how the costs of labor are modeled. We propose an approach, which combines neoclassical substitutability and fixed factor proportions. Our concept implies a user cost of labor which consists of the market price of labor plus the costs of inputs associated with the employment of a worker. We present simulation results based on a CO2 tax and the recycling of its revenues to reduce the non-wage labor cost. One simulation is based...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Market-based environmental policy; Carbon taxes; Double dividend; Computable general equilibrium modeling; D58; J30; Q25.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37115
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