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Registros recuperados: 114
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A choice experiment method to assess vegetables producers’ preferences for crop insurance AgEcon
Mercade, Lluc; Gil, Jose Maria; Kallas, Zein; Serra, Jordi.
Agricultural producers face many risks in their economic activity due to weather conditions, plant or animal diseases, price volatility, policy changes and so on. One of the management tools to deal with some of these risks is the crop insurance system. In Catalonia (North-East of Spain) farmers’ participation in crop insurance for vegetables is low. Only 5 percent of the vegetables area is insured, when in Spain, as a whole, this percentage is around 20 percent. Different reasons have been suggested to explain this low participation ratio such as low risk perception, risk diversification, insurance cost or crop damage assessment rules, among others. However, no systematic research has been undertaken to assess farmers’ preferences for crop insurance in...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Vegetables; Choice experiments; Catalonia.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58090
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A Cost Function Analysis of Crop Insurance Moral Hazard and Agricultural Chemical Use AgEcon
Liang, Yan; Coble, Keith H..
This paper employs a cost function analysis method to investigate the existence of moral hazard in cotton buy-up insurance. The trans-log cost function estimates of the own-price elasticity of fertilizer, herbicide, and insecticide is -0.222, -0.143, and -0.121, respectively for Mississippi cotton production. Our results found statistically significant relationship between per acre direct cost and cotton buy-up insurance for year 2001 and 2005 in Mississippi. Our results also indicate that moral hazard can either decrease or increase agricultural input usage depending specific production condition in an individual year. But in general the results support effects smaller than anecdotal evidence would suggest.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Moral hazard; Agricultural input use; Cost function analysis; Cotton; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; Production Economics; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49485
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A Crop Yield Expectation Stochastic Process with Beta Distribution as Limit AgEcon
Hennessy, David A..
The modeling of price risk in the theory and practice of commodity risk management has been developed far beyond that of crop yield risk. This is in large part due to the use of plausible stochastic price processes. We use the Pólya urn to identify and develop a model of the crop yield expectation stochastic process over a growing season. The process allows a role for agronomic events, such as growing degree days. The model is internally consistent in adhering to the martingale property. The limiting distribution is the beta, commonly used in yield modeling. By applying binomial tree analysis, we show how to use the framework to study hedging decisions and crop valuation.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Growing degree days; Martingale; Pólya urn; Stochastic process.; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54829
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A Portrait of Participants in Crop Insurance Programs AgEcon
Nimpagaritse, Fabrice.
Farm Analysis Bulletins (FAB) are undertaken to provide a better understanding of Canadian agriculture at the farm level. Using data from various sources such as Census, Farm Financial Surveys (FFS), Taxfiler, NISA database, etc, FAB's provide information on farm situation as well as highlighting and discussing farm related issues. By using the Farm Financial Surveys (1999 to 2004), this bulletin provides characteristics of farmers participating in crop insurance programs. Charts and tables with a brief accompanying text are used to describe participants in crop insurance. Participation rate in crop insurance has grown slightly from 49% in 1999 to 53% in 2003.Grains and oilseeds farms are more likely to participate in crop insurance programs than other...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Crop insurance programs; Risk management; Risk protection; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53099
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A Two Stage Model of the Demand For Specialty Crop Insurance AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J..
Proposals for reform of the federal multiple-peril crop insurance program for specialty crops seek to change fees for catastrophic (CAT) insurance from a nominal fifty-dollar per contract registration fee to an actuarially sound premium. Growers argue that this would cause a significant reduction in participation rates, thus impeding the program's goals of eventually obviating the need for ad hoc disaster payments and worsening the actuarial soundness of the program. The key policy issue is, therefore, empirical one - whether the demand for specialty crop insurance is elastic or inelastic. Previous studies of this issue using either grower or county-level field crop data typically treat the participation problem as either a discrete insure / don't insure...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: California; Crop insurance; Discrete/continuous choice; Grapes; Multinomial logit.; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28546
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A TWO-STAGE MODEL OF THE DEMAND FOR SPECIALTY CROP INSURANCE AgEcon
Knox, Lyle; Richards, Timothy J..
Legislators are considering raising catastrophic (CAT 50% coverage) crop insurance premiums. However, estimates of a two-stage coverage-choice and participation model using county-level data from California grape growers show that the demand for CAT insurance is price-elastic, therefore, premium increases will worsen the financial performance of the grape-insurance program.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Discrete / continuous choice; Grapes; Multinomial logit; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21681
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Actuarial Impacts of Loss Cost Ratio Ratemaking in U.S. Crop Insurance Programs AgEcon
Woodard, Joshua D.; Sherrick, Bruce J.; Schnitkey, Gary D..
This study examines the actuarial implications of the loss cost ratio (LCR) ratemaking methodology employed by the Risk Management Agency as a component of base rates for U.S. crop insurance programs, and identifies specific conditions required for the LCR methodology to result in unbiased rates when liabilities trend. Specifically, constant relative yield risk resulting in growing absolute variance through time and other restrictive requirements are required for the LCR to result in unbiased rates. These requirements are tested against a large farm-level data set for Illinois corn. Our findings indicate that the conditions required for appropriate use of the LCR methodology are violated for this high premium volume market, resulting in large implied rate...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Actuarially fair; Crop insurance; Insurance rating; Loss cost ratio; Risk growth; Risk Management Agency; Yield trends; Crop Production/Industries; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/105550
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An Analysis of Farmers’ Perception and Awareness towards Crop Insurance as a Tool for Risk Management in Tamil Nadu AgEcon
Kumar, D. Suresh; Barah, B.C.; Ranganathan, C.R.; Venkatram, R.; Gurunathan, S.; Thirumoorthy, S..
To insulate farmers against risks in agriculture, government has launched several schemes such as National Agricultural Insurance Scheme and weather index based crop insurance schemes. But their coverage seems to be limited among the farmers primarily due to lack of full information. This paper has reported the results of a survey of 600 farmers conducted to assess their perception about various facets of crop insurance schemes. The Probit and Tobit models have been employed to analyse the factors affecting awareness among the farmers. Crop diversification index has also been used to examine the farmers’ adjustment mechanism against risks. The survey has revealed that most farmers (65%) are aware of risk mitigation measures of the government. But, only...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Risk management; Crop diversification index; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q14; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109413
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An Internet-Based Tool for Weather Risk Management AgEcon
Turvey, Calum G.; Norton, Michael T..
This paper introduces a web-based computer program designed to evaluate weather risk man-agement and weather insurance in the United States. The paper outlines the economics of weather risk in terms of agricultural production and household well-being; defines weather risk in terms of intensity, duration, and frequency; and illustrates the computer program use by comparing heat and precipitation risks at Ardmore, Oklahoma, and Ithaca, New York.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Weather insurance; Heat insurance; Precipitation insurance; Crop insurance; Weather derivatives; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44739
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Análise espacial da produtividade agrícola no Estado do Paraná: implicações para o seguro agrícola AgEcon
Ozaki, Vitor Augusto.
This paper analyses the spatial pattern of the agricultural yield data. Using the spatial statistics, it is possible to estimate some parameters of the semivariogram to study the problem of the systemic risk, which has great implications for the crop insurance program in Brazil. In particular, the “range” parameter was estimated. This parameter measures the distance, in which the spatial correlation tends to zero. For the empirical analysis, county yield data was used provided by IBGE, for soybean and corn, in the state of Paraná, through 1990 and 2002. The results showed that there is spatial dependence in every year analysed, going to zero in relatively long distances (in km).
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Systemic risk; Spatial correlation; Semivarioram.; Agribusiness; Q19.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61239
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ARPA Subsidies, Unit Choice, and Reform of the U.S. Crop Insurance Program AgEcon
Babcock, Bruce A.; Hart, Chad E..
The Agricultural Risk Protection Act (ARPA) has largely met its objectives of inducing farmers to increase their use of the crop insurance program. Both insured acreage and coverage levels have increased dramatically in response to ARPA's large increase in premium subsidies. An unintended consequence of the larger subsidies is a dramatic increase in the incentive for farmers to insure their crops under optional units, that is, insurance at the field level rather than at the farm or crop level. The expected rate of return to farmers who choose to invest additional premium dollars to move to optional unit coverage ranges from a low of 61 percent at the 85 percent coverage level to 144 percent at the 65 percent coverage level. This explains why the majority...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural Risk Protection Act (ARPA); Crop insurance; Optional units; Crop Production/Industries; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18297
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Assessing the Farm Level Impacts of Yield and Revenue Insurance: an Expected Value-Variance Approach AgEcon
Berg, Ernst.
This paper investigates the farm level impacts of multiple peril yield and revenue insurance in an expected value-variance framework. The analysis is conducted using stochastic simulation jointly with numerical optimisation. Simulation is used to compute the means and variances of revenues as affected by the insurance schemes under consideration. In a second step these results are incorporated in a whole-farm programming approach, which optimises a portfolio that consists of crop production and insurance activities. The results of a case study indicate that from the farmer's point of view there is an incentive to buy multiple peril crop insurance, because it significantly reduces the variability of income. The risk reduction through insurance in turn leads...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Risk management; Portfolio selection; Stochastic programming; Expected value-variance analysis; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24834
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Asymmetric Information in the Market for Yield and Revenue Insurance Products AgEcon
Makki, Shiva S.; Somwaru, Agapi.
This report analyzes farmers' choice of crop insurance contracts and tests for the presence of asymmetric information in the market for multiple yield and revenue insurance products. Farmers' risk characteristics, their level of income, and the cost of insurance significantly affect their choices of yield and revenue insurance products as well as their selections of alternative coverage levels. Empirical analysis indicates that, in the presence of asymmetric information, high-risk farmers are more likely to select revenue insurance contracts and higher coverage levels. The results also indicate that premium rates do not accurately reflect the likelihood of losses, implying asymmetrical information in the crop insurance market.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Asymmetric information; Adverse selection; Crop insurance; Revenue insurance; Risk management; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33587
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Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) Program or Traditional Government Payment Programs: What Factors Matter? AgEcon
Chen, Yunguang; Wang, H. Holly; Patrick, George F..
Rankings of different risk management portfolios including Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE), traditional government payment programs, crop insurance and hedging in futures; and optimal choices of insurance coverage levels and hedge ratios are evaluated for a representative central Indiana corn farm, using Monte Carlo simulation and optimization of expected utilities. The changes of preference between ACRE and traditional government programs under comprehensive scenarios of price and yield risks are studied. Also, Interactions between ACRE and other risk management instruments are examined, and government costs and risk management efficiencies between ACRE and traditional government programs are compared. The results show a strong preference of ACRE for...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: ACRE; Farm Bill; Crop insurance; Willingness to pay; Government expenditure; Government programs; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61490
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Case Studies on the Use of Crop Insurance in Managing Risk AgEcon
Gloy, Brent A.; Staehr, A. Edward.
Managing the risk associated with farming is challenging. Fortunately, farmers have a variety of risk management tools at their disposal. This series of case studies examines how crop insurance can be used to manage some of the risks faced by farmers. The examples illustrate how crop insurance purchases would impact the returns generated to a farming enterprise. While the examples cover a variety of commodities and insurance products, they do not consider every possible risk that might arise. Likewise, they do not consider all of the possible financial situations that might be experienced by a farmer. Instead, they focus on highlighting how crop insurance impacts the profitability of the farm. Companion spreadsheets are available for all of the examples so...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Managing Risk; Crop insurance; Apple production; Grape production; Soybeans; Forage production; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49004
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Characteristics and Risk Management Needs of Limited-Resource and Socially Disadvantaged Farmers AgEcon
Dismukes, Robert; Harwood, Joy L.; Bentley, Susan E..
Small U.S. farms and those run by socially disadvantaged minority operators tend not to purchase insurance or to participate in insurance-type programs operated by USDA. This report traces the lack of use of such risk management measures to several characteristics of such farmers, who include females, blacks, American Indians, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and operators of Spanish origin. These farmers tend, more than the typical U.S. farm, to raise livestock rather than crops, and there are no government-sponsored insurance-type programs for livestock.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Risk management; Crop insurance; Limited-resource farmers; Limited-opportunity farmers; Small farms; Socially disadvantaged farmers; Farm Management; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33622
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Constructing Farm Level Yield Densities from Aggregated Data: Analysis and Comparison of Approaches AgEcon
Cooper, Joseph C.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Schnitkey, Gary D.; Zulauf, Carl R..
Yield variability can be significantly higher at the farm level than at more aggregated levels, including the county. However, due to a dearth of available farm level data, much stochastic analysis involving farm yields utilizes more aggregated yield data as a proxy for the farm level. We empirically evaluate farm-level variability using longitudinal farm level data sets available from the Kansas Farm Management Association and the Illinois Farm Business and Farm Management Association. For corn, soybeans, and wheat, we compare the farm level yield variability obtained from this data to that inferred from Federal crop insurance premiums. The farm management data exhibit lower yield variability than are implied by the crop insurance premiums.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Yield variability; Crop insurance; Corn; Wheat; Soybeans; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49216
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Coping with Systemic Risk in Index-based Crop Insurance AgEcon
Shen, Zhiwei; Odening, Martin.
The implementation of index-based crop insurance is often impeded by the existence of systemic risk of insured losses. We assess the effectiveness of two strategies for coping with systemic risk: regional diversification and securitization with catastrophe (CAT) bonds. The analysis is conducted in an equilibrium pricing framework which allows the optimal price of the insurance and the number of traded contracts to be determined. We also explore the role of basis risk and risk aversion of market agents. The model is applied to a hypothetical area yield insurance for rice producers in northeast China. If yields in two regions are positively correlated, we find that enlarging the insured area leads to an increasing insurance premium. Unless capital market...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Systemic risk; Risk pooling; Securitization; Risk and Uncertainty; Q11; Q14.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122555
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Crop Insurance, Disaster Payments and Land Use Change: The Effect of Sodsaver on Incentives for Grassland Conversion AgEcon
Claassen, Roger; Cooper, Joseph C.; Carriazo, Fernando.
Subsidized crop insurance may encourage conversion of native grassland to cropland. The Sodsaver provision of the 2008 farm bill could deny crop insurance on converted land in the Prairie Pothole states for 5 years. Supplemental Revenue Assistance payments, which are linked to crop insurance purchases, could also be withheld. Using representative farms, we estimate that Sodsaver would reduce expected crop revenue by up to 8% and expected net return by up to 20%, while increasing the standard deviation of revenue by as much as 6% of market revenue. Analysis based on elasticities from the literature suggests that Sodsaver would reduce grassland conversion by 9% or less.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Bootstrap; Crop insurance; Grassland; Joint densities; Sodsaver; Supplemental Revenue Assistance; Agricultural and Food Policy; Production Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; Q2.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/104623
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Crop insurance market development in a transition economy: The case of Kazakhstan AgEcon
Heidelbach, Olaf; Bokusheva, Raushan.
We analyze the current state and future requirements of an agricultural income stabilization mechanism in a transition country – namely, the crop insurance system in Kazakhstan. Three objectives will be pursued: First, factors influencing the development of the crop insurance market will be identified. Second, insurance’s capabilities to efficiently stabilize income under transition circumstances will be evaluated. Finally, recommendations for developing crop insurance as an effective income stabilization tool will be provided. Results indicate that the prevailing institutional framework for establishing a sustainable crop insurance system is rather weak, and available insurance products are not preventing the problem of asymmetric information to a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risk-management; Crop insurance; Institutions; Mathematical programming; Kazakhstan; Agricultural Finance; Risk and Uncertainty; D81; D82; G22; Q14.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51614
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