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A Critical Assessment of Islamic Economics AgEcon
Shams, Rasul.
This paper presents a critical assessment of the widely discussed concept of Islamic Economics. The two different interpretations of Islamic economics as the study of the functioning of an interest-free economy and the validity of moral values in the economy are discussed. It is shown that none of these interpretations can help to create an acceptable foundation for an Islamic economics. Far away from laying the foundation for such an economics the question is raised how an Islamic economy would function, based on the Islamic principle of controlling the Nafs. Microeconomics and macroeconomics of such an economy are analysed and its special features are compared to an economy functioning on the basis of laws devised by the conventional economic analysis.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Household behaviour; Unemployment; Moral values; Islamic economy; Consumer/Household Economics; Political Economy; D10; E24; P50.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26295
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Adjusting Household Structure: School Enrollment Impacts of Child Fostering in Burkina Faso AgEcon
Akresh, Richard.
Researchers claim that children growing up away from their biological parents may be at a disadvantage and have lower human capital investment. This paper measures the impact of child fostering on school enrollment and uses household and child fixed effects regressions to address the endogeneity of fostering. Data collection by the author involved tracking and interviewing the sending and receiving household participating in of foster children with their non-fostered biological siblings. Foster children are equally likely as their host siblings to be enrolled after fostering and are 3.6 percent more likely to be enrolled than their biological siblings. Relative to children from non-fostering households, host siblings, biological siblings, and foster...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Human capital investment; Child fostering; Household structure; Labor and Human Capital; J12; I20; O15; D10.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28521
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An Economic Analysis of the Impact of Food Prices and Other Factors on Adult Lifestyles: Choices of Physical Activity and Healthy Weight AgEcon
Chen, Yanni; Huffman, Wallace E..
This paper examines women’s and men’s decisions to participate in physical activity and to attain a healthy weight. These outcomes are hypothesized to be related to prices of food, drink and health care services and products, the respondent’s personal characteristics (such as education, reading food labels (signaling a concern for good health), adjusted family income, opportunity cost of time, occupation, marital status, race and ethnicity) and his or her BMI at age 25. These decisions are represented by a trivariate probit model that is fitted to data for adults in the NLSY79 panel with geocodes that have been augmented with local area food, drink and health care prices. Separate analyses are undertaken for men and women due to basic physiological...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Physical activity; Obesity; Food prices; Adults; Developed country; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; I10; D10; J24.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49987
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An Economic Analysis of the Impact of Food Prices and Other Factors on Adult Lifestyles: Choices of Physical Activity and Healthy Weight AgEcon
Chen, Yanni; Huffman, Wallace E..
This paper examines women’s and men’s decisions to participate in physical activity and to attain a healthy weight. These outcomes are hypothesized to be related to prices of food, drink and health care services and products, the respondent’s personal characteristics (such as education, reading food labels, adjusted family income, opportunity cost of time, occupation, marital status, race and ethnicity) and his or her BMI at age 25. These decisions are represented by a trivariate probit model that is fitted to data for adults in the NLSY79 panel with geocodes that have been augmented with local area food, drink and health care prices. Separate analyses are undertaken for men and women due to basic physiological differences. Results include: Women and men...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Physical Activity; Obesity; Food Prices; Adult; United States; Consumer/Household Economics; Health Economics and Policy; Labor and Human Capital; I10; D10; J24.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49291
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Ascertaining the Impact of the 2000 USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the Intake of Calories, Caffeine, Calcium, and Vitamin C from At-Home Consumption of Nonalcoholic Beverages AgEcon
Dharmasena, Senarath; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Clauson, Annette L..
Obesity is one of the most pressing and widely emphasized health problems in America today. Beverage choices made by households have impacts on determining the intake of calories, calcium, caffeine, and vitamin C. Using data from the Nielsen Homescan Panel over the period 1998–2003, and a two-way random-effects Fuller-Battese error components procedure, we estimate econometric models to examine economic and demographic factors affecting per-capita daily intake of calories, calcium, caffeine, and vitamin C derived from the consumption of nonalcoholic beverages. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of the USDA 2000 Dietary Guidelines in reducing caloric and nutrient intake associated with nonalcoholic beverages.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Nielsen Homescan Panel; Nonalcoholic beverages; Nutrient and caloric intake; USDA Dietary Guidelines; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; D10; D12; I10; I18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100632
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Assessing U.S. Household Purchase Dynamics for Dietary Fiber AgEcon
Henry-Osorio, Miguel; Dong, Diansheng.
This study updates existing literature on consumer/household demand for fiber by examining household purchase dynamics for dietary fiber. It uses a dynamic Tobit model that allows past purchase occasions to affect current purchase decisions for fiber in a framework that captures simultaneously state dependence, unobserved households heterogeneity preferences, and serial correlation caused by a stationary first-order choice process. The model controls for the unobserved heterogeneity by adopting a Gaussian random effects specification. It also captures variations in prices over time and controls for left-censoring. The dynamic model is estimated using the Geweke-Hajivasssiliou-Keane recursive probability simulator and a unique dataset that contains detailed...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Temporal dependence; Household choice dynamics; Habits; GHK recursive simulator; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; D10; Q11; C23; C61.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123954
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Do Environmental Services Buyers Prefer Differentiated Rates? A Case Study from the Colombian Andes AgEcon
Moreno-Sanchez, Rocio del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio; Wunder, Sven; Borda, Carlos Andres.
Flat user fees in payment for environmental services (PES) schemes promote administrative ease, and are sometimes perceived as egalitarian. However, when environmental service (ES) buyers are heterogeneous in their income and water consumption levels, this may not be optimal, as total payments become too low and services are under-supplied. This paper identifies ES buyer preferences and estimates their willingness to pay (WTP) differentiated fees in an ongoing PES initiative in an Andean watershed in Colombia. Small, flat user payments have recently been introduced to implement incipient watershed protection upstream. Environmental service users fall into two highly heterogeneous categories: smallholder peasants and owners of recreational houses. We...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: PES; WTP; Environmental services; Colombia; Watershed protection; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Demand and Price Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q56; Q25; Q5; Q51; C25; D10; D12; D61; D63.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91171
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Do Social Relations Affect Economic Welfare? A Microeconomic Empirical Analysis AgEcon
Antoni, Giacomo Degli.
Over the last few years, many studies have shown that social networks affect the socioeconomic development. This paper presents evidence, through the Italian microdata representative of the entire Italian population, that the quality and quantity of interpersonal relations of agents can increase their economic welfare. Two proxies of interpersonal relations at an individual level are considered: a proxy for the density and one for the quality of network structure of personal contacts. Both seem to have a positive effect on the level of household economic welfare of agents. This result proves robust to the inclusion of a variety of control variables and to the use of different econometric methods.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Networks; Social Interactions; Household Economic Welfare; Microdata; Fuzzy Logic; Labor and Human Capital; D10; Z13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9330
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Dynamic intrahousehold bargaining, matrimonial property law and suicide in Canada AgEcon
Adam, Christopher; Hoddinott, John; Ligon, Ethan.
This paper develops a dynamic model of household bargaining and uses it to motivate an empirical analysis of the impact changes in Canadian laws regarding the allocation of family assets upon divorce on female suicide. Using time series data, we show that in Ontario, the passage of Canadian legislation that improved women's rights to assets upon divorce was associated with reductions in the rate of female suicide amongst older (married) women while not affecting younger (unmarried) women. As suggested by our model, its impact was asymmetric in that male suicide rates were unaffected by this change. We also exploited a quasi-natural experiment in these data, namely that no comparable legislative change occurred in Quebec. Here, we do not observe a...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Intrahousehold; Bargaining; Divorce; Suicide; Canada; Community/Rural/Urban Development; D10; J12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120422
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PEER-EFFECTS IN OBESITY AMONG PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN: A GRADE-LEVEL ANALYSIS AgEcon
Asirvatham, Jebaraj; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.; Thomsen, Michael R..
We examine the role of peer effects in childhood obesity outcomes by investigating whether obesity rates among the highest graders in a public school has an effect on obesity rates among younger grades. We use a panel dataset with obesity prevalence measured at the grade level. Our data are from Arkansas public schools. Results provide evidence that changes in the obesity prevalence at the highest grade are associated with changes in obesity prevalence at younger grades. The magnitude of the peer effect depends on the type of school, and we find statistically significant peer effects in both elementary and high schools but not in middle schools. These effects are also larger in high schools than in elementary schools. We use falsification tests to provide...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Peer-effects; Obesity; Childhood obesity; Overweight; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; D10; D71; I10; Z13.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122732
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Promoting sustainable food consumption: the case of nutrition education programs in public schools AgEcon
Gorgitano, Maria Teresa; Sodano, Valeria.
Within the realm of public policies for a sustainable food system, the focus has gradually shifted from production oriented towards consumption oriented interventions. Whilst changing consumer behavior can have a long-lasting positive environmental impact, choosing effective sustainable consumption policy instruments may be a challenging task. In the case of food consumption, the choice of interventions is particularly difficult because of the multiple aspects- psychological, cultural, economic, religious- associated with eating habits. The paper deals with one of the most commonly used forms of intervention, nutrition education programs in public schools. The main conclusion of the paper is that a major effort should be made by the Ministry of Education,...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Sustainable consumption; Nutrition education; Welfare economics; Food governance; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; I0; Q01; D10.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124379
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Risk, Network Quality, and Family Structure: Child Fostering Decisions in Burkina Faso AgEcon
Akresh, Richard.
Researchers often assume household structure is exogenous, but child fostering, the institution in which parents send their biological children to live with another family, is widespread in sub- Saharan Africa and provides evidence against this assumption. Using data I collected in Burkina Faso, I analyze a household's decision to adjust its size and composition through fostering. A household fosters children as a risk-coping mechanism in response to exogenous income shocks, if it has a good social network, and to satisfy labor demands within the household. Increases of one standard deviation in a household's agricultural shock, percentage of good network members, or number of older girls increase the probability of sending a child above the current...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Child fostering; Risk-coping; Social networks; Household structure; Consumer/Household Economics; O15; J12; D10.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28454
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The Effect of Retail Grocery Coupons for Breakfast Cereals on Household Purchasing Behavior AgEcon
Berning, Joshua P.; Zheng, Hualu.
We examine the affect of retail and manufacturer coupons on the nutritional quality of breakfast cereal purchases made by households. Using household level purchase data we find that coupon usage has a significant impact on the nutritional quality of cereals purchased by households. Specifically, we find that the average sugar content decreases and the fiber content increases. This suggests that coupons have a positive impact on the nutritional quality of cereals purchased by households, holding all other factors constant. Given the prolific use of coupons by households and the fact that they offer both a price discount and an advertisement for products, they might be an effective way to help guide consumers to healthier food choices.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Coupons; Breakfast cereal; Nutrition; Panel data; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; Marketing; D10; I10; M30; C23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103661
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The merger of populations, the incidence of marriages, and aggregate unhappiness AgEcon
Stark, Oded; Rendl, Franz; Jakubek, Marcin.
Let a society’s unhappiness be measured by the aggregate of the levels of relative deprivation of its members. When two societies of equal size, F and M, merge, unhappiness in the merged society is shown to be higher than the sum of the levels of unhappiness in the constituent societies when apart; merger alone increases unhappiness. But when societies F and M merge and marriages are formed such that the number of households in the merged society is equal to the number of individuals in one of the constituent societies, unhappiness in the merged society is shown to be lower than the aggregate unhappiness in the two constituent societies when apart. This result obtains regardless of which individuals from one society form households with which individuals...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Merger of populations; Integration of societies; Unhappiness; Marriages; Relative deprivation; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; D0; D10; D31; D63.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109968
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Work Values in Western and Eastern Europe AgEcon
Torgler, Benno.
The paper reports on work values in Europe. At the country level we find that job satisfaction is related to lower working hours, higher well-being, and a higher GDP per capita. Moving to the micro level, we turn our attention from job satisfaction to analyse empirically work centrality and work value dimensions (without exploring empirically job satisfaction) related to intrinsic and extrinsic values, power and social elements. The results indicate substantial differences between Eastern and Western Europe. Socio-demographic factors, education, income, religiosity and religious denomination are significant influences. We find additional differences between Eastern and Western Europe regarding work-leisure and work-family centrality that could be driven by...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Work Values; Job Satisfaction; Work-Leisure Relationship; Work-Family Centrality; Eastern Europe; Western Europe; Labor and Human Capital; P20; D10; J28; J17; J22.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120045
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