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Accumulative Pollution, "Clean Technology," and Policy Design AgEcon
Withagen, Cees; Toman, Michael.
Environmental policymakers must address the adverse effects of a number of pollutants that accumulate in the environment. Goals for the regulation of these damages often involve holding long-term emissions below a level deemed to be "dangerous", or outright banning of offending products or processes along with subsidization of more "green" alternatives. This paper builds upon previous studies by Keeler, Spence, and Zeckhauser (1971) and Tahvonen and Withagen (1996) in addressing the optimal long-term management of an accumulative but assimilatable pollutant through policies that restrict more damaging production processes and thereby induce more benign alternatives. Using a simple general equilibrium approach, we consider the possibility that the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Stock externalities; Nonconvexities; Sustainable development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q20; Q28; D62.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10748
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Agriculture’s Multifunctionality, Sustainability, and Social Responsibility AgEcon
Hediger, Werner.
We investigate the question whether the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) could be used to replace or complement those of multifunctionality and sustainability in the agri-food sector. It shows that the double role of citizens as tax payers and customers requests and allows us to directly link the problems of governance and stakeholder society in an intertemporal framework of total value maximisation and sustainable development. Thus, the concept of CSR provides a link between the views on agriculture’s multifunctionality and sustainability. Moreover, the fact that some actors in a vertical market, such as the agri-food chain, can exercise market power and absorb tax money and resource rents enforces the need of a broader perspective which...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Multifunctionality; Sustainability; Social responsibility; Market power.; D62; D63; Q01; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36854
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An Application of Mixed Logit Estimation in the Analysis of Producers’ Stated Preferences AgEcon
Kipperberg, Gorm; Bond, Craig A.; Hoag, Dana L..
This paper analyzes Colorado Corn producers’ preferences over both private- and environmental public-good production system attributes. Current production practices are characterized by intensive water and chemical use, resulting in non-point source pollution to water bodies as well as soil erosion problems. Data from a stated preference survey are employed to analyze key attributes of experimentally configured irrigation systems, proposed as alternatives to current practices. Panel mixed logit estimations find positive preferences for profit, risk reduction, and, importantly, systems with less environmental impact in terms of nitrate leaching and soil erosion. The results also find presence of significant preference heterogeneity and a complementary...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural production; Profit-maximization; Environment; Mixed logit; Stated preference; Attribute part-worth; Nitrate leaching; Soil erosion; Risk; Crop Production/Industries; C10; D62; Q12; Q15; Q51.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108719
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Are Agricultural Measures for Groundwater Protection Beneficial When Compared to Purification of Polluted Groundwater? AgEcon
Hasler, Berit; Lundhede, Thomas.
The groundwater resource, the drinking water areas and the surface water quality can be protected by measures, e.g. by reductions of pesticide and nutrient applications, conversion of arable land to grasslands or forests etc. The objective of the paper is to estimate the benefits of groundwater protection by the valuation method choice experiments. This method allows for separate estimation and comparison of the different attributes connected to groundwater protection i.e. the effects on drinking water and surface water quality as compared to the benefits from cleaning and treatment of polluted drinking water to make it suitable for drinking water consumption. The results indicate that the benefits are significant, and that the willingness to pay for...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Groundwater; Pollution; Drinking water; Valuation; Choice experiments; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q25; Q26; Q28; C42; D62.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24587
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Benefit-costs analysis of climate-related agricultural investments in Africa: a case study AgEcon
Branca, Giacomo; Lipper, Leslie; Sorrentino, Alessandro.
Paper removed at the request of the first (corresponding) author.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Food security; Adaptation; Mitigation; Benefit-cost analysis; Externalities; Environmental Economics and Policy; D61; D62; H54; O13; Q55.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124109
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CDM Baseline Construction for Vietnam National Electricity Grid AgEcon
Tuyen, Tran Minh; Michaelowa, Axel.
For projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a baseline has to be set to allow calculation of the greenhouse gas emissions reductions achieved. An important obstacle to CDM project development is the lack of data for baseline definition; often project developers do not have access to data and therefore incur high transaction costs to collect them. The government of Vietnam has set up all necessary institutions for CDM, wants to promote CDM projects and thus is interested to reduce transaction costs. We calculate emission factors of the Vietnam electricity grid according to the rules defined by the CDM Executive Board for small scale projects and for large renewable electricity generation projects. The emission factors lie between 365 and 899 g...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: CDM; Baseline; Electricity generation; Vietnam; Public Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; D62; F18; Q25; Q41.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26393
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Comparing the Efficiency of Alternative Policies for Reducing Traffic Congestion AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H..
This paper compares the efficiency of a single lane toll, a congestion tax applied uniformly across freeway lanes, a gasoline tax, and a transit fare subsidy at reducing traffic congestion. The model incorporates a variety of conditions required to reach an efficient outcome. These include conditions for the efficient allocation of travel among competing modes, travel at peak versus off-peak periods, and drivers with high and low time costs sorted onto faster and slower freeway lanes. Each policy violates some or all of the efficiency conditions. Under wide parameter scenarios, the single lane toll, gasoline tax, and transit subsidy forgo at least two thirds of the efficiency gains under an "ideal" congestion tax that varies across lanes. In contrast, the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Externalities; Efficiency effects; Congestion taxes; Single lane tolls; Rail subsidies; Gasoline taxes; Public Economics; R41; R48; D62.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10517
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CONSISTENCY AND OPTIMALITY IN A DYNAMIC GAME OF POLLUTION CONTROL I: COMPETITION AgEcon
Batabyal, Amitrajeet A..
I model the interaction between a regulator and polluting firms as a Stackelberg differential game in which the regulator leads. The firms create pollution, which results in a stock externality. I analyze the intertemporal effects of alternate pollution control measures in a competitive industry. The principal issue here concerns the dynamic inconsistency of the optimal solution. Inter alia, I compare the steady state levels of pollution under optimal and under time consistent policies. Forthcoming in Environmental and Resource Economics
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental; Regulation; Tax; Dynamic; Game; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; H32; D62.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28351
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DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: THE EFFECT OF BUDGET BALANCE AND POLLUTION CEILING CONSTRAINTS AgEcon
Batabyal, Amitrajeet A..
I analyze the problem faced by an asymmetrically informed supranational governmental authority (SNGA) with limited financial resources who wishes to design an International Environmental Agreement (IEA). The SNGA cannot contract directly with polluting firms in the various LDCs, but he must deal with such firms through their governments. I study this tripartite hierarchical interaction and focus on the properties of the optimal ex post contracts (IEAs), which can be implemented by the SNGA, in turn, in the case where governments and firms in each nation do not collude and then in the case where governments and firms do collude. I find that the monetary transfers necessary to induce optimal behavior by governments and firms are not very sensitive to the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental; Agreement; LDCs; Budget; Ceiling; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development; D62; D82; Q25.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28347
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Do We Care about Built Cultural Heritage? The Empirical Evidence Based on the Veneto House Market AgEcon
Rosato, Paolo; Rotaris, Lucia; Breil, Margaretha; Zanatta, Valentina.
Italian historical buildings require urgent and costly maintenance and restoration works, but neither the local, nor the national public administrators can afford these expenditures. Nevertheless the built cultural heritage represent a unique resource of the territory, as it embodies the local social, historical, and cultural values, generates positive externalities (Musgrave, 1959), and stimulates economic activities mainly related to tourism. Is it possible to quantify how much we care about historical buildings and to measure this value in monetary terms? The aim of this paper is to answer to this question via the hedonimetric approach. Specifically, we try to verify if the proximity to historical villas, districts, palaces, squares, fortresses,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cultural Heritage Externalities; Hedonic Housing Price Method; Z1; D62; Q51.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42917
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Does the Value of a Statistical Life Vary with Age and Health Status? Evidence from the United States and Canada AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Cropper, Maureen L.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Simon, Nathalie B..
Much of the justification for environmental rulemaking rests on estimates of the benefits to society of reduced mortality rates. Yet the literature providing estimates of the willingness to pay (WTP) for mortality risk reductions measures the value that healthy, prime-aged adults place on reducing their risk of dying, whereas the majority of statistical lives saved by environmental programs, according to epidemiological studies, appear to be the lives of older people and people with chronically impaired health. This paper provides an empirical assessment of the effects of age and baseline health on WTP for mortality risk reductions by reporting the results of two contingent valuation surveys designed to test the above hypotheses. One survey was...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Willingness to pay; Mortality; Contingent valuation; Age; Health status; Health Economics and Policy; D61; D62; Q20; Q26.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10769
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Environmental Issues of Agriculture: Social Perception Analysis in Southern Spain AgEcon
Salazar-Ordonez, Melania; Sayadi, Samir.
Agriculture largely shapes the European ecosystems. Today the environmental social interest and the awareness that some farming practices destroy the natural environment is undeniable. Thus, the European decision maker’s emphasis on integrating social demands within the Common Agricultural Policy becomes unquestionable. In this context, this paper analyses: i) the degree of social compliance with soilerosion control from agriculture in Andalusia (southern Spain); ii) the degree of society’s concern about its agriculture; and iii)the respondent’s features that influence both perceptions.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Environment; Social Perception; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q18; D62; Q31.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44420
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Environmental Options and Technological Innovation: An Evolutionary Game Model AgEcon
Antoci, Angelo; Borghesi, Simone; Galeotti, Marcello.
This paper analyses the effects on economic agents' behaviour of an innovative environmental protection mechanism that the Public Administration of a tourist region may adopt to attract visitors while protecting the environment. On the one hand, the Public Administration sells to the tourists an environmental call option that gives them the possibility of being (partially or totally) reimbursed if the environmental quality in the region turns out to be below a given threshold level. On the other hand, it offers the firms that adopt an innovative, non-polluting technology an environmental put option that allows them to get a reimbursement for the additional costs imposed by the new technology if the environmental quality is above the threshold level. The...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Bonds; Call and Put Options; Technological Innovation; Evolutionary Dynamics; Environmental Economics and Policy; C73; D62; G10; O30; Q28.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55289
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Environmental regulation and horizontal mergers in the eco-industry AgEcon
Canton, Joan; David, Maia; Sinclair-Desgagne, Bernard.
This paper considers the environmental policy and welfare implications of a merger between environment firms (i.e., firms managing environmental resources or supplying pollution abatement goods and services). The traditional analysis of mergers in Cournot oligopolies is extended in two ways. First, we show how environmental policy affects the incentives of environment firms to merge. Second, we stress that mergers in the eco-industry impact welfare beyond what is observed in other sectors, due to an extra effect on pollution abatement efforts; this might lead to disagreements between an anti-trust agency seeking to limit market concentration which can be detrimental to consumer surplus and a benevolent regulator who maximizes total welfare.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Eco-industry; Environmental policy; Horizontal mergers; Environmental Economics and Policy; Industrial Organization; D62; H23; L11.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44456
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Environmental Regulation and Horizontal Mergers in the Eco-industry AgEcon
Canton, Joan; David, Maia; Sinclair-Desgagne, Bernard.
This paper considers the environmental policy and welfare implications of a merger between environment firms (i.e., firms managing environmental resources or supplying pollution abatement goods and services). The traditional analysis of mergers in Cournot oligopolies is extended in two ways. First, we show how environmental policy affects the incentives of environment firms to merge. Second, we stress that mergers in the eco-industry impact welfare beyond what is observed in other sectors, due to an extra effect on pollution abatement efforts; this might lead to disagreements between an anti-trust agency seeking to limit market concentration which can be detrimental to consumer surplus and a benevolent regulator who maximizes total welfare.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Eco-Industry; Environmental Policy; Horizontal Mergers; D62; H23; L11.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37524
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Environmental Taxes: Dead or Alive? AgEcon
Morgenstern, Richard D..
Both theory and recent trends suggest some optimism for the future of environment-related taxes. While new research emphasizes the potentially significant distortions created by environmental taxes and appears to undermine the so-called "double dividend" theory, it also suggests that virtually any environmental policy, including regulations, taxes, and tradable permits, can compound existing distortions in the tax system. Currently, direct environmental taxes, such as per-unit charges on emissions, are only in limited use; however, indirect environmental levies, including taxes on fuels, vehicles, beverage containers, and fertilizers, are growing in importance across the OECD nations. Over the period 1990-1993, environmental taxes as a share of total...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental taxes; Double dividend; Distortions; Tax shifts; Environmental Economics and Policy; D62; H21; H23.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10595
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Equity and Justice in Global Warming Policy AgEcon
Kverndokk, Snorre; Rose, Adam Z..
Many countries are implementing or at least considering policies to counter increasingly certain negative impacts from climate change. An increasing amount of research has been devoted to the analysis of the costs of climate change and its mitigation, as well as to the design of policies, such as the international Kyoto Protocol, post-Kyoto negotiations, regional initiatives, and unilateral actions. Although most studies on climate change policies in economics have considered efficiency aspects, there is a growing literature on equity and justice. Climate change policy has important dimensions of distributive justice, both within and across generations, but in this paper we survey only studies on the intragenerational aspect, i.e., within a generation. We...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economics of Climate Change; Intragenerational Equity; Distributive Justice; Environmental Economics and Policy; D62; D63; H23; H41; Q00.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44230
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Estudio de las preferencias por los elementos agrarios del paisaje mediante los metodos del analisis conjunto y valoracion contingente AgEcon
Sayadi, Samir; Roa, Maria Carmen Gonzalez; Calatrava-Requena, Javier.
RESUMEN: Entre las externalidades producidas por la actividad agraria hay que considerar su aportación a la configuración del paisaje, es decir, la externalidad estética de los agroecosistemas. Su conocimiento y valoración adquiere cada vez más relevancia. En el presente trabajo se han utilizado los métodos de Análisis Conjunto y Valoración Contingente para estudiar, por una parte, la importancia relativa de la componente agraria en la función de utilidad derivada del disfrute de los paisajes de Las Alpujarras (Granada-España) y, por otra, la disposición a pagar de los entrevistados por disfrutar de dichos paisajes. Se ha realizado un test a una muestra de potenciales visitantes a la zona, utilizando tres elementos básicos de los paisajes: cubierta...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Conjoint Analysis; Contingent Valuation; Agrarian Landscapes; Sustainable Rural Development; Land Economics/Use; Q56; Q57; D62; Q26.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28733
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Fishery Management Games: How to reduce effort and admit new members AgEcon
Do, Kim Hang Pham; Folmer, Henk; Norde, Henk.
This paper addresses the two main problems that Regional Fishery Management Organizations face. First, how to induce independent nations to reduce their fishing efforts from the competitive equilibrium to prevent the fish stock from extinction or to increase profits. We argue that adjustment from the Nash equilibrium to a state of sustainable yield can be achieved by means of the proportional rule without harming any of the countries involved. Next we propose the population monotonic allocation scheme as management rule for the second problem: the division of profits within an
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Fishery management; Proportional rule; Population monotonic allocation scheme; Shapley value; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C71; C72; D62; D74; Q22.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31964
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Fixed Instruments to Cope with Stock Externalities An Experimental Evaluation AgEcon
Giordana, Gaston A.; Willinger, Marc.
We evaluate the effectiveness of non optimal and temporally inconsistent incentive policies for regulating the exploitation of a renewable common-pool resource. The corresponding game is an N-person discrete-time deterministic dynamic game of T periods fixed duration. Three policy instruments with parameters that remain constant for the whole horizon are evaluated: a pigouvian tax (flat tax), an ambient tax (ambient flat tax) and an instrument combining the two previous ones (mixed flat instrument). We test in the lab the predictions of the model solved for 3 distinct behavioural assumptions: (a) sub-game perfection, (b) myopic behaviour, and (c) joint payoff maximization. We find that subjects behave myopically in the unregulated situation, which agrees...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Policy Instruments; Renewable Common-pool Resources; Dynamic Externalities; Experimental Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D9; D62; H23; H26; H30; Q20; Q28.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9103
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