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Arthur Lewis' Contribution to Development Thinking and Policy AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
Arthur Lewis’ seminal 1954 paper and its emphasis on dualism appeared at a time when neither the work of Keynes or Harrod-Domar nor the later neoclassical production function of Solow seemed relevant for developing countries. As a consequence, his model, rooted in the classical tradition, plus its many extensions, generated an extensive literature at the center of development theory. The approach also encountered increasingly strong criticism, some of the “red herring” variety, but some, spearheaded by neoclassical microeconomists like Rosenzweig, also raised serious challenges, focused especially on its labor market assumptions. This paper reviews this landscape and asks what theoretical or policy relevance the Lewis model retains for today’s developing...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Development theory; Dualism; Labor markets; International Development; O11.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28410
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Labor Surplus Economies AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
The labor surplus economy model has as its basic premise the inability of unskilled agricultural labor markets to clear in countries with high man/land ratios. In such situations, the marginal product of labor is likely to fall below a bargaining wage, related to the average rather than the marginal product. The reallocation of such disguisedly unemployed workers by means of “balanced” intersectoral growth ultimately permits the entire economy to operate on neo-classical principles. Finally, the paper introduces open economy dimensions, indicates the existence of other labor surplus sub-sectors and briefly responds to neo-classical critiques on both theoretical and empirical grounds.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Development theory; Labor markets; Labor and Human Capital; O10; O12; O17.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28480
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The Evolution of Development Thinking: Theory and Policy AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
This paper makes an effort to trace the course of development thinking and associated development policy over the past six decades. Section I focuses on the early Post-War Consensus, with theory focused on extensions of classical dualism theory and policy concentrating on creating the pre-conditions for development. Section II traces the increasing awareness of the role of prices, a diminishing reliance on the developmentalist state and an increased reliance on structural adjustment lending associated with IFI conditionality. Section III illuminates the search for “silver bullets” which can be identified as key to the achievement of success. Finally, Section IV presents the author’s assessment of where we are now and where we will, or should be, heading in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Development theory; Development policy; International Development; O11; O20.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28528
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The Reflective Practitioner: Learning and Teaching in Community-based Forest Management Ecology and Society
The world's natural forests, whose rich ecosystems support wildlife and human populations, are declining. In my 17 years as an international community forester, observing this decline has hardened my resolve to look for answers "outside the box." This paper is a reflection of some of the important lessons I am learning: to keep an open mind at all times, to remember that I can never be certain of the outcome of any given effort, to control my biases, to listen carefully, and to find common ground.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Action research; Collaborative forest management; Community forestry; Community-based forest management; Development theory; Education; Joint forest management; Participatory forest management; Uncertainty..
Ano: 2001
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