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Registros recuperados: 18
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Analyzing Growth and Welfare Effects of Public Policies in Models of Endogenous Growth with Human Capital: Evidence from South Africa AgEcon
Badibanga, Thaddee Mutumba.
Since the abolition of its Apartheid regime in 1994, South Africa has launched a massive program of education, which has been financed through resources representing on average 21% of the national budget or 7% of GDP. Today, the GDP share of public spending on education is 1.3 times the average of industrialized countries (5.4%) and almost twice that of developing countries (3.9%). In this paper, we simulate fiscal policy experiments to analyze the growth and welfare effects of a shift in the allocation of government expenditures between public spending on education and transfers as well as those of a change in the tax rate in a model of endogenous growth with human capital accumulation for the South African economy. The results of simulations demonstrate...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Fiscal Policy; Government Expenditures and Education; Growth Model; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; E62; H52; O41.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6431
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Are the Poor Protected from Budget Cuts? Evidence for Argentina AgEcon
Ravallion, Martin.
Macroeconomic adjustment programs often emphasize the need to protect social spending from cuts, and to protect pro-poor spending in particular. But does this happen in practice during fiscal contractions? The paper presents evidence for Argentina. Using aggregate time series data the paper first finds that social spending was not protected historically, although more "pro-poor" social spending was no more vulnerable. Turning next to new data for an externally-financed workfare scheme introduced in response to a macro crisis, the paper finds that this program was far better targeted than other social spending. However, it appears that the program still had to assure that a small but relatively well-protected share of its benefits went to the non-poor. This...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Fiscal incidence; Social spending; Budget cuts; Argentina; Food Security and Poverty; Public Economics; E62; H22; I38.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44429
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Aspekte einer Reform des Stabilitats - und Wachstumspakts AgEcon
Weinert, Gunter.
Der Stabilitats- und Wachstumspakt ist in den vergangenen Jahren von einer zunehmenden Zahl von Landern verletzt worden. Dies deutet auf Mangel in der Gestaltung bzw. in der Umsetzung des Pakts hin. Kritisiert wird insbesondere das zentrale Kriterium für eine nachhaltige Finanzpolitik, eine für alle Länder einheitliche Obergrenze von 3 % für die gesamtstaatliche Defizitquote, nicht zuletzt wegen der damit verbundenen Asymmetrie. Zugleich wurden zahlreiche Alternativen vorgeschlagen: eine Orientierung der Finanzpolitik an den gesamtstaatlichen Schulden, am strukturellen Budgetsaldo, mit oder ohne besondere Berücksichtigung der öffentlichen Investitionen, sowie an einem für die mittlere Frist festgelegten linearen Pfad für die öffentlichen Ausgaben. Die...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fiscal policy; Budget deficit; Public debt; Financial Economics; E62; H62; H63.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26246
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Beneficios privados y beneficios sociales en la cadena de la manzana para la exportación en el Uruguay. AgEcon
Rava, Catalina; Lanfranco, Bruno A.; Ferraro, Bruno.
Este trabajo analizó el desempeño de la cadena exportadora de manzana para consumo en fresco, en Uruguay, mediante el método de la matriz de análisis de políticas (MAP). Se trabajó con la variedad Royal Gala, una de las más exportadas localmente por su temprana maduración y su buena aceptación en mercados de valor, como el europeo. Se cuantificaron los efectos de las políticas públicas (impuestos, subsidios, cargas sociales) y las eventuales fallas de mercado que afectan los distintos eslabones, estimándose las potenciales transferencias de recursos, desde o hacia la cadena. Primero se computaron los ingresos y costos en los distintos eslabones considerados: producción, transporte, procesamiento y empaque. Se calcularon los beneficios privados y sociales...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Policy analysis matrix; Production systems; Economic efficiency; Public policies; Export markets; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Political Economy; Public Economics; D40; D61; E62; H20.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121682
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EU ENLARGEMENT - A NEW DIMENSION AgEcon
Brockmeier, Martina; Herok, Claudia Anna; Ledebur, Oliver von; Salamon, Petra.
Enlarging the EU presents a tremendous effort with obstacles for old and new member states especially in the agricultural sector. In this paper, impacts of a new accession round were analyzed with the help of the comparative-static general equilibrium model GTAP (Global Trade Analysis Project). The standard version was extended to allow for a better representation of specific instruments of the Common Agriculture Policy and the EU budget. To capture detailed effects in new member states, simulations were carried out for 12 candidate countries, the EU-15 and the rest of the world. As for products the focus lies on agriculture. Scenarios include an enlargement with and without the transfer of direct payments in the new member states, according to the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: EU enlargement; Common Agricultural Policy; EU budget; GE-modeling; Political Economy; D58; E62; F15; O52; Q18.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25893
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Exogenous Oil Shocks, Fiscal Policy and Sector Reallocations in Oil Producing Countries AgEcon
Cologni, Alessandro; Manera, Matteo.
Previous literature has suggested that different mechanisms of transmission of exogenous oil shocks are responsible for the negative effects on the economic performances of oil exporting countries. This paper aims at providing further evidence on the role of sectoral reallocation between private and public sectors in explaining the impact of shocks to oil revenues on the economic growth rates of major oil producing countries (namely the GCC - Gulf Corporation Council - countries). The effects of oil shocks and expansionary fiscal policy on the business cycle of oil producing countries are examined. The possibility to distinguish between various components of public sector spending policy (that is, purchases of consumption goods, investments in productive...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Oil Shocks; Dutch Disease; Resource Curse and Real Business Cycle Modelling; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C61; E22; E62; Q48.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115726
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Gasto publico en educacion y distribucion del ingreso en el Peru AgEcon
Rodriguez Gonzalez, Jose.
El estudio evalúa los efectos que el gasto público en educación ha tenido sobre la distribución del ingreso en el Perú. Las transferencias desde el presupuesto público son analizados revisando el destino del gasto en educación por estratos socioeconómicos, y su impacto de corto plazo en términos de la mejora del ingreso familiar y la modificación de la estructura distributiva.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Educacion publica; Gastos publicos; Distribucion del ingreso; Public education; Public expenditure; Income distribution; Peru; Public Economics; H52; E62; D33.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42248
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Growth, Income Inequality and Aid Giving: Looking for an Aid-Kuznets Curve AgEcon
Sobhee, Sanjeev K.; Nath, Shyam.
This paper contributes to the literature on foreign aid by exclusively explaining a donor’s motivation for foreign external assistance. The underlying framework focuses on recipients’ needs for foreign aid to address income inequality as and when growth occurs. A tax-subsidy policy is hypothesised in the manner advocated by optimal tax theory to effectively deal with inequity by minimizing the distortionary effects of income taxes. This framework is ultimately endogeneized in the recipient’s budget constraint, from which the donor derives the demand for foreign assistance. The outcome supports an inverted-U relationship between foreign aid and per capita income in the way postulated by the conventional Kuznets curve. Our postulate is empirically tested...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Foreign aid; Optimal taxation; Fiscal policy; International Relations/Trade; F35; H21; E62.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50163
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Japan's Financial Markets: The Lost Decade AgEcon
Reszat, Beate.
Recent debates about the state of Japan's financial system focus on the weakness of Japanese banks. But, in the complex financial relations of an advanced economy bank finance cannot be seen separate from other forms of financial intermediation. Despite the reform efforts under the Big Bang program, financial markets in Japan show severe signs of malfunctioning, distortion and backwardness. The paper gives an overview of the current state of markets for money, bonds, equities and derivatives arguing that for reform to become successful measures to develop an entirely different market culture were needed. It calls for a redefinition of the role of interest groups in the financial intermediation process - including the role of government.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Financial Economics; E58; E62; G10; N25.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26335
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Política económica y desarrollo del sistema financiero peruano, parte I: diagnóstico AgEcon
Caceres Valderrama, Armando; Nagamine Akamine, Javier.
Este documento realiza un diagnóstico de la situación del sistema financiero peruano a principios de 1990. La principal problemática que se observa es la pérdida de importancia del sistema financiero en el proceso ahorro-inversión en el Perú que se agudiza a partir de 1988. Este es un primer paso para la elaboración de una propuesta de reforma del sistema financiero.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sistemas bancarios; Mercado financiero; Politica economica; Banking systems; Financial market; Economic policy; Peru; Financial Economics; E62; G21; N26.
Ano: 1991 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42261
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Política económica y desarrollo del sistema financiero peruano, parte II: propuesta para una reforma y análisis de la nueva ley de bancos AgEcon
Caceres Valderrama, Armando; Nagamine Akamine, Javier.
El documento propone, a partir de la problemática del sistema financiero, revisada en la primera parte de este estudio, modificaciones en el entorno económico que enfrentan las empresas financieras, así como una participación activa del Estado en la supervisión y control de las entidades crediticias.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sistemas bancarios; Mercado financiero; Politica economica; Banking systems; Financial market; Economic policy; Peru; Financial Economics; E62; G21; N26.
Ano: 1991 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42257
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Política fiscal y reforma tributaria AgEcon
Arias, Luis Alberto.
El documento tiene como objetivo mostrar el reiterado fracaso de la política fiscal aplicada en el Perú durante los últimos años, así como establecer los lineamientos generales y específicos que deberían orientar la política fiscal en el mediano plazo para, luego, proponer reformas estructurales que complementen la política de estabilización.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Politica fiscal; Reformas tributarias; Fiscal policy; Tax reforms; Peru; Public Economics; E62; H30.
Ano: 1990 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42265
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Public spending composition and public sector efficiency: Implications for growth and poverty reduction in Uganda AgEcon
Sennoga, Edward B.; Matovu, John Mary.
The paper examines the interrelationships between public spending composition and Uganda's development goals including economic growth and poverty reduction. We utilize a dynamic CGE model to study these interrelationships. This paper demonstrates that public spending composition does indeed influence economic growth and poverty reduction. In particular, this study shows that improved public sector efficiency coupled with re-allocation of public expenditure away from the unproductive sectors such as public administration and security to the productive sectors including agriculture, energy, water and health leads to higher GDP growth rates and accelerates poverty reduction. Moreover, the rate of poverty is faster in rural households relative to the urban...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Sennoga; Matovu; EPRC; Public expenditure; Economic growth - Uganda; Poverty reduction; Computable General Equilibrium; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; Financial Economics; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Production Economics; Public Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C68; D58; E62; F15; H62; 132.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93808
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Ressourcenverteilung in der EU: Eine polit-okonomische Perspektive AgEcon
Hefeker, Carsten.
Das Papier diskutiert die Ausgestaltung des EU Finanzsystems aus polit-ökonomischer Perspektive. Die jetzige Form der Umverteilung lässt sich aus ökonomischer Sicht nicht nachvollziehen; vielmehr kann dies als ein System von politischen Seitenzahlungen verstanden werden. Es wird argumentiert, dass das System in Zukunft nach einer Erweiterung so kaum noch haltbar ist. Stattdessen ist eine Beschränkung auf die tatsächlich notwendigen Aufgaben auf EU Ebene angebracht. Dies impliziert einerseits eine stärkere Zentralisierung, andererseits eine stärkere Dezentralisierung und Rückverlagerung von Aufgaben auf die nationale Ebene. Eine gewünschte Umverteilung zwischen den Staaten sollte pauschal und nicht länger über Agrar- und Sozialfonds stattfinden. Dabei steht...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Europäische Union; Erweiterung der EU; Fiskalpolitik; Politische Ökonomie; Political Economy; D72; E62; H77.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26229
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Second-Best Optimal Taxation of Oil and Capital in a Small Open Economy AgEcon
Petrucci, Alberto.
This paper analyzes the efficient taxation of oil and capital income in an oil-dependent infinite-lived economy facing perfect capital mobility. Two cases are examined: one with product market imperfections and free tax choice, one with perfect competition and tax restrictions. The optimal tax rates on oil and capital strictly depend on the international tax system implemented; however, they are also affected by the degree of market power and the extent to which monopoly profits are taxed, the type of tax restrictions and the use of oil (as an input or a consumer good). Under the residence-based system, capital income should always be exempted from taxation, while the optimal tax on productive oil may differ from zero. Under the source-based system,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Optimal Factor Taxation; Oil; Capital Income; Residence-based System; Source-Based System; Financial Economics; E62; H21; Q43; Q48.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59477
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Sectoral and welfare effects of the global economic crisis on Uganda: a recursive dynamic CGE analysis AgEcon
Twimukye, Evarist P.; Matovu, John Mary; Levine, Sebastian; Birungi, Patrick.
This paper analyses the impact of the global economic and financial crisis on Uganda notably on macro-economic aggregates, sectoral output and household welfare, and the potential role of fiscal policy and reform in mitigating the impacts. We find that second round effects from a reduction in financial inflows such as remittances, foreign direct investments and overseas development assistance, as well as reduction in international demand from cash crops such as cotton, tea and coffee, could lead to a reduction in economic growth by 0.6 percentage points on average annually over the period 2008- 2010 compared to a baseline reflecting pre-crisis conditions. A surge in regional exports and early counter-cyclical policies in particular are found to dampen the...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Sub-Saharan Africa; Uganda; Global economic and financial crisis; Computable general equilibrium (CGE); Consumer/Household Economics; Financial Economics; Industrial Organization; International Development; Production Economics; Public Economics; C68; D58; E62; F15; H62; I32.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113619
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The Effects of Public Debt on Labor Demand in the United States AgEcon
Garcia-Jimenez, Carlos I.; Mishra, Ashok K..
The relationship between appreciation of the exchange rate and employment is investigated in the period 1980-2008 for the United States. Previous literature has found a negative relationship, studying as channels of transmission the role of exports, substitution of factors of production, terms of trade, openness, and productivity. This study endeavors to shed some light on the role of government debt on determining the level of employment through the exchange rate. The mechanism of transmission is defined. The model is derived from a standard Cobb Douglas production function having government debt affecting the growth of productivity. Exchange rate appreciations and increasing public debt were found to be detrimental to employment.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Unemployment rate; Government; Budget deficit; Exchange rate; Trade deficit; FDI; Financial Economics; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; Public Economics; F31; J01; E24; E62.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56361
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The impact of the stimulus package on the agricultural sector in Vietnam AgEcon
Trang, Truong Thi Thu; Vanzetti, David.
The global financial crisis in 2008-2009 has affected almost all countries. Vietnam was hit by a large fall in export demand and foreign direct investment. Many governments quickly prescribed stimulus packages and Vietnam was no exception. It reduced taxes and increased government spending, mainly by subsidizing loans to state-owned enterprises. The question is what the stimulated impact is, if any, and whether a better outcome could have been achieved by a different mix of policies. In this paper, we use a simple general equilibrium model to quantify the impact of the various components of the stimulus package on the whole economy as well as agricultural sector. The results suggest that, in the short run at least, the stimulus package marginally...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Vietnam; Fiscal stimulus; Agriculture; International Development; Public Economics; E62; D58; Q17.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100722
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