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13 + 1: A Comparison of Global Climate Change Policy Architectures AgEcon
Aldy, Joseph E.; Barrett, Scott; Stavins, Robert N..
We critically review the Kyoto Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures for addressing the threat of global climate change. We employ six criteria to evaluate the policy proposals: environmental outcome, dynamic efficiency, cost effectiveness, equity, flexibility in the presence of new information, and incentives for participation and compliance. The Kyoto Protocol does not fare well on a number of criteria, but none of the alternative proposals fare well along all six dimensions. We identify several major themes among the alternative proposals: Kyoto is "too little, too fast"; developing countries should play a more substantial role and receive incentives to participate; implementation should focus on market-based approaches, especially...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Policy architecture; Kyoto Protocol; Efficiency; Cost effectiveness; Equity; Participation; Compliance; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10541
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2008 Michigan Dairy Industry Survey AgEcon
Bitsch, Vera.
The Michigan State University (MSU) Dairy Team conducted an industry survey with the objectives of identifying and rating industry priorities. After holding discussion groups across the state, two questionnaires were developed and sent to 2,237 dairy farm owners and operators and 480 allied industry professionals in the state; 23.4% of the dairy farmers and 28.1% of the allied industry professionals returned questionnaires with useable data. This report summarizes respondents’ ratings of industry issues, as well as education and knowledge needs. In addition, educational preferences, management practices, Internet use and access, demographic information, and farm characteristics are outlined.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Dairy farmers; Dairy industry; Extension evaluation; Information sources; Internet use; Survey questionnaire; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Labor and Human Capital; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; M0; Q12; Q13; Q14; Q16; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51842
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2C or Not 2C? AgEcon
Guivarch, Celine; Hallegatte, Stephane.
Political attention has increasingly focused on limiting warming to 2°C. However, to date the only mitigation commitments accompanying this target are the so-called Copenhagen pledges, and these pledges appear to be inconsistent with the 2°C objective. Diverging opinions on whether this inconsistency can or should be resolved have been expressed. This paper clarifies the alternative assumptions underlying these diverging view points and explicits their implications. It first gives simple visualizations of the challenge posed by the 2°C target. It then proposes a “decision tree”, linking different beliefs on climate change, the achievability of different policies, and current international policy dynamics to various options to move forward on climate change.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Feasibility of 2°C Target; Climate Change Negotiations; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q5; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120019
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A BALATON VÍZGYŰJTŐJÉN FOLYÓ MEZŐGAZADSÁGI TERMELÉS HATÁSA A TÓ KÖRNYEZETI ÁLLAPOTÁRA AgEcon
Marton, Istvan.
A Balaton vízminőségének, a tó állapotának romlása több tényezőre visszave-zethető, hosszú folyamat eredménye. Az egyes tényezők szerepének meghatáro-zása a rendszeres és teljes körű, minden szennyező faktorra kiterjedő mérések hiánya miatt napjainkban is gondot okoz, részben becslésen alapul. Mégis vissza-térő kérdés, hogy a leromlásért melyik ágazat az első számú felelős. A 80-as évek elején a feladatok meghatározásakor a tó vizének tápanyag feldúsulásáért a me-zőgazdaságot kiáltották ki fő felelősnek. Ugyanakkor szakértői vizsgálatok egy-értelműen bizonyították, hogy a Balatonba kerülő hatóanyag maximum 3-5%-a lehet műtrágya eredetű, ami önmagában a vízminőség gyorsütemű romlását nem idézhette elő. Akik kizárólag a mezőgazdaságot okolták a Balaton...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Műtrágyázás; Környezetszennyezés; Vízminőségjavító intézkedések - artificial chemical use; Environment burden; Arrangements for increasing water quality; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54300
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A BARGAINING FRAMEWORK FOR THE GLOBAL COMMONS AgEcon
Bromley, Daniel W..
The global commons represents a class of environmental problems that require international cooperation. Global environmental problems arise because the actions of some individuals or governments in one location hold serious implications for individuals and governments in other locations. There are global environmental policy problems because adversely-affected individuals (and governments) attempt to alter the behaviors of those responsible for global pollution. We develop a framework with which to analyze such global environmental problems. Our goal is to craft a resource management policy that will satisfy both those who seek a change and those who prefer the current situation. This environmental incentive policy will align the interests of the two...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11899
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A Bayesian Approach to the Estimation of Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2 Emissions AgEcon
Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Musolesi, Antonio; Zoboli, Roberto.
This paper investigates the EKC curves for CO2 emissions in a panel of 109 countries during the period 1959-2001. The length of the series makes the application of a heterogeneous estimator suitable from an econometric point of view. The results, based on the hierarchical Bayes estimator, show that different EKC dynamics are associated with the different sub samples of countries considered. On average, more industrialized countries show an EKC evidence in quadratic specifications, which are nevertheless probably evolving into an N shape, emerging from cubic specifications. Less developed countries consistently show that CO2 emissions still rise positively with income, though some signals of an EKC path arise.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12057
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A Bayesian approach towards facilitating climate change adaptation research on the South African agricultural sector AgEcon
Musango, J.K.; Peter, C..
Evaluating the range of proposed adaptation measures to combat the sensitivity of agriculture to climate change effects involves evaluating complex interactions between human and natural systems. Integrated strategy-making and implementation in the agricultural sector to reduce the risks posed by climate change requires the consideration of multiple, interdisciplinary factors and the sensitivities of their inter-relationships. Lack of information on the sensitivity of agricultural activities to climate change in Africa hampers climate change adaptation research on the region. In water scarce South Africa, the growth of the agricultural sector is threatened by projected decreases in water availability due to climate change. This paper shows how Bayesian...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Climate change adaptation; Water utilization; Bayesian approach; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10121
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A Behavioral Analysis of EPA's MOBILE Emission Factor Model AgEcon
Harrington, Winston; McConnell, Virginia D.; Cannon, Matthew.
This paper examines the behavioral and stochastic aspects of modeling emission reductions from vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) programs. Forecasts of the potential emission reductions from such programs have been modeled by the use of the Environmental Protection Agency's MOBILE Model, EPA's computer model for estimating emission factors for mobile sources. We examine the structure of this Model and review the way behavior of drivers, mechanics and state regulatory authorities is incorporated in the current generation of the Model. We focus particularly on assumptions about vehicle repair under I/M, compliance with I/M requirements, and the impact of test measurement error on predicted I/M effectiveness. We also include some preliminary...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emission reduction; Vehicle inspection and maintenance program; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10676
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A Benefit Transfer Approach to the Estimation of Agro-Ecosystems Services Benefits: A Case Study of Kern County, California AgEcon
Qenani-Petrela, Eivis; Noel, Jay E.; Mastin, Thomas.
Tipo: Technical Report Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121605
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A Benefit Transfer Estimation of Agro-Ecosystems Services AgEcon
Noel, Jay E.; Qenani-Petrela, Eivis; Mastin, Thomas.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92844
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A Binomial Tree Approach to Valuing Fixed Rotation Forests and Flexible Rotation Forests Under a Mean Reverting Timber Price Process AgEcon
Tee, James; Scarpa, Riccardo; Marsh, Dan; Guthrie, Graeme.
NPV and LEV are established and common approaches to valuing single rotation and infinite rotation forests respectively, when the rotation age is fixed in advanced. More recently, Real Options approaches have been employed to value single and infinite rotation forests with a flexible harvest age. Under a stochastic timber price process, it has been shown that the valuation of a flexible rotation forest is equal or higher than that of a fixed rotation forest, because a flexible harvest regime delays the harvest if the timber price is not favourable, whereas a fixed harvest regime would proceed to harvest regardless of the price. Often, valuation of fixed and flexible rotation ages are compared using 2 different methods – NPV (or LEV) and Real Options. The...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: NPV; LEV; Real Options; Optimal Harvest Decision; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96836
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A bioeconomic model of a marine park AgEcon
Greenville, Jared W.; MacAulay, T. Gordon.
A spatial bioeconomic model of a fishery will be used to investigate the effect of creating a marine park in a heterogeneous environment. Focus will be placed on the relevant biological and economic conditions needed to provide a benefit to both fishers and conservationists alike. The fishing environment will be one of limited entry to better simulate the conditions which exist in many developed nations. Fishers will be assumed to operate across patched in which the fish stocks are linked via either sink-source or density dependant spatial relationships.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bioeconomic; Marine protected area; Fisheries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58451
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A bioeconomic model of carbon trading within an Australian grazing enterprise AgEcon
Gowen, Rebecca; Rolfe, John; Donaghy, Peter.
The Carbon Farming Initiative (CFI) and other carbon trading programs have been promoted as alternative sources of income for agricultural producers, particularly those on marginal land. This paper presents the results of a bioeconomic model developed to compare the relative returns from a beef enterprise against changing regrowth management practices to sequester additional carbon and sell carbon offsets. The model is constructed based on a 1000 hectare parcel of land in Central Queensland and is calculated for two landtypes; Brigalow and Eucalypt. Assuming zero transaction costs and a 20 year contract period, a carbon-cattle enterprise has higher returns that a cattle-only enterprise at relatively low carbon prices for both land types. However, results...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Carbon; Bioeconomic modelling; Grazing economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124311
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A BIOECONOMIC MODEL OF SPATIAL POLICY OPTIONS AgEcon
Smith, Martin D.; Wilen, James E..
This paper outlines an empirical bioeconomic model that is spatially explicit. It combines a metapopulation model of sea urchin biology with a discrete choice econometric analysis of harvester behavior. Discrete choice results are used to simulate short-term spatial closures in the fishery, and implications for long-term spatial management are discussed.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21749
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A bioüzemanyagok használatával járó várható földhasználati változások Magyarországon AgEcon
Vida, Adrienn; Baksa, Adrienn.
Az egyre növekvő energiafelhasználás, világnépesség és éhezés olyan, több évtizede megoldatlan problémák, amelyeket a klímaváltozás és az ez által kialakult szélsőséges időjárási viszonyok tovább súlyosbítottak, a napjainkban tapasztalható gazdasági válság pedig még inkább megnehezítheti megoldásukat. A megújítható energiaforrások szerepének növelésében katalizátorszerepet betöltő Európai Unió már a 80-as évek elején megoldást keresett a túltermelés következtében felhalmozódott szántóföldi termékek felhasználására. Az idők során a támogatási rendszer is a non-food termelést helyezte egyre inkább előtérbe, majd a kialakított direktívák és piaci intézkedések előkészítették, és így biztosították az összefoglalóan biomasszának nevezett megújítható...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Földhasználat; Bioüzemanyagok; Klímaváltozás; Környezeti terhelés; Fenntartható gazdálkodás; Land usage; Bio-fuels; Climate change; Environmental burden; Sustainable farming.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92421
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A Calibrate Auction-conjoint Experiment to Elicit Consumer Valuation of Sustainable Farming: Is Agro-systems Preservation Relevant? AgEcon
Avitia, Jessica; Costa-Font, Montserrat; Gil, Jose Maria; Lusk, Jayson L..
This paper analyses the role of agro-systems preservation on making food choices. It employs the “Calibrate Auction-Conjoint Valuation method” (CACM), which relates hypothetical conjoint valuation of product attributes with real market behavior using real economic incentives. The paper also allows comparing the hypothetical and nonhypothetical valuations in order to value the difference between the theoretic and the incentive-compatible WTP for a same respondent and within a single experiment. Thus the paper aims at testing for: 1) the internal consistency on people’s behavior towards sustainable agriculture, and 2) the relevance of the price attribute versus agro-ecosystems preservation for a fresh product. Results suggest that Spanish respondents’...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114213
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A Carrot-and-Stick Approach to Environmental Improvement: Marrying Agri-Environmental Payments and Water Quality Regulations AgEcon
Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Johansson, Robert C..
Agri-environmental programs, such as the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, provide payments to livestock and crop producers to generate broadly defined environmental benefits and to help them comply with federal water quality regulations, such as those that require manure nutrients generated on large animal feeding operations to be spread on cropland at no greater than agronomic rates. We couch these policy options in terms of agri-environmental "carrots" and regulatory "sticks," respectively. The U.S. agricultural sector is likely to respond to these policies in a variety of ways. Simulation analysis suggests that meeting nutrient standards would result in decreased levels of animal production, increased prices for livestock and poultry products,...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31369
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A CASE FOR SUBVENTION OF PRIVATE LANDOWNERS IN THE LOUISIANA COASTAL ZONE AgEcon
Caffey, Rex H..
The Louisiana Coastal Zone (LCZ) is experiencing an unparalleled crisis of wetland loss, most of which (75%) is occurring on private lands. This paper use agricultural conservation policy as a comparative construct in a commentary that examines the rationale and methodology of providing economic incentives to subsidize wetland restoration on private lands in the LCZ.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/35045
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A Case Study of an NGOs Ecotourism Efforts: Findings Based on a Survey of Visitors to its Tropical Nature Reserve AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
This article outlines the efforts of a small NGO, the Mareeba Wetland Foundation, to conserve nature and conduct tourism at its Mareeba Tropical Savanna Wetland Reserve in northern Queensland. It provides background about the establishment of the reserve and its nature and draws on the results from a survey of visitors to this reserve. It provides a socio-economic profile of visitors, their frequency of visits to it and their knowledge of it prior to visiting. This knowledge is found, on the whole, to be poor. The way in which visitors decided to visit the reserve is also considered as are indicators of the economic surplus obtained from visits. Because for most visitors their visit was an experiential good, doubts are raised about the traditional method...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Conservation NGOs; Consumers’ surplus; Ecotourism; Experiential goods; Mareeba Tropical Savanna and Wetland Reserve; Mareeba Wetlands Foundation; National parks; Public economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; Q2; Q5; L83; H30.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93403
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A Century of American Economic Review AgEcon
Torgler, Benno; Piatti, Marco.
Using information collected from American Economic Review publications of the last 100 years, we try to provide answers to various questions: Which are the top AER publishing institutions and countries? Which are the top AER papers based on citation success? How frequently is someone able to publish in AER? How equally is citation success distributed? Who are the top AER publishing authors? What is the level of cooperation among the authors? What drives the alphabetical name ordering? What are the individual characteristics of the AER authors, editors, editorial board members, and referees? How frequently do women publish in AER? What is the relationship between academic age, publication performance, and citation success? What are the paper...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: American Economic Review; Publishing Economics; Rankings; Cooperation; Authors; Editors; Board Members; Referees; Connections; Awards; Paper Characteristics; Economic History; History of Economic Thought; Environmental Economics and Policy; A10; A110; B00; B31; B40; I23; N01; J00; Z00.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102501
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