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A method to identify and evaluate the legal and institutional framework for the management of water and land in Asia: the outcome of a study in Southeast Asia and the People’s Republic of China. AgEcon
Hannam, Ian.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Water management; Land management; Legal aspects; Environmental policy; China; Laos; Bangladesh; Philippines; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52970
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A note on the performance measure of conservation auctions AgEcon
Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe; Schilizzi, Steven.
We argue that previous assessments of discriminatory-price conservation auctions may have systematically overestimated their performance relative to uniform-payment schemes due to an inappropriate counterfactual comparison. We demonstrate that the cost curve (and not the bid curve) is the relevant supply curve when a uniform payment is offered and provide a theoretically rigorous counterfactual based on that insight. We estimate that the performance of BushTender may have been overrated by more than 50%.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Auctions; Procurement; Tenders; Conservation; Economic experiments; Model validation; Plus: assessment method; Agricultural policy; Environmental policy; Market-based instruments; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C91; C92; D44; Q24; Q28.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100885
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A Paradox for Agro-Environmental Land Policy AgEcon
Hennessy, David A.; Feng, Hongli.
A regulator with a fixed budget to spend on securing environmental benefits from farmed land has to choose between how many acres to enroll and the extent of benefits to require of each enrolled acre. Here we consider, given heterogeneous land, what properties of the environmental benefit-to-cost ratio imply for the choice of optimal program as the available budget varies. Conditions are found such that a program of high benefits on few acres is preferred for any budget level. It is also possible that a program delivering low benefits per acre at low cost is preferred on each land type, and yet a high benefit program is optimal policy, a variant of Simpson’s paradox.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Benefit-to-cost ratio; Environmental policy; Land heterogeneity; Simpson’s paradox.; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53934
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A Reconsideration of Environmental Federalism AgEcon
Oates, Wallace E..
This paper provides a review and assessment of the debate over environmental federalism-the issue of the roles of different levels of government in environmental management. The paper begins with the presentation of three benchmark cases that provide a framework for thinking about the issue. It then offers a review, first of the theoretical literature and second of some new, provocative empirical literature on the race to the bottom. The paper contends that there remains, under certain circumstances, an important role for decentralized government in the setting of environmental standards and the design of regulatory programs. The central government, in addition to setting standards for "national" pollutants, has a fundamental contribution to make in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental federalism; Environmental management; Environmental policy; Environmental regulation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; H1; H7.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10460
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A utilização dos instrumentos de política ambiental para a preservação do meio ambiente: o caso dos pagamentos por serviços ecossistêmicos. Repositório Alice
ANDRADE, C. A.; FASIABEN, M. do C. R..
Considerando a dependência humana em relação aos serviços ecossistêmicos, a tônica do debate ambiental tem se voltado para políticas de preservação dos recursos provenientes do capital natural e dos seus serviços. Dada a recente popularidade das políticas de Pagamento por Serviços Ecossistêmicos (PSE), este trabalho procurou apresentar alguns pontos importantes na discussão sobre este tipo de política. Embora não exaustiva, a análise empreendida procurou enfatizar que o PSE não deve ser visto como mecanismo de solução de todos os problemas ambientais. Aplica-se particularmente a casos em que a ameaça aos serviços ecossistêmicos provêm de uso inadequado do solo. Sendo assim, o princípio básico é gerar incentivos para a manutenção (ou conversão) para usos...
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Pagamentos por serviços ecossistêmicos; Política ambiental; Preservação do meio ambiente; Environmental policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/874229
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A utilização dos instrumentos de política ambiental para a preservação do meio ambiente: o caso dos Pagamentos por Serviços Ecossistêmicos (PSE). Repositório Alice
ANDRADE, C. A.; FASIABEN, M. do C. R..
Considerando a dependência humana em relação aos serviços ecossistêmicos, a tônica do debate ambiental tem-se voltado para políticas de preservação dos recursos provenientes do capital natural e dos seus serviços. Dada a recente popularidade das políticas de Pagamentos por Serviços Ecossistêmicos (PSE), este trabalho procurou apresentar alguns pontos importantes na discussão sobre este tipo de política. Além da definição e dos propósitos de tal política, o trabalho também realçou alguns aspectos importantes, como a questão da definição dos agentes participantes do mercado, a natureza do(s) serviço(s) transacionado(s), o valor das compensações, bem como problemas de ordem institucional.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Política ambiental; Serviços ecossistêmicos; Pagamentos por serviços ecossistêmicos; Environmental policy; Ecosystem services; Payment for Ecosystem Services.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/869222
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ACCOUNTING FOR SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERSHEDS IN EVALUATING WATER POLLUTION ABATEMENT POLICIES AgEcon
Qiu, Zeyuan; Prato, Anthony A..
This study evaluates three agricultural nonpoint pollution abatement policies: regulating the spatial pattern of agricultural activities, ambient tax, and abatement tax/subsidy. All three policies incorporate spatial characteristics of agricultural emission loading and movement for an agricultural watershed in the Midwest. The effects of spatial variation in natural conditions and landscape features on agricultural emissions and crop yield are evaluated using a newly developed biophysical simulation model and experimental data. While the policies are equally cost effective in reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution, their implementation feasibility is quite different.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Atrazine; Environmental policy; Nonpoint pollution; Simulation; Watershed management; Water quality; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15135
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Achieving ecological restoration by working with local people: a Chinese scholar seeks win-win paths Ecology and Society
Zheng, Heran; College of Economic Management, Beijing Forestry University; zhengheran@foxmail.com; Wang, Guosheng; China Law Society; gshwang@126.com.
Environmental degradation and poverty are linked, and this means that conservation and poverty reduction must be tackled together. However, finding a successful integrated strategy has been an elusive goal. We describe the career of a Chinese scholar, Shixiong Cao, whose persistent efforts to find and follow win-win paths have led to ecological restoration accompanied by long-term benefits for local residents. Cao’s story illustrates how development that combines environmental and economic perspectives can both help people to escape the poverty trap and restore degraded environments. His experience demonstrates that when environmental managers find solutions that can mitigate or eliminate poverty through the development of green enterprises, they...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed article Palavras-chave: Environmental conservation; Environmental policy; Poverty trap; Scientific philosophy; Socioeconomic development.
Ano: 2014
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Adaptation to Climate Change in the Developing World OceanDocs
Huq, S.; Adger, W.N.; Brown, K.; Hulme, M..
The world’s climate is changing and will continue to change into the coming century at rates projected to be unprecedented in recent human history. The risks associated with these changes are real but highly uncertain. Societal vulnerability to the risks associated with climate change may exacerbate ongoing social and economic challenges, particularly for those parts of societies dependent on resources that are sensitive to changes in climate. Risks are apparent in agriculture, fisheries and many other components that constitute the livelihood of rural populations in developing countries. In this paper we explore the nature of risk and vulnerability in the context of climate change and review the evidence on present-day adaptation in developing countries...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Vulnerability; Climate change; Environmental policy; Developing countries; Climate change; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_35367.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/833
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Agri-Environmental Policy at the Crossroads: Guideposts on a Changing Landscape AgEcon
Claassen, Roger; Hansen, LeRoy T.; Peters, Mark; Breneman, Vincent E.; Weinberg, Marca; Cattaneo, Andrea; Feather, Peter; Gadsby, Dwight M.; Hellerstein, Daniel; Hopkins, Jeffrey W.; Johnston, Paul V.; Morehart, Mitchell J.; Smith, Mark.
Agri-environmental policy is at a crossroads. Over the past 20 years, a wide range of policies addressing the environmental implications of agricultural production have been implemented at the Federal level. Those policies have played an important role in reducing soil erosion, protecting and restoring wetlands, and creating wildlife habitat. However, emerging agri-environmental issues, evolution of farm income support policies, and limits imposed by trade agreements may point toward a rethinking of agri-environmental policy. This report identifies the types of policy tools available and the design features that have improved the effectiveness of current programs. It provides an indepth analysis of one policy tool that may be an important component of a...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Conservation programs; Environmental policy; Agricultural policy; Policy instruments; Agricultural program design; Soil erosion; Nitrogen runoff; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33983
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Air Emissions of Ammonia and Methane from Livestock Operations: Valuation and Policy Options AgEcon
Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Siikamaki, Juha.
The animal husbandry industry is a major emitter of methane, which is an important greenhouse gas. The industry is also a major emitter of ammonia, which is a precursor of fine particulate matter, arguably the number-one environment-related public health threat facing the nation. We present an integrated process model of the engineering economics of technologies to reduce methane and ammonia emissions at dairy operations in California. Three policy options are explored: greenhouse gas offset credits for methane control, particulate matter offset credits for ammonia control, and expanded net metering policies to provide revenue for the sale of electricity generated from captured methane gas. Individually, any of these policies appears to be sufficient to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Methane; Ammonia; Carbon dioxide; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Offset; Particulate matter; Net metering; Environmental policy; CAFO; Manure management; Biodigester; Electricity; Global warming; Cost-benefit; Incentive approach; Livestock Production/Industries; Q2; Q4; Q53.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10749
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Allying knowledge integration and co-production for knowledge legitimacy and usability: The Amazonian SISA policy and the Kaxinawá Indigenous people case. Repositório Alice
MATUK, F. A.; TURNHOUT, E.; FLESKENS, L.; AMARAL, E. F. do; HAVERROTH, M.; BEHAGEL, J. H..
Environmental policies that aim to enhance nature conservation, biodiversity, and well-being of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLC) rely on knowledge integration and co-production processes that include both science and Indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) systems. While these processes are expected to safeguard the diversity of knowledge systems, uneven power relations among participants often prevent them from achieving this which can affect the legitimacy and usability of the outcomes of these processes. Using a case study in the Acre state (Brazil), where policy practitioners implemented the REDD+policy System of Incentives for Ecosystem Services in the Brazilian Kaxinawá Nova Olinda Indigenous Land, we investigate how participants manage...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Povos indígenas; Pueblos indigenas; Serviços ecossistêmicos; Conhecimento tradicional; Método participativo; REDD+; Servicios ecosistémicos; Gestão participativa; Participative management; SISA; Terra Indígena Kaxinawá de Nova Olinda (TIKNO); Feijó (AC); Acre; Amazônia Ocidental; Western Amazon; Amazonia Occidental; Planejamento Participativo; Indigenous peoples; Indigenous knowledge; Environmental policy; Ecosystem services.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1123244
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An Empirical Analysis of Stakeholders’ Influence on Policy Development: the Role of Uncertainty Handling Ecology and Society
Bijlsma, Rianne M.; University of Twente, The Netherlands; Deltares, The Netherlands; r.m.bijlsma@alumnus.utwente.nl; Bots, Pieter W. G.; Cemagref (UMR G-EAU); University of Delft, The Netherlands; p.w.g.bots@tudelft.nl; Wolters, Henk A.; Deltares, The Netherlands; henk.wolters@deltares.nl; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; University of Twente, The Netherlands; a.y.hoekstra@utwente.nl.
Stakeholder participation is advocated widely, but there is little structured, empirical research into its influence on policy development. We aim to further the insight into the characteristics of participatory policy development by comparing it to expert-based policy development for the same case. We describe the process of problem framing and analysis, as well as the knowledge base used. We apply an uncertainty perspective to reveal differences between the approaches and speculate about possible explanations. We view policy development as a continuous handling of substantive uncertainty and process uncertainty, and investigate how the methods of handling uncertainty of actors influence the policy development. Our findings suggest that the wider frame...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Environmental policy; Framing; Participation; Policy development; Policy process; Stakeholder involvement; Uncertainty.
Ano: 2011
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As relações sociais como fatores determinantes na rede de implementação de políticas ambientais rurais: investigação a partir de alguns municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Repositório Alice
GIGLIO, E.; LUIZ, A. J. B.; NAJBERG, E..
Este artigo analisa o estabelecimento das políticas ambientais rurais dos municípios a partir do paradigma da sociedade em rede e dos conceitos de teorias sociais de redes e propõe um modelo para pesquisas na área. A proposição básica é que o desenvolvimento, o sucesso e os problemas das decisões e ações de implementação são diretamente influenciados pelas relações sociais dos atores envolvidos nas tarefas. A pesquisa caracteriza-se como qualitativa e interpretativa, a partir de documentos e entrevistas. Os dados foram coletados e interpretados utilizando-se as regras de análise de conteúdo. Os sujeitos são atores do governo e da sociedade civil e foram realizadas 15 entrevistas. O trabalho chegou a três resultados. O primeiro foi a sustentação da...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Sociedade em rede; Relações sociais nas redes; Políticas ambientais rurais; Metodologia; Política ambiental; Zona rural; Políticas públicas; Environmental policy; Rural areas; Social networks; Public policy.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/976444
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Assessing the environmental externalities from biofuels in Australia AgEcon
Cuevas-Cubria, Clara.
In Australia, as in other countries, the environmental costs and benefits of biofuel production and use have been found to vary greatly according to the production method and feedstocks used. In general, the use of biodiesel produced in Australia has been found to provide greater environmental benefits than ethanol, both in terms of reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduced air pollutant emissions. In this paper, estimates of GHG and air pollutant emissions arising from biofuels and petroleum fuels production and use are employed to calculate the change in environmental externalities when substituting biofuels for petroleum fuels in Australia. These estimates of externalities highlight the need to better understand the environmental implications...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Environmental policy; Greenhouse gas emissions; Air pollutants; Externalities; Australia; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47624
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AUCTIONING OUTCOME-BASED CONSERVATION CONTRACTS AgEcon
Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe; Schilizzi, Steven; Breustedt, Gunnar.
This paper explores two ideas to enhance the performance of agri-environmental contracting schemes: linking contract payments to environmental outcomes and putting the contracts up for tender. This paper investigates whether there are any gains to be had by combining the benefits of both approaches. Controlled lab experiments were run in two countries, systematically varying the rate at which payments are linked to environmental outcomes. This paper clarifies the conditions under which the benefits from combining tenders with incentive payments outweigh the costs.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Conservation tenders; Auctions; Incentive contracts; Agricultural policy; Environmental policy; Market-based instruments; Experimental economics; Auktionen; Ausschreibungsverfahren; Agrar-Umweltverträge; Agrar-Umweltpolitik; Anreizverträge; Experimentelle Ökonomie; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Demand and Price Analysis; Political Economy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114523
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Buying Ecological Services: Nature’s Harmonies, Fragmented Reserves and the Agricultural Extensification Debate AgEcon
Hennessy, David A.; Lapan, Harvey E..
Growing demand for cropland products has placed intense pressure on the ability of land resources to support nature, straining public budgets to purchase environmental goods. Fixing overall agricultural output, two policy options are whether to promote more extensive and nature friendly farming practices or to produce intensively on some land and leave the rest wild. Microeconomic models of the topic have not accommodated widely recognized complementary spatial externalities in providing ecological services. This article does so, identifying also a third policy possibility. This is that environmental services can follow a smoothly varying spatial path characterized by harmonic functions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Environmental policy; Spatial externalities; Wirtinger’s inequality.; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45171
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Changing the direction of environmental investment in Australia: Learnings from implementing INFFER AgEcon
Marsh, Sally P.; Curatolo, April; Pannell, David J.; Park, Geoff; Roberts, Anna M.; Alexander, Jennifer.
Investment in natural resource management (NRM) by regional organisations in Australia has been widely criticised for failing to achieve substantial environmental outcomes. The Investment Framework for Environmental Resources (INFFER) is a tool for developing and prioritising projects to address environmental issues such as water quality, biodiversity decline, environmental pest impacts and land degradation. INFFER is an asset-based, targeted, and outcome-focussed approach to environmental investment, and as such is a very different and more rigorous approach to prioritising possible environmental projects than used previously by most catchment management organisations (CMOs) in Australia. From 2008 to 2010 INFFER has been trialled with CMOs. Evaluation...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: NRM investment planning; NRM investment prioritisation; Regional catchment management organisations; NRM policy; Environmental planning; Environmental prioritisation; Environmental policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q50; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100584
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Comparative Costs and Conservation Policies for the Survival of the Oranutan and Other Species: Includes an Example AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A.; Swarna Nantha, Hemanath.
The extent to which conservation is feasible is constrained by budgets and the financial sacrifice stakeholders are willing to bear. Therefore a possible objective for conserving a species is to minimise the cost of achieving that stated aim. For example, if a minimum viable population (MVP) of a species is to be conserved, the size and type of habitats reserved for this could be selected to minimise cost. This requires consideration of the comparative (relative) opportunity costs of reserving different land types for conservation. A general model is developed to demonstrate this and is applied to the case of the orangutan. In the ecological literature, recommendations for reserving different types of land for conservation have been based on comparisons of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Comparative costs; Conservation in situ; Costs of conservation; Environmental policy; Minimum viable populations; Opportunity costs; Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus); Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q01; Q13; Q57; Q58..
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90466
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Comparison at Dairy Farm Level of Different Policies to Decrease Nutrient Losses to Ground and Surface Waters in the Netherlands AgEcon
Berentsen, Paul B.M..
This paper describes and compares two governmental policies that aim to decrease nutrient losses from farming to ground and surface waters in the Netherlands. The mineral bookkeeping system (MINAS) is the first policy. It is applied in the Netherlands since 1998 and it is based on a farm gate balance approach. This national policy was definitely rejected on October 2, 2003 by the EU Court of Justice as it was considered not to comply fully with the EU Nitrate Directive. Consequently, the Netherlands developed the Application Standards Policy (ASP) based on a soil balance approach which will replace MINAS starting 2006. Especially for dairy farming, that combines plant and animal production, nutrient input and output at soil level are hard to determine as...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Dairy farming; Nutrient losses; Environmental policy; Nitrate directive; Cost-effectiveness; Environmental Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24290
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