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Registros recuperados: 18
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Developing Countries and the Multilateral Trading System After Doha AgEcon
Srinivasan, T.N..
The Fourth Session of the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO), held in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001, launched a new round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) and a work programme (WP) for the WTO involving the negotiating agenda and steps for meeting the challenges facing the multilateral trading system. The paper evaluates the WP, in particular, whether it would redress the unfavourable balance between benefits and costs to developing countries DCs of the agreement that concluded the previous (Uruguay) round of MTN. It discusses the failure of the third session in Seattle to launch a new round in December 1999, and also documents the unfavourable balance. While concluding that with adequate preparation, the negotiators could...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: World Trade Organization (WTO); Multilateral trade negotiations; Developing countries; Antidumping; Trade Related Intellectual Property Services (TRIPS); Trade and labour standards; Trade and environment; Preferential trade agreements; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13; F15; F16; F18; O19; O34.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28496
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Do Trading Partners Matter for Labour Market Inequality? The Malaysian Case AgEcon
Devadason, Evelyn.
This study examines the differential impact of major bilateral trade flows on labour market inequality for the period 1983 to 2000. The focus is on the key trading partners of Malaysia, which are the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the United States of America and Japan. The paper finds that the direction of trade or rather the “whom” aspects of trade matter for inequality trends. There are striking differences on the labour market when export destinations are considered relative to import sources. The results suggest that an expansion in exports to countries that are relatively skilled labour abundant causes greater product market competition, thereby increasing the demand for skilled labour vis-a-vis unskilled labour in the domestic...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Bilateral trade flows; Skill inequality; Wage inequality; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; J23; F16.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50161
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Gender Inequality and Trade AgEcon
Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian.
The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rates and educational attainment rates are negatively linked with comparative advantage in labour-intensive commodities.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Gender Inequality; Trade; Comparative Advantage; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; F11; F16; J70; J80.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26218
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Global Fair Trade Innovations: Trends 1999-2011 AgEcon
Marconi, Nicholas G.; DiMarcello, Nicholas, III; Hooker, Neal H..
The global Fair Trade market has experienced substantial growth over the past 13 years, as measured by both share and number of innovations. This has developed into a new worldwide market segment, and has helped improve the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. This report compiles data from Mintel’s Global New Product Database (www.gnpd.com), which records food, beverage, health and beauty products launched throughout the world. The company archives extensive information about each product, permitting users to explore emerging marketing strategies. From 1999 through 2011, GNPD recorded 4,465 Fair Trade innovations. These products were sold in over 40 countries. This paper provides a descriptive and comparative statistical analysis of Fair Trade trends...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Fair Trade; Third party certifiers; Organic; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; F13; F16; F18.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123530
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Hub-and-Spokes Free-Trade-Agreements in the Presence of Technology Spillovers: An Application to the Western Hemisphere AgEcon
Das, Gouranga Gopal; Andriamananjara, Soamiely.
Using a comparative-static general equilibrium model and in the context of the western hemisphere, this paper compares the economic effects of a "hub-and-spokes (HAS)" type of bilateral trade configuration (with Chile being the hub) with those of a more comprehensive regional FTA (namely, the FTAA). The model is augmented to account for the possibility of technology spillovers and its effective assimilation among participating economies. In particular, absorptive capacity, governance factor, proximity and socio-institutional congruence conjointly determine an economy's capacity to capture the technology that is transmitted from developed spoke US to other regions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Hub and spokes; Free trade areas; Technology transfer; Absorption; Governance; Welfare; Preference dilution; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; D58; F16; O4.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15870
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Is There a Link between the Changing Skills of Labor Used in U.S. Processed Food Trade and Rural Employment? AgEcon
Schluter, Gerald E.; Lee, Chinkook.
Between the 1970s and the 1990s, processed food exports switched from using more skilled labor per unit of output than imports to the opposite. Processed food trade also expanded during this period. More meat and poultry products in processed food trade could explain this switch in skill intensity. Growing meat trade paralleled an urban-to-rural shift in meat processing. Although this could have been a win-win situation for rural areas, many of the jobs related to expanded meat trade benefited commuter and migrant workers because late-1990s jobs slaughtering livestock and processing meat did not appeal to domestic rural workers.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Consolidation in the meat industry; Factor content of trade; Input-output analysis; International meat trade; Processed food trade; Rural development; Rural labor demand; Skill intensity; C67; D24; F14; F16; J61; L66; O18; Q17; R15.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43465
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Long-run costs of piecemeal reform: wage inequality and returns to education in Vietnam AgEcon
Phan, Diep; Coxhead, Ian A..
“Shock therapy” transitions in Eastern Europe facilitated movement of skilled workers into privatized industries offering high wage premia relative to state industries. Other transitional economies (notably China and Vietnam) have been slower to relinquish control over key industries and factor markets. Some costs of this piecemeal approach are now becoming apparent. We examine the spillover of continuing capital market distortions into the market for a complementary factor, skilled labor. Using Vietnamese data we find that capital market segmentation creates a two-track market for skills, in which state sector workers earn high salaries while non-state workers face lower demand and lower compensation. Growth is reduced directly by diminished allocative...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Labor; Skills; State-owned; Inequality; Wages; Vietnam; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; J31; P23; F16.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124207
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Policy Shocks and Supply of Mexican Labor to U.S. Farms AgEcon
Boucher, Stephen R.; Taylor, J. Edward.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital; F16; F22; J43; J61.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94465
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Production Effects of Agri-environmental "Green Box" Payments: Empirical Results from the EU AgEcon
Salhofer, Klaus; Streicher, Gerhard.
Agri-environmental programs are part of the green box of the GATT Uruguay Round and are supposed to "have no, or at most minimal trade distorting effects or effects on production." In addition, "the amount of payment shall be limited to the extra costs or loss of income involved in complying with the government programme." Utilizing farm accounting data we estimate the effects on yields for ten agri-environmental programs in Austria, which account for 12% of EU's budget expenditures for agri-environmental programs. Only three out of these ten programs have significant negative effects on yields, while one program has a significant positive impact and the rest has no significant impact. These results suggest that there are serious windfall profits...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-environmental programs; Green box; WTO; Common Agricultural Policy; Decoupling; Environmental Economics and Policy; F16; Q56.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24494
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Production Offshoring and the Skill Composition of Italian Manufacturing Firms: A Counterfactual Analysis AgEcon
Antonietti, Roberto; Antonioli, Davide.
This work explores the effects of cross-border relocation of production on the skill composition of Italian manufacturing firms. Its aim is to assess if the firms’ strategy to offshore production activities towards cheap labor countries determines a bias in the relative employment of skilled versus unskilled workers. Using a balanced panel of firm-based data across the period 1995-2003, we test this skill-bias hypothesis by means of a counterfactual experiment in which we employ a difference-in-differences propensity score matching estimator in order to control for selectivity bias without relying on a specific functional form of the relations of interest. In line with the literature, our results point to confirm a general, although weak, skill bias effect...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Production Offshoring; Skill Bias; Difference-in-Differences; Propensity; Labor and Human Capital; J24; F16; L24.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7436
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Property Rights, Mobile Capital, and Comparative Advantage AgEcon
Karp, Larry S..
Recent papers use sector-specific factor models with mobile labor to show that imperfect property rights can be a source of comparative advantage. In these model, weaker property rights to the specific factor in a sector attract the mobile factor and increase the country's comparative advantage for that sector. If capital in addition to labor is mobile, and if the benefits of capital are non-excludable or if the degree of property rights is endogenous, a deterioration of property rights has ambiguous effects on comparative advantage. The presence of a second mobile factor also makes the relation between the equilibrium wage-rental ratio and the degree of property rights ambiguous.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Imperfect property rights; Comparative advantage; General equilibrium.; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; F02; F16; F18; D23.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25113
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Technology and Human Development AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
Human development, in combination with technology, yields economic growth which, in turn, is necessary to generate further advances in human development. This paper focuses on the first channel above and finds the relationship significant. Secondly, the paper tries to investigate what affects technology change, as represented by TFP. We examine the influence of openness, FDI, patents and R&D in a 22 country sample and also contrast Asian and Latin American experience.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Technology; Human Development; International Development; F00; F16; J24; O10; O15; O30; O31; O32.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118649
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Technology, Trade, and Income Distribution in West Germany: A Factor-Share Analysis, 1976-1994 AgEcon
Ochsen, Carsten; Welsch, Heinz.
This paper examines the determinants of functional income distribution in West Germany. The approach is to estimate a complete system of factor share equations for low-skilled labor, high-skilled labor, capital, energy, and materials, taking account of biased technological progress and increasing trade-orientation. Technological progress is found to reduce the share of low-skilled labor and to raise the share of high-skilled labor. The effect of technology bias on the two labor shares is enhanced by substitution of intermediate inputs for lowskilled labor, which is almost absent in the case of high-skilled labor. Trade-induced changes in the composition of aggregate output tend to mitigate these effects, due to the relatively favorable export performance...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Income shares; Factor substitution; Technological progress; Trade; D33; F16; O30.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37135
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The effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries AgEcon
Dagdemir, Ozcan; Acaroglu, Hakan.
This paper inquires the effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries via cross-country analysis by decomposing globalization to its components; foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade. The findings reveal that the relationship between the child labor supply and gross domestic product per capita (PCGDP) can be expressed as a U shape. The study indicates that the child labor increases in the developing countries whose PCGDP levels are above $7500 since the net effect of globalization is positive for the positive substitution effect is bigger than the negative income effect. Data have been collected from UNICEF and World Bank.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Child labor; Globalization; Trade; FDI; Developing countries.; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; C31; F14; F15; F16; J49.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95959
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The Effects of NAFTA and U.S. Farm Policies on Illegal Immigration and Agricultural Trade AgEcon
Luckstead, Jeff; Devadoss, Stephen; Rodriguez, Abelardo.
We analyze the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and United States farm subsidies on U.S.-Mexican illegal immigration and agricultural trade. The theoretical analysis develops an integrated trade-migration model and shows that NAFTA and U.S. subsidies exacerbate the illegal labor flow and increase U.S. exports. The theoretical analysis is empirically implemented by simultaneous estimation and simulation analysis. The analysis shows that NAFTA increased the number of undocumented workers to U.S. agriculture and U.S. farm exports to Mexico by an average of 1573 and $6.82 billion, respectively. U.S. farm subsidy reduction decreases unauthorized entry marginally and U.S. farm exports by an average of $3.2 billion.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Farm policies; Illegal migration; NAFTA; Trade; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F16; F22.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120457
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Trade and employment linkages in Indonesian Agriculture AgEcon
Vanzetti, David; Oktaviani, Rina.
Trade negotiators are concerned about the possible negative effects of trade liberalisation on employment in specific sectors. The agricultural sector has characteristics that make it different from industrial or service sectors. These are an informal labour force, low productivity, relative absence of regulations and a tie to land. These characteristics help the sector adjust to trade shocks. In this application, a global computable general equilibrium model is used to determine trade shocks that are passed to a single country general equilibrium model to analyse employment and wage effects for four skills levels in Indonesian agriculture. Employment tends to move with output in the primary agricultural sector where capital-labour substitution is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Indonesia; Agriculture; Trade; Employment; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F16; Q17.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100724
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Trade, Standards and Poverty. Evidence from Senegal AgEcon
Maertens, Miet; Swinnen, Johan F.M..
The debate on trade and poverty is reinforced by recent studies on the role of standards. It is argued that increasing standards act as trade barriers for developing countries and cause further marginalization of the poor. This paper is the first to quantify income and poverty effects of such high-standards trade and to integrate labor market effects, by using company and household survey data from the vegetable export chain in Senegal. We find that exports have grown sharply despite increasing standards, resulting in important income gains and poverty reduction. Our estimates indicate that poverty is 14 % points lower due to vegetable exports. Tightening food standards induced a shift from smallholder contract-based farming to large-scale integrated...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade; Poverty; Standards; Vertical coordination; Contract farming; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; F14; F16; I3; Q12; Q13; Q17.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7924
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Who are the Real Gainers of Trade Liberalization in Kenya's Maize Sector? AgEcon
Nzuma, Jonathan M.; Sarker, Rakhal.
In Kenya, trade policy reforms in the cereals sector were initiated as a key component of the economy-wide structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) during the mid 1980s. The SAPs were later strengthened and made irreversible by Kenya’s commitments at the multilateral trade negotiations. However, the welfare effects of these trade policy reforms remain controversial. This paper to quantifies the market and welfare impacts of trade liberalization in Kenya’s maize sector using a partial equilibrium model with market interrelationships at the farm, wholesale and retail levels. The model is calibrated to simulate a 24 percent reduction in maize import tariffs and a complete abolition of tariffs. The simulations results suggest that tariff reductions yield price...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Trade liberalization; Maize; Partial equilibrium analysis; Welfare effects; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade; F14; F16; I32; C68; O24; Q12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95972
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