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Registros recuperados: 36
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A multi-regional general equilibrium model to assess policy effects at regional level AgEcon
Lovo, Stefania; Magnani, Riccardo; Perali, Carlo Federico.
In this paper we develop a multi-regional general equilibrium model (MEG-R) to compare the social desirability of the CAP reform in the three Italian macro-regions: North, Center and South. The model employs a mixed complementary framework that allows for the decision of not producing a particular crop in one or more regions and presents an attempt to model interregional trade flows. The model incorporates the links between production and consumption that characterize farm household’s behavior and allows for heterogeneous household responses across regions. Results show a general tendency to reallocations from cereal crops to forage that appear more severe in the South. In this region, the reduction in crops cannot be translated into an effective expansion...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Multi regional general equilibrium model; Farm households; Interregional trade.; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95059
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A multi-regional general equilibrium model to assess policy effects at regional level AgEcon
Lovo, Stefania; Magnani, Riccardo; Perali, Carlo Federico.
This paper develops a multi-regional general equilibrium model (MEG-R) to compare the social desirability of the CAP reform in the three Italian macro-regions: North, Center and South. The model employs a mixed complementary framework that allows for the decision of not producing a particular crop in one or more regions and presents an attempt to model interregional trade flows. The model incorporates the links between production and consumption that characterize farm household’s behavior and allows for heterogeneous household responses across regions. Results show a general tendency to reallocations from cereal crops to forage that appear more severe in the South. In this region, the reduction in crops cannot be translated into an effective expansion of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Multi-regional general equilibrium model; Farm households; Interregional trade; Agricultural and Food Policy; C68; R13; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98996
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AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT AND THE DIVERSIFICATION OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN CENTRAL EUROPE AgEcon
Chaplin, Hannah; Davidova, Sophia; Gorton, Matthew.
Survey evidence from three Central European Countries (Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland) is analysed to identify the degree of non-agricultural farm diversification and the factors facilitating or impeding it in individual farms. The effect of diversification on rural job creation is investigated. The results indicate that the level of diversification is relatively small and enterprise diversification by farmers is unlikely to generate sufficient new jobs and solve the problem of high rural unemployment. The attempt to transpose the Western European model of agricultural diversification to the acceding countries via the SAPARD programme is questionable, as non-farm centric rural policies appear to be more appropriate.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm households; Non-agricultural diversification; Job creation; Central Europe; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25843
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Agricultural Household-Firm Units: Adjustments to Change AgEcon
Findeis, Jill L.; Swaminathan, Hema; Jayaraman, Anuja.
This paper assesses agricultural household-firm unit models to determine a useful typology for agricultural policy assessment that draws upon their use. Both standard and bargaining models for analyzing household decisions, including production, consumption, labor, credit, fertility and child schooling, intergenerational transfer, among other key behaviors of households are discussed, as well as data and estimation issues often encountered with household models. Relevant dimensions of a country or region typology are then suggested, focusing on (1) the extent to which markets, particularly labor markets, are perfect, missing or mixed; (2) relevant intra-household and key demographic considerations; and (3) the differentiation of particular household-firm...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural households; Farm households; Labor; Labor adjustments; Off-farm employment; Consumer/Household Economics; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15738
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An Empirical Analysis of Internet Use by U.S. Farmers AgEcon
Mishra, Ashok K.; Park, Timothy A..
The Internet may reduce constraints on a farmer’s ability to receive and manage information, regardless of where the farm is located or when the information is used. Using a count data estimation procedure, this study attempts to examine the key farm, operator, regional, and household characteristics that influence the number of Internet applications used by farm households. Findings indicate that educational level of the farm operator, farm size, farm diversification, off-farm income, off-farm investments, and regional location of the farm have a significant impact on the number of Internet applications used.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Computers; Count data method; Education; Farm households; Internet applications; Farm Management.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10234
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Conservation-Compatible Practices and Programs: Who Participates? AgEcon
Lambert, Dayton M.; Sullivan, Patrick; Claassen, Roger; Foreman, Linda F..
In recent years, the Federal Government has increased its emphasis on conservation programs that reward good stewardship on working farmland. This report examines the business, operator, and household characteristics of farms that have adopted certain conservation-compatible practices, with and without financial assistance from government conservation programs. The analysis finds that characteristics of the farm operator and household, in addition to the characteristics of the farm business, are associated with both the likelihood that a farmer will adopt certain conservation-compatible practices and the degree to which the farmer participates in different types of conservation programs. For example, operators of small farm operations and operators not...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Conservation programs; Conservation-compatible management practices; Conservation structures; Farm households; Conservation Reserve Program; Environmental Quality Incentives Program; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7255
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Croatia's EU accession: socio-economic assessment of farm households and policy recommendations AgEcon
Mollers, Judith; Zier, Patrick; Frohberg, Klaus; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Bojnec, Stefan.
Croatia is very close to meeting the requirements necessary for becoming a member of the European Union (EU). On February 6, 2008, the European Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn said that accession negotiations with Croatia are moving ahead well. As in all new member states (NMS), the agricultural sector and food processing chain are core issues within the negotiation process. Successful negotiation requires intimate knowledge of the issue at hand, including the socio-economic situation and the fears and strategies of the stakeholders, particularly small-scale farmers. This report attempts to close some of these knowledge gaps by reviewing Croatia’s rural development dynamics and farm structures, as well as agricultural and rural policies. Based on an...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Croatia; Rural development; EU accession; Slovenia; Farm households; Competitiveness; Agricultural policy; CAP; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; O18; O13; O12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53665
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Decomposition of Variability in Farm Household Assets and Debt AgEcon
Mishra, Ashok K.; El-Osta, Hisham S..
Farm families often hold large quantities of wealth and, like any other family, assess their financial progress by reviewing their net worth (or wealth) position periodically. Wealth has an impact on many decisions such as production, retirement, and succession of the farm. Households, in general, seek stability growth in wealth and, ideally, income as well. In the case of wealth, farm households will be better equipped to handle variability once the contributing sources are identified. This study measures how much of the variability in farm household assets and debt is attributed to the variability in farm and nonfarm sources of assets and farm and nonfarm sources of debt. Using a normalized variance decomposition approach and data from the Agricultural...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Assets; Debt; Farm households; Variability; Variance decomposition; Farm Management; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59682
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Determinants and Welfare Impacts of Export Crop Cultivation - Empirical Evidence from Ghana AgEcon
Kuhlgatz, Christian; Abdulai, Awudu.
This paper investigates the determinants of farm households‟ participation in export cropping and the impact of export cropping on household welfare, using cross-sectional data obtained from the Ghanaian living standards survey 2005-6. Given the problem of selectivity bias that arise when households self-select into export cropping, we employ the full information maximum likelihood approach to analyze the participation decision, and generalized propensity matching approach to examine the welfare impacts of participation. The empirical results indicate that farmers facing lower transport costs and having better access to credit facilities are more likely to participate in export cropping. Estimates of the welfare impacts of export cropping generally reveal...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Export crops; Farm households; Household welfare; Poverty; Generalized propensity score; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114692
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Determinants of Farm Household Income Diversification in the United States: Evidence from Farm-Level Data AgEcon
Mishra, Ashok K.; Erickson, Kenneth W.; Harris, James Michael; Hallahan, Charles B.; Uematsu, Hiroki.
This study examines the determinants of income diversification of farm households in the United States. Farm households allocate their time between farm and off-farm activities to help stabilized household income (consumption). What characterizes those households who engage in off-farm activities? Is there any pattern over time? Using 1999, 2003 and 2007 farm-level data from the USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), this study estimates intensity of off-farm income (or income diversification). The results show that older operators, full owners, and small farms have higher intensity of off-farm income in total household income. In contrast, dairy farms, vertically coordinated farms and farms located in the Southern and Pacific regions have...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Tobit; Income diversification; Vertical integration; Tenure; Farm households; Agricultural Finance; Consumer/Household Economics; D1; J2; Q12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61632
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Does Agriculture Help Poverty and Inequality Reduction? Evidence from Vietnam AgEcon
Viet Cuong, Nguyen.
This paper measures impacts of production of crops, forestry, livestock and aquaculture on household welfare, poverty and inequality in rural Vietnam using fixed-effects regressions. Data used in this paper are from Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys 2002 and 2004. It is found that impact estimates of the production of crops and forestry on per capita income and consumption expenditure are not statistically significant. Impact estimates of the livestock production are positive and statistically significant for per capita income, but not statistically significant for per capita expenditure. However, the aquacultural production has positive and statistically significant impacts on both income and expenditure. As a result, the aquacultural production...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Farm households; Welfare; Poverty; Inequality; Vietnam; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; I32; Q12; O13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118576
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DOES NON-FARM INCOME DIVERSIFICATION IN NORTHERN ALBANIA OFFER AN ESCAPE FROM RURAL POVERTY? AgEcon
Meyer, Wiebke; Mollers, Judith; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
The paper uses up-to-date household data from two Northern-Albanian regions. It summarises socio-economic facts on taking up remunerative non-farm employment and identifies the determinants of non-farm income diversification at the farm household level based on a binary logistic regression. Furthermore, the paper provides insight in the northern-Albanian farming structure, migration patterns, attitudes towards and reasons for income diversification into the non-farm sector. Income diversification indeed has a positive impact on the welfare of the households: A statistically significant increasing trend in incomes with rising diversification level was observed.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Non-farm income diversification; Farm households; Migration; Albania; Ausserlandwirtschaftliche Einkommensdiversifizierung; Landwirtschaftliche Haushalte; Migration; Albanien; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use; Q12; R23; F22; P36.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91912
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Dynamics of income, wealth and capital in Norwegian farm household accounts: A state-space model AgEcon
Hoveid, Oyvind; Raknerud, A..
Feedbacks between on-farm and off-farm activities are analyzed with a state-space model over a panel of farm household accounts. We discover significant positive effects of farm capital both on farm income and on wage labor income. The latter effect is interpreted as wage labor partly paying the debt incurred by investments in farm capital. Significant positive effects on farm capital from wealth - indicating credit rationing or an immediate willingness to pay for farm investments - are also discovered. The wealth effect on farm income is also significantly positive. By and large - at least for the household for which the results are estimated, and for the model applied - Fishers separation theorem is rejected.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm households; Finance; Investment; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44461
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Economic Well-Being of Farm Households AgEcon
Jones, Carol Adaire; El-Osta, Hisham S.; Green, Robert C..
Farm subsidy programs were introduced in the 1930s largely due to concern for chronically low, and highly variable, incomes of US farm households. Today commodity-based support programs are still prominent, though income and wealth of the average farm household now exceed that of the average nonfarm households - by a large margin. Farm income continues to be highly variable, but the small set of farm households most at risk for income variability - because farm income represents more than one-third of household income - are those operating large farms. And they have substantial net worth, which cushions uncertain farm income.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Farm households; Household income; Household wealth; Household net worth; Living expenses; Joint income-wealth indicator; Economic well-being; Financial well-being; Off-farm employment; Income variability; ERS; USDA; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34095
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Effects of Changes to Farm Program Payment Policies on the Distribution of Payments and Income Inequality of Farm Households AgEcon
Durst, Ron L.; El-Osta, Hisham S..
In recent years, increasing attention has focused on the distribution of government payments, especially the share of payments that go to large farms and high-income farm households. Farm commodity program payment limits were first introduced in the Agricultural Act of 1970. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 for the first time supplemented program payment limits with a cap on the income farmers could earn and still receive farm program payments. The 2008 Farm Act tightened payment limitations on some producers and replaced the total adjusted gross income (AGI) limit with separate lower caps for the farm and nonfarm components of AGI. This research uses data from the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), a survey of farm...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Program payments; Farm households; Income; Inequality; Payment limits; Adjusted gross income; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60993
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Effects of Reducing the Income Cap on Eligibility for Farm Program Payments AgEcon
Durst, Ron L..
The current $2.5-million income cap on eligibility for farm program payments affects only a small number of farm program payment recipients each year. A reduction in the cap to $200,000 would affect a larger number of farm households but still only a small share of recipients. Based on IRS tax data for 2004, about 1.2 percent of all farm sole proprietors and about 2 percent of crop share landlords would be potentially subject to the proposed lower adjusted gross income (AGI) cap. ARMS survey data suggest a similar share of farm sole proprietors (1.1 percent) could be affected. When partnerships and farm corporations are included, about 1.5 percent of all farm operator households could be affected because a larger share of farm partnerships (2.5 percent)...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Farm program payments; Adjusted gross income; Farm typology; Tax data; AGI cap; Farm households; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59027
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Farm Household Well-Being: Comparing Consumption- and Income-Based Measures AgEcon
Jones, Carol Adaire; Milkove, Daniel; Paszkiewicz, Laura.
Household economic well-being can be gauged by the financial resources (income/ wealth) available to the household or by the standard of living enjoyed by household members (consumption). Based on responses to USDA’s annual Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), a joint effort by the Economic Research Service (ERS) and the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, ERS has long published estimates of farm household income and wealth. This report presents, for the first time, estimates of consumption-based measures of well-being for farm households based on new questions in ARMS. The consumption measure provides a different perspective from income or wealth on farm households’ well-being relative to that of all U.S. households.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Household consumption; Household income; Household well-being measures; Farm households; Self-employed households; Permanent income; Permanent income hypothesis.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58299
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FARMERS’ SURVIVAL STRATEGIES IN THE NORTH OF SCOTLAND AgEcon
Bergmann, Holger; Thomson, Kenneth J..
Small and medium-sized farms all over Europe guarantee their survival by a broad range of strategies and different income sources. In remoter areas of highly developed countries such as the UK, such strategies may be expected to have their own characteristics, both legislative and socio-economic. This paper reports results from a socio-economic survey carried out among 40 Scottish agricultural households in the Caithness and Sutherland region of the North of Scotland, focussing specifically on the diversification strategies of (larger) farms and (smaller) crofts related to the multifunctionality of agriculture. After analysing the land, labour and capital use of farm/croft households in the region, the paper analyses why farms/crofts in this remote area...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm households; Scottish Highlands; Income sources; Diversification; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Q12; Q15; R20; R10.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52832
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Financial Management and Portfolio Analysis for U.S. Farm and Nonfarm Households AgEcon
Katchova, Ani L..
This study examines the portfolio allocation of assets for farm and nonfarm households using the Agricultural Resource Management Survey and the Survey of Consumer Finances. The stylized facts of household finance, including limited participation in equity markets and heterogeneity of asset portfolios, are also confirmed for farm households. However, farm households show fewer differences in participation rates and asset allocation across wealth groups. Probit and conditional regression models indicate that fewer demographic factors affect participation rates and portfolio shares of risky assets for farm than nonfarm households. The aggregate statistics seem overwhelmingly influenced by households with large holdings of risky assets as shown by quantile...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Farm households; Financial management; Nonfarm households; Portfolio analysis; Quantile regression; Agricultural Finance; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48143
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Has the "Farm Problem" Disappeared? A Comparison of Household and Self-Employment Income Levels of the Farm and Nonfarm Self-Employed AgEcon
Peake, Whitney O.; Marshall, Maria I..
This study tests the impact of household and demographic factors on the economic well-being of the farm and nonfarm self-employed using data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Parametric and nonparametric techniques are used to test for statistical differences in self-employment and household income levels. Further, household and demographic factors are tested for their effect on self-employment income using a censored tobit regression model. The farm self-employed report significantly higher levels of self-employment income. Results reveal that several household and demographic factors significantly impact self-employment income levels for the farm and nonfarm self-employed, with key differences in impacts.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Self-employment; Farm households; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46304
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