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Registros recuperados: 19
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A Note on the Appropriate Measure of Tax Burden on Foreign Direct Investment to the CEECs AgEcon
Bellak, Christian; Leibrecht, Markus; Romisch, Roman.
In this note we show that tax-rate elasticities of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) to Central and East European Countries (CEECs) derived from statutory corporate income tax rates (STRs) are likely to be flawed. From a conceptual point of view STRs are problematic as they neither capture tax base effects, nor effects of the home country, the international or the supranational tax laws on the corporate tax burden. Concerning FDI, from an empirical point of view STRs are questionable as their behavior over time and between country-pairs may be very different from that of the conceptually superior bilateral corporate effective average tax rates (BCEATRs). We compare the variability of STRs and BCEATRs of seven major home countries of FDI in eight major CEEC...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corporate income taxation; Effective tax rate; Foreign Direct Investment; Multinational Enterprises; Financial Economics; F2; H00; H25.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26365
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Aid, Governance, and Private Foreign Investment: Some Puzzling Findings and a Possible Explanation AgEcon
Harms, Philipp; Lutz, Matthias.
Does official aid pave the road for private foreign investment or does it suffocate private initiative by diverting resources towards unproductive activities? In this paper we explore this question using data for a large number of developing and emerging economies. Controlling for countries' institutional environment, we find that, evaluated at the mean, the marginal effect of aid on private foreign investment is close to zero. Surprisingly, however, the effect is strictly positive for countries in which private agents face a substantial regulatory burden. After testing the robustness of this result, we offer a theoretical model that is able to rationalize our puzzling observation.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Aid; Foreign Direct Investment; Institutions; International Relations/Trade; F35; F21; O16; O19.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26128
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Analysing major determinants of European FDI into the Mediterranean countries AgEcon
Weissleder, Lucie M.; Heckelei, Thomas.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) is known as a very relevant driver of economic growth and has found increased attention in recent trade research. Existing theories differ, however, in their conclusion regarding the relation between trade in goods and FDI: they appear to be either complements or substitutes depending on the theory applied and specific country conditions. Benefits or losses for individual member countries resulting from these different relationships are relevant for evaluating the effects of regional trade areas as established by the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. This paper offers an empirical analysis of the connection between trade and FDI flows in the agribusiness sector in the context of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership. It...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Foreign Direct Investment; Trade; EU-Med Partnership; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44053
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Do Japanese Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Stimulate Agricultural Growth in East Asia? Panel Cointegration Analysis AgEcon
Sattapon, Weerapong.
The agricultural sector is an important sector that most people in East Asia rely on and growth in this sector may help to lift their standard of living. This study assessed what factors contributed to agricultural growth by applying the panel econometric approach. First, the long-run relationship between the agriculture growth and its explanatory variable was investigated by applying the IPS unit root test and Pedroni panel cointegration test. The results indicated that all variables showed an integration of order unity, and showed strong evidence to support the existence of long-run relationship. The results from Fixed Effect (FE) regression indicated that imports, exports and trade liberalization were the important factors that contributed to growth in...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural growth; East Asia; Foreign Direct Investment; Trade; Panel Data; International Relations/Trade; O4; Q17; R0.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25570
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Do Transnational Corporations Care About Labour Standards? AgEcon
Busse, Matthias.
This paper explores the relationship between foreign direct investment, or the activities of transnational corporations, and core labour standards. It discusses the channels through which labour standards may influence foreign direct investment and presents the results of an empirical test of that linkage. The results show that, contrary to the conventional wisdom that transnational corporations engage predominately in countries with low standards, higher labour standards are positively associated with foreign direct investment inflows. Concerns about "social dumping" or "a race to the bottom" on such standards appear to be mistaken. This result even holds for poor developing countries. Die Beziehung zwischen ausländischen Direktinvestitionen, das heißt...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Transnational Corporations; Foreign Direct Investment; Labour Standards; Cross-Country Regression Framework; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; F23; O19.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26298
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German FDI and Integration of Production in the EU AgEcon
Jungnickel, Rolf; Keller, Dietmar.
In this paper, we investigate internationalization strategies of German manufacturing firms in the European Union. We give reasons for the hypothesis that traditional market strategies had been replaced by border-crossing production networking based on the comparative advantage of host countries and on specialisation and scale economies. Our empirical test of this hypothesis shows, on the one hand, that traditional market strategies are not outdated. On the other hand, there are clear signs of international network strategies. They form an important component in internationalization strategies of multinationals in the Internal Market. The location of foreign production of German multinationals is, among others, oriented towards the technological potential...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Foreign Direct Investment; European Integration; Internationalization strategies; International Relations/Trade; F150; F210; F230.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26376
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Glocalisation, Foreign Direct Investment and Regional Development Perspectives: Empirical Results for West German Regions AgEcon
Knodler, Hermann; Albertshauser, Ulrich.
The present paper examines the economic development perspectives of the manufacturing sector of 31 major West German regions in the process of globalisation. Public statistics do not provide FDI data on a regional basis. Therefore our study was based on indicators based on the data from the INDAT-file which gives information about some 6,500 West German manufacturing firms in 1986, 1990 and 1996. The paper draws a stylised picture of the regional structure of West German FDI involvement in the manufacturing sector. The present participation in glocalisation benefits and the mid term development perspectives showed that Hamburg, Darmstadt and Oberbayern belong to the winners of glocalisation. In order to evaluate the long term development perspectives of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regional Development; Agglomeration; Glocalisation; Manufacturing; Foreign Direct Investment; F23; O18; R11; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26402
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International Dairy Notes, January 2008 AgEcon
Dobson, William D..
Exporting and Foreign Direct Investment Strategies: Top Five U.S. Dairy Companies
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: U.S. Dairy Firms; U.S. Dairy Exports; Foreign Direct Investment; Business Strategies; Agribusiness; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37681
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Location Choices of Multinational Firms: The Case of Mergers and Acquisitions AgEcon
Bertrand, Olivier; Mucchielli, Jean-Louis; Zitouna, Habib.
This article examines the location choices of cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) between OECD members´ firms in the 1990`s. In addition to traditional determinants of FDI, we estimate the impact of specific factors affecting the M&A location pattern. Two distinct econometric methods are implemented: the conditional logit and the count model (Poisson or negative binomial model). In spite of the use of alternative econometric methods, we find that the supply of target firms (captured by market capitalization and privatization activity) constrains the location of M&A. However, is it not the only determinant of location: market size, labor costs, market access and financial openness play a positive and significant role on the M&A...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Foreign Direct Investment; Merger and Acquisition; Location; Conditional logit; Count model; Industrial Organization; International Relations/Trade; F23; L1; R3.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26170
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Multinational Activity in a Macroeconomic Model of the Small Open Economy AgEcon
Otto, Alkis Henri.
We study the effects of FDI and increasing multinational activity utilizing a macroeconomic two-sector model of the small open economy with flexible exchange rates and perfect capital mobility. The focus is on horizontal greenfield investment and its impact on production, exchange rates, trade, and welfare. In the host country, an increase in multinational activity harms the established industries. Nevertheless it increases welfare. In the home country, an increase in multinational activity lowers domestic output of the established industries too and, thereby, decreases welfare.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Foreign Direct Investment; Multinational activity; Welfare effects; Macroeconomic effects; International Relations/Trade; F21; F41.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26242
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Option Value, Policy Uncertainty, and the Foreign Direct Investment Decision AgEcon
Chen, Yu-Fu; Funke, Michael.
In this paper we analyse the impact of policy uncertainty on foreign direct investment strategies. The paper follows the real options approach, which allows to investigate the value to a firm of waiting to invest and/or disinvest, when payoffs are stochastic due to political uncertainty and investments are partially reversible. Across the board we find that political uncertainty can be very detrimental to FDI decisions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Real options; Investment; Foreign Direct Investment; Political Uncertainty; International Relations/Trade; D81; D92; E22; F21.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26373
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Profit Sharing under the Threat of Nationalization AgEcon
Di Corato, Luca.
A multinational corporation engages in foreign direct investment for the extraction of a natural resource in a developing country. The corporation bears the initial investment and earns as a return a share of the profits. The host country provides access and guarantees conditions of operation. Since the investment is totally sunk, the corporation must account in its plan not only for uncertainty in market conditions but also for the threat of nationalization. In a real options framework, where the government holds an American call option on nationalization, we show under which conditions a Nash bargaining leads to a profit distribution maximizing the joint venture surplus. We find that the threat of nationalization does not affect the investment threshold...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Real Options; Nash Bargaining; Expropriation; Natural Resources; Foreign Direct Investment; International Relations/Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C7; D8; K3; F2; O1.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58292
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Profit Sharing under the Threat of Nationalization AgEcon
Di Corato, Luca.
A government bargains a mutually convenient agreement with a multinational corporation to extract a natural resource. The corporation bears the initial investment and earns as a return a share on the profits. The host country provides access and guarantee conditions of operation. Being the investment totally sunk, the corporation must account in its plan not only for uncertainty on market conditions but also for the threat of nationalization. In a real options framework where the government holds an American call option on nationalization we show under which conditions a Nash bargaining is feasible and leads to attain a cooperative agreement maximizing the joint venture surplus. We find that the threat of nationalization does not affect the investment time...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Real Options; Nash Bargaining; Expropriation; Natural Resources; Foreign Direct Investment; Financial Economics; C7; D8; K3; F2; O1.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59378
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The Geography and Channels of Diffusion at the World's Technology Frontier AgEcon
Keller, Wolfgang.
Convergence in per capita income turns on whether technological knowledge spillovers are global or local. Global spillovers favor convergence, while a geographically limited scope of knowledge diffusion can lead to regional clusters of countries with persistently different levels of income per capita. This paper estimates the importance of geographic distance for technology diffusion, how this changed over time, and whether international trade, foreign direct investment, and communication flows serve as important channels of diffusion. The analysis is based on examining the productivity effects of R&D expenditures in the world's seven major industrialized countries between 1970 and 1995. First, I find that the scope of technology diffusion is severely...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Convergence; Divergence; Economic Geography; Total Factor Productivity; Technology Diffusion; International Trade; Foreign Direct Investment; Communication; Spillovers; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; 03; F2.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26140
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The Impact of Unilateral Climate Policy with Endogenous Plant Location and Market Size Asymmetry AgEcon
Sanna-Randaccio, Francesca; Sestini, Roberta.
This paper analyses the impact of unilateral climate policy on firms’ international location strategies in emission-intensive sectors, when countries differ in terms of market size. The cases of partial and total relocation via foreign direct investment are separately considered. A simple international duopoly model highlights the differences between short-term and long-term effects. In the short-term no change in location is a likely outcome in very capital-intensive sectors, and when there is a strategy shift this takes the form of partial instead of total relocation. In the long-run total relocation becomes a feasible outcome. However we found that, when tighter mitigation measures are introduced by the larger country and unit transport cost is high,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Foreign Direct Investment; Carbon Leakage; Climate Policy; Relocation; Transport Costs; Welfare; Environmental Economics and Policy; F12; F23; Q58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94789
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Trade and Investment Effects of Forced Labour: An Empirical Assessment AgEcon
Busse, Matthias; Braun, Sebastian.
This paper explores the international economic effects of forced labour, namely the linkages of forced labour with comparative advantage (trade) and foreign direct investment flows. It discusses several forms and the prevalence of forced labour and presents the results of empirical tests of those linkages. The results show that forced labour may enhance the endowment of unskilled labour. It can thus be expected to improve comparative advantage in unskilled-labour-intensive goods, that is, commodities where the impact of forced labour is likely to be felt most strongly. In contrast, foreign direct investment is negatively linked with forced labour. This result even holds for relatively poor developing countries. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG In dem vorliegenden Beitrag...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Forced Labour; Trade; Foreign Direct Investment; Cross-Country Regression Framework; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; F14; F23; O19.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26231
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Understanding Foreign Direct Investment in the Southern African Development Community: An Analysis Based on Project-Level Data AgEcon
Mhlanga, Nomathemba; Blalock, Garrick; Christy, Ralph D..
This paper uses a uniquely rich project-level dataset to analyze determinants and trends of FDI flows to the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. We control for the source of the investment, the sector in which the investment is undertaken, and the investment type in addition to project size. The results indicate market size to have a positive impact on FDI flows under all specifications- a result consistent with earlier studies. Other variables are unstable depending on specification and the subset of the data used. Furthermore, we find no significant differences in factors that drive FDI flows by source country, while greenfield investments are seen to respond more to the growth potential of the market relative to other forms of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Foreign Direct Investment; Determinants; Africa; International Development; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; F23; O55.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51632
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What Gravity Models Can Tell Us about the Position of German FDI in Central and Eastern Europe AgEcon
Borrmann, Christine; Jungnickel, Rolf; Keller, Dietmar.
The tradition of gravity models is in the analysis of trade flows with market size and geographic or economic distance as core variables. Both these variables can be important determinants of FDI, too. However, when such models are used to explain FDI, there can be differences in the mode of operation of these variables so that the interpretation can become uncertain. Market size can reach beyond the host country and distance can be an incentive as well as an impediment to FDI. In the present paper, we use gravity-type models in order to assess the level of German FDI in CEE countries, distinguishing between the four nearby core countries and the other six EU accession countries. Estimates are done both on the basis of an in-sample as well as an...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Foreign Direct Investment; Gravity Model; Transformation Countries; International Relations/Trade; F200; F230.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26386
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When Will U.S. Firms Become Major Dairy Exporters and Bigger Direct Investors in Foreign Dairy-Food Businesses? AgEcon
Dobson, William D.; Wagner, Jeffrey; Hintz, Rodney.
The prospects for substantially expanded dairy exports by U.S. firms are not bright for at least the current decade. The exceptions relate to exports of dried whey, whey fractions, dairy blends, selected specialty dairy products and nonfat dry milk. U.S. dairy exports are likely to continue to be low because U.S. prices for bulk dairy products are sharply higher than world prices. Unlike the situation for dairy exporting, the barriers to foreign direct investment by U.S. firms appear less daunting. The prevalence of successful foreign direct investments by the foreign firms described here suggests that a larger number of U.S. firms could engage in such investments successfully.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: U.S. Dairy Exports; Foreign Direct Investment; U.S. Dairy Firms; Demand and Price Analysis; Industrial Organization; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37658
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