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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH: BENEFITS AND BENEFICIARIES OF ALTERNATIVE FUNDING MECHANISM AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E.; Just, Richard E..
The United States has developed a very successful R&D system for agriculture. It is a system with shared cost/financing and performance by the federal and state governments and by the private sector. The paper presents an economic analysis of alternative organization, management, incentive, and funding mechanisms for agricultural research under budget constraints, including some emphasis on the kinds of benefits that are generated and the groups that receive them. We conclude that the private sector should be permitted to carry out research that it finds profitable to undertake with minimal competition from the public sector. The public research institutions should focus on general and pretechnology science programs that complement private R&D...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research; R&D; Funding; Innovations; Science; Agriculture; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18259
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Análisis de una tasa impositiva en refrescos para financiar el gasto en el tratamiento de diabetes mellitus en México. Colegio de Postgraduados
Aguilar Estrada, Alma Esther.
La diabetes mellitus es la primera causa de muerte en personas en edad productiva en México y la tendencia indica que el gasto para el tratamiento de esta enfermedad casi se duplicará en los próximos veinte años. Las familias destinan en promedio el 2.3% de sus gastos al rubro de salud y entre el 7.5 y 12% de sus ingresos al consumo de refresco, que es el producto con aporte nutricional nulo de mayor consumo en México, y un factor determinante de obesidad y diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Como alternativa para financiar los gastos generados por la diabetes, se propone un impuesto de asignación específica al refresco. Con datos de la ENSANUT 2006, se encontró que a partir del gasto estimado en el tratamiento de diabetes y el gasto generado por el consumo de...
Palavras-chave: Financiamiento; Gasto en salud; Impuesto de asignación específica; Consumo; Diabetes mellitus; Funding; Health expenditure; Earmarked taxes; Consumption; Maestría; Economía.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/446
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Análisis de una tasa impositiva en refrescos para financiar el gasto en el tratamiento de diabetes mellitus en México. Colegio de Postgraduados
Aguilar Estrada, Alma Esther.
La diabetes mellitus es la primera causa de muerte en personas en edad productiva en México y la tendencia indica que el gasto para el tratamiento de esta enfermedad casi se duplicará en los próximos veinte años. Las familias destinan en promedio el 2.3% de sus gastos al rubro de salud y entre el 7.5 y 12% de sus ingresos al consumo de refresco, que es el producto con aporte nutricional nulo de mayor consumo en México, y un factor determinante de obesidad y diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Como alternativa para financiar los gastos generados por la diabetes, se propone un impuesto de asignación específica al refresco. Con datos de la ENSANUT 2006, se encontró que a partir del gasto estimado en el tratamiento de diabetes y el gasto generado por el consumo de...
Palavras-chave: Financiamiento; Gasto en salud; Impuesto de asignación específica; Consumo; Diabetes mellitus; Funding; Health expenditure; Earmarked taxes; Consumption; Maestría; Economía.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/446
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ANALYSIS OF IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT POST FAST TRACK LAND REFORM PROGRAMME. A CASE STUDY OF GOROMONZI DISTRICT, MASHONALAND EAST PROVINCE, ZIMBABWE AgEcon
Nhundu, K.; Mushunje, Abbyssinia.
Irrigation development is a gateway to increased agricultural, water and land productivity, increased household and national food security. However, irrigation development has been a major challenge in many developing countries, including Zimbabwe. The launch of the Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) in 2003 ushered in new unskilled cadres and this was followed by a reduction in area developed for irrigation from 200,000ha to approximately 120,000ha. This was due to thefts, dilapidation, and vandalism of irrigation infrastructure. The government made efforts to develop and bring back the 200,000ha into operational, but little has been achieved. To assess irrigation development post FTLRP, a case study was done in Goromonzi District. Using a Trend...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Irrigation; Irrigation development; Funding; Productivity; Cost recovery; Viable; FTLRP; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97065
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Contribution de la recherche à l'amélioration des moyens d'existence durables des communautés de pêche artisanale: étude de cas du Sénégal OceanDocs
Moustapha, Déme; Ibrahima, Seck; Diébel, Sarr; Moustapha, Thiam; Karim, Dahou; Mamadou Diop, Thioune; Aliou, Sall.
Jusqu'à une période récente, le choix et l'exécution des thèmes de recherche se faisaient sans aucune concertation ni coordination avec l'administration, les professionnels et les ONG. Le processus actuel tient davantage compte de l'ensemble des acteurs de la pêche, mais si les professionnels sont consultés lors de l'élaboration de mesures, leur participation se réduit souvent à une simple validation, sans qu'ils puissent intervenir dans l'exécution proprement dite. Ce projet vise à mieux rendre compte des capacités et programmes de recherche du point de vue des politiques nationales relatives à la pêche. Le rapport suivant synthétise quatre notes sur les conditions de vie des groupes évoluant dans la pêche artisanale, la fourniture de services de...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Fishery research; Funding; Artisanal fishing; Trade; Fisheries management; Cephalopod fisheries.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/4581
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Effects of Brazil's political crisis on the science needed for biodiversity conservation. Repositório Alice
MAGNUSSON, W. E.; GRELLE, C. E. V.; MARQUES, M. C. M.; ROCHA, C. F. D.; DIAS, B.; FONTANA, C. S.; BERGALLO, H.; OVERBECK, G. E.; VALE, M. M.; TOMAS, W. M.; CERQUEIRA, R.; COLLEVATTI, R.; PILLAR, V. D.; MALABARBA, L. R.; LINS-E-SILVA, A. C.; NECKEL-OLIVEIRA, S.; MARTINELLI, B.; AKAMA, A.; RODRIGUES, D.; SILVEIRA, L. F.; SCARIOT, A. O.; FERNANDES, G. W..
The effects of Brazil's political crisis on science funding necessary for biodiversity conservation are likely to be global. Brazil is not only the world?s most biodiverse nation, it is responsible for the greater part of the Amazon forest, which regulates the climate and provides rain to much of southern South America. Brazil was a world leader in satellite monitoring of land-use change, in-situ biodiversity monitoring, reduction in tropical-forest deforestation, protection of indigenous lands, and a model for other developing nations. Coordinated public responses will be necessary to prevent special-interest groups from using the political crisis to weaken science funding, environmental legislation and law enforcement.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Financiamento; Pesquisa; Biodiversidade; Funding; Biodiversity; Research.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1100242
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Effects of Brazil's political crisis on the science needed for biodiversity conservation. Repositório Alice
MAGNUSSON, W. E.; GRELLE, C. E. V.; MARQUES, M. C. M.; ROCHA, C. F. D.; DIAS, B.; FONTANA, C. S.; BERGALLO, H.; OVERBECK, G. E.; VALE, M. M.; TOMAS, W. M.; CERQUEIRA, R.; COLLEVATTI, R.; PILLAR, V. D.; MALABARBA, L. R.; LINS-E-SILVA, A. C.; NECKEL-OLIVEIRA, S.; MARTINELLI, B.; AKAMA, A.; RODRIGUES, D.; SILVEIRA, L. F.; SCARIOT, A. O.; FERNANDES, G. W..
bitstream/item/187902/1/fevo-06-00163.pdf
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Brazil; Biodiversity; Climate change; Governance; Funding.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1100878
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Farmers’ satisfaction with Agricultural Credit: The case of Greece AgEcon
Aggelopoulos, Stamatis; Mamalis, Spyridon; Soutsas, Konstadinos.
The existence of an appropriate institutional framework pertaining to the financial system in agriculture, that will support efficient financial mediation, reduce transaction costs, and facilitate the farmers’ access to loaned capital on favourable terms, is considered to be an essential step as regards the course of competitiveness in Greek agriculture. This paper is based on an empirical study on a sample of farmers. The aim of this research study is to examine the farmers’ satisfaction with current structures and services related to agricultural credit, as provided in Greece at present. On a second level, this objective of this paper is to develop a typology of farmers, based on their satisfaction structures (by a methodological scheme based on...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural Credit; Satisfaction; Funding; Principal Axes Factoring; Financial Marketing; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Financial Economics; Marketing.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57652
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FINANCE, ORGANIZATION, AND IMPACTS OF U.S. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH: FUTURE PROSPECTS AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E..
The objective of this paper is to review key conceptual issues in the finance, management, and economic impact analysis of agricultural research of the U.S. and other western developed countries, to critique evidence on the impacts of R&D, to summarize new developments and emerging trends in agricultural science policy, and to speculate about the likely effect of these trends during the 21st century on impacts of R&D. The conceptual review emphasizes refinements in the theory of public goods associated with a class of impure public goods. Some overall conclusions are presented for U.S. agricultural research policy of the 21st century. Note: Figure 1 not included in file-- contact author for more information.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Science policy; Agriculture; Research; Funding; Organization; Impact analysis; Incentives; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18267
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La pêche artisanale des années quatre-vingt en France ArchiMer
Catanzano, Joseph; Lantz, Frederic; Vernier, C; Allard, M.o.
The artisanal fisheries industry has experienced a major development over the 80's: technology has improved and ship building costs have increased. The firms' economic behaviour and financial performances have shown that the marginal profitability of capital is lower for large units than for small units, the latter being used by coastal fisheries. Overall, conclusions on the financial situation of the industry must be qualified. Public intervention has materialized through (1) an increasing amount of state aids supporting modernization investment (Brittany being the most supported region), (2) more political and financial involvement of regions as a result of more administrative and decision making responsibilities being devolved to them, (3) the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: SEM; Financement; Investissement; Rentabilité; Coûts; Pêche artisanale; Funding; Investment; Profitability; Costs; Artisanal fisheries.
Ano: 1993 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1993/rapport-4219.pdf
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Plant Genetic Resources for Agriculture, Plant Breeding, and Biotechnology: Experiences from Cameroon, Kenya, the Philippines, and Venezuela AgEcon
Falck-Zepeda, Jose Benjamin; Zambrano, Patricia; Cohen, Joel I.; Borges, Orangel; Guimaraes, Elcio P.; Hautea, Desiree; Kengue, Joseph; Songa, Josephine.
Local farming communities throughout the world face binding productivity constraints, diverse nutritional needs, environmental concerns, and significant economic and financial pressures. Developing countries address these challenges in different ways, including public and private sector investments in plant breeding and other modern tools for genetic crop improvement. In order to measure the impact of any technology and prioritize investments, we must assess the relevant resources, human capacity, clusters, networks and linkages, as well as the institutions performing technological research and development, and the rate of farmer adoption. However, such measures have not been recently assessed, in part due to the lack of complete standardized information...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Plant breeding; Biotechnology; Public research; Funding; Innovation systems; Capacity building; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42329
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Pricing an Extension Service for Organic Farmers and Growers AgEcon
Parminter, Terry G.; Botha, Neels; Tanner, Jon.
The organics sector is expanding rapidly and the Board of Organics Aotearoa New Zealand considers that the future provision of an extension service is needed to underpin the ability of producers to efficiently convert to organic systems and then to further develop the sustainability of their systems. This project commissioned by Organics Aotearoa New Zealand in 2008 considers four possible organisational structures for delivering such a service. The first possible structure is a complete extension service for organic producers that combines national coordination, standard setting and information management with a local problem-solving and sector development service. Option 2 is a more centralised option, especially useful for producers at the beginning of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Organic; Extension; Governance; Funding; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96947
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Revue sectorielle de la pêche au Sénégal: aspects socio-économiques OceanDocs
Moustapha Déme; MoustaphaKébé.
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Artisanal fishing; Fishing industry; Marketing and distribution; Funding; Processing fishery products; Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/4579
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STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN HIGHER EDUCATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ACADEMIC PROGRAMS AgEcon
Connor, Larry J..
Major changes affecting Agricultural Economics include: level and sources of funding, increased accountability, a renewed emphasis on teaching, increasing university and college linkages, an evolving student base, and the continuing adoption of educational technology. Major implications include: broader faculty teaching involvement, agribusiness program development, expanding multidisciplinary majors, Ph.D program modifications for teacher preparation, expanding professional M.S. degrees, graduate program size and specialization reductions, alternative financing of graduate education, and faculty training in teaching methods. Teaching represents a major growth opportunity for Agricultural Economics, but it remains to be seen whether the discipline takes...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Accountability; Funding; Environmental; Undergraduate; Graduate; Multidisciplinary; Portfolio; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15211
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The challenges of organizing an international course in Latin America Genet. Mol. Biol.
Vairo,Filippo; López,Mónica Luján; Cruz,Carolina Uribe; Corrêa,Priscila Gomes; Baldo,Guilherme.
The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) is the main course of its kind in the genetics field in Latin America. Here we describe the main challenges regarding the organization of such event, including how we obtain funding and how we proceed with student selection. Thus, we aim to share our experience with other groups that intend to follow this format to create similar events in other areas in this region of the world.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Genetics in Latin America; Funding; Educational initiatives.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572014000200002
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Whither the Crown Research Institutes? Funding Issues AgEcon
Johnson, Robin.
In the course of another exercise (Johnson, Scrimgeour & Manning 2006) I compiled, with the help of CCMAU, a financial record of the crown research institutes from 1992 to 2005. In this paper I thought I would share with this audience some of the facts that emerged from the exercise and make some observations about present and future trends in the organisation of R&D funding in NZ. There has been a systematic clamour from the agricultural institutes that the initial plans for the CRI discriminated against their activities. This led to job uncertainty as well as a huge increase in transaction costs in the process of obtaining funds. More recently, the activities of the agricultural interests has seen a re-activation of forward planning for this part...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crown Research Institutes; Funding; Contestability; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31969
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