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Registros recuperados: 16
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A PERSPECTIVE ON OREGON WHEAT GROWERS' INTERESTS IN THE MILLENNIUM ROUND OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS AgEcon
Young, Linda M..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Wheat and wheat trade; GATT; WTO; Seattle; Agricultural trade; International Relations/Trade; F1; Q1.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/29252
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A Simple Measure for Agricultural Trade Distortion AgEcon
Roningen, Vernon O.; Dixit, Praveen M..
A simple measure is proposed that estimates the volume of trade distortion caused by the agricultural policies of trading countries. The index, called a TDS (Trade Distorted by support), would be useful for trade analysts to compare the trade impact of agricultural support policies across countries and commodities. The TDS index can be calculated largely from existing information on agricultural support. A TDS index might also be used to assess damages in trade dispute settlement cases.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Indicators; Producer subsidy equivalent; Trade distortion; Trade models; Trade negotiations; Trade policy; GATT; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1991 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51137
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CHILE'S WHEAT TRADE ENVIRONMENT: THE ECONOMICS OF PRICE BANDS, IMPORT TARIFFS AND POLICY TRANSPARENCY AgEcon
Smith, Vincent H.; Goodwin, Barry K..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Wheat trade; Chile; Price bands; GATT; WTO; International Relations/Trade; F1; Q1.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/29251
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Comercio justo y derechos sociales La condicionalidad social en el comercio internacional Buscador Latinoamericano
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: COMERCIO INTERNACIONAL; ASPECTOS SOCIALES; GATT; OIT.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.flacso.org.ec/biblio/shared/biblio_view.php?bibid=16077&tab=opac&oai:flacso.org.ec:16077
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IMPACTS OF THE URUGUAY ROUND TRADE AGREEMENT ON U.S. BEEF AND CATTLE PRICES AgEcon
Brester, Gary W.; Marsh, John M..
The Uruguay Round trade negotiations completed in April 1994 reduced beef trade barriers. Trade barriers for beef products have historically been significant. The Uruguay Round essentially converts many nontariff barriers (quotas) to tariffs (tariffication), includes safeguards for import surges, establishes minimum access commitments, reduces domestic subsidy supports, and provides special tariff allowances for developing countries. These provisions, commensurate with a growing world demand for animal source proteins, will likely increase U.S. fed beef exports and ground beef imports. The United States is a major world producer as well as exporter of beef. In 1996, the United States represented 35 percent of world beef production (ranked first) and 28...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: GATT; Beef trade; Cattle prices; Q0; International Relations/Trade; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/29169
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Institutional Impact of GATT: An Examination of Market Integration and Efficiency in the World Beef and Wheat Market under the GATT Regime AgEcon
Fabiosa, Jacinto F..
Studies on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) are abundant in the literature. But most researchers have examined GATT's impact on economic activities with scant or no attention given to its impact on institutions such as market integration and efficiency. To the latter issues, this paper is addressed. Even prior to the signing of the final act, questions were raised on possible maneuvers that might frustrate its intent, that of ushering in an era of true liberalization in agricultural trade. This study finds consistent evidence that GATT reforms promoted market integration and improved market efficiency. Decomposition of price variability into its various sources shows that the transmission of shocks becomes more widespread across markets...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Market integration; Market efficiency; Cointegration; Vector autoregression; GATT; Beef and wheat markets; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18508
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International trade and the environment. Buscador Latinoamericano
Pearce, David.
Tipo: InteractiveResource Palavras-chave: MEDIO AMBIENTE; GATT.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://www.flacso.org.ec/biblio/shared/biblio_view.php?bibid=7636&tab=opac&oai:flacso.org.ec:7636
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INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND THE FUTURE OF AMERICAN AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Gardner, Bruce L..
American farmers have gained substantially from agricultural trade, despite the competition posed for producers of imported commodities. Because of U.S. comparative advantage in most agricultural products, the farm sector would be smaller and farmers would be poorer with reduced trade. Evidence indicates that in the 1990s, each dollar of additional export sales is worth about 40 cents in additional net farm income. Two crucial elements in future export growth are continued productivity gains and further reductions in barriers to agricultural trade around the world. The two are linked in farm income determination, in that elastic demand is important for productivity gains to translate to farm income growth.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural exports; Farm income; GATT; Productivity; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14699
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International Trade Liberalization Impact on the U.S. Peanut Industry AgEcon
Carley, Dale H.; Fletcher, Stanley M..
The acceptance of the NAFTA and GATT trade agreements will impact the U.S. peanut industry. This paper examines trade distorting policies and evaluates the effects of trade liberalization on peanut producers, shellers, manufactures, and U.S. consumers of peanut products. Decreasing marketing quotas and support prices are expected to reduce gross income peanut farmers, revenues to local governments, and tax bases in rural communities. Reduced peanut production would impact buyers/shellers through greater price variability and risk, changes in marketing methods and contractual relationships, and increased emphasis on buying high quality peanuts. Manufactures will have additional sources for peanut supplies. Consumers’ savings from decreases in raw peanuts...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Peanut industry; Peanut production; Peanut consumption; International trade; NAFTA; GATT; Trade liberalization; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/62330
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Multilateral Trade Agreements and Market-Based Environmental Policies AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn; Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Yoshino, Yutaka.
We review the legal provisions of the WTO regime that have important implications for national, market-based environmental policies. We evaluate those provisions for their effects on a member country's ability and incentives to design economically efficient environmental policies. International trade institutions do not recognize the polluter pays principle, posing some challenges for unilateral policies addressing cross-border pollutants and leakage. Nor do they recognize the economic equivalence of emission tax and permit regimes, leading to different potential constraints on policy design and leaving some environmental policies open to influence by protectionist motives. As many legality issues have yet to be disputed and resolved, opportunities exist...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Trade; Environment; WTO; GATT; Market-based policies; Environmental Economics and Policy; F1; Q38.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10758
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NAFTA, GATT, AND AGRICULTURE IN THE NORTHERN ROCKIES AND GREAT PLAINS AgEcon
Smith, Vincent H..
Over the past seven years, the U.S. government has been involved in trade negotiations that have led to one bilateral and two multilateral agreements whose provisions have substantive implications for U.S. agricultural trade. The first of these sets of trade negotiations led to the bilateral Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (CFTA). The second resulted in the current multilateral General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which was implemented on January 1, 1995. The third set of negotiations, initiated under the Bush Administration, led to the multilateral North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which was approved by Congress in November 1993 and implemented on January 1, 1994. The three agreements signed by the U.S. since the late 1980's...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: NAFTA; GATT; Agriculture; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q1; F1.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/29175
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NORTH AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL MARKET INTEGRATION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE FOOD AND FIBER SYSTEM AgEcon
Vollrath, Thomas L..
Economic change and market dynamics have fundamentally altered the structure and performance of agricultural markets in the United States, Canada, and Mexico within the last 25 years. Many factors have helped shape the current North American food and fiber system, including technological change, domestic farm policies, international trade agreements, and the economic forces of supply and demand. Ratification of NAFTA, for example, helped integrate the North American market, sparking a surge in trade and investment among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. In recent years, efforts to further integrate the continental market seem to have slowed. Broadening the scope of NAFTA to include institutional reforms that lead to a more unified system of commercial...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Market integration; Market segmentation; Law of one price; Price transmission; Elasticities; Exchange-rate pass-through; Market efficiency; Bilateral trade intensity; Regional trade agreements; NAFTA; CUSTA; Trade policy; WTO; GATT; Industrial Organization; International Relations/Trade; Marketing.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33639
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Regionalism, multilateralism, and deeper integration Buscador Latinoamericano
Robert Z. Lawrence; Lawrence, Robert Z..
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: LIBRE COMERCIO; GATT; EUROPA; ASIA.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://www.flacso.org.ec/biblio/shared/biblio_view.php?bibid=118427&tab=opac&oai:flacso.org.ec:118427
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Special and Differential Treatment in the GATT: A Pyrrhic Victory for Developing Countries AgEcon
Christie, Andrew.
Preferential measures for developing countries implemented within the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade failed to achieve their purported goal of facilitating economic development; this failure was due to their weak theoretical underpinnings and poor policy design. Not only were the demands developing countries made for discriminatory preferences largely ineffectual, their demands for preferential treatment, together with their forgoing full participation in the multilateral trading system, fundamentally reduced the obligation of developed countries to consider the interests of developing countries in future negotiation rounds. Thus the winning of preferences was rendered a pyrrhic victory for developing countries.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Economic development; Trade liberalization; GATT; Special and differential treatment; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55900
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Special and Differential Treatment in the GATT: A Pyrrhic Victory for Developing Countries: Technical Annex AgEcon
Christie, Andrew.
This document is the technical annex to the full paper "Special and Differential Treatment in the GATT: A Pyrrhic Victory for Developing Countries" which is available separately.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Economic development; Trade liberalization; GATT; Special and differential treatment; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55901
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TRADE AND THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY: THE CASE OF THE UNITED STATES PEANUT PROGRAM AgEcon
Borges, Robert B..
NAFTA and GATT will dramatically alter regulations protecting U.S. peanut markets and will allow foreign producers considerable access to domestic market. Traditionally, the political economy surrounding peanut policy has been favorable to domestic producers. Rising peanut butter imports, decreasing domestic demand, and possibly the inadvertent effects of domestic policy, ironically implemented to protect domestic producers, have contributed to significant increases in Treasury costs. These increased Treasury costs have dramatically changed the political climate surrounding the peanut program. In this light, the effects of GATT appear manageable; NAFTA may ultimately require major policy reform. Possible alternatives are presented.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; GATT; NAFTA; Peanuts; Trade; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15267
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