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Registros recuperados: 13
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A Conflict of Legitimate Concerns or Pandering to Vested Interests? Conflicting Attitudes Towards the Regulation of Trade in Genetically Modified Goods - The EU and the US AgEcon
Perdikis, Nicholas.
The success of multilateral negotiations in reducing explicit trade barriers has focused the attention of policy makers and other interest groups on the impact domestic policies and attitudes may have on trade flows. In the area of genetically modified goods the principal area of dispute between the U.S. and the EU involves fundamental differences in the perception of these goods and consumer attitudes towards them. The current dispute settlement mechanisms do not provide a way of dealing with this type of issue. Existing bodies were designed to deal with "producer vested" interests and so cannot deal with "legitimate" consumer concerns. The paper concludes that a new body should be established to deal with these within the ambit of the WTO.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Conflicts; EU; GMOs; Trade; U.S.; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23835
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Agricultural Sustainability and the Introduction of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
In order to cater for the predicted growth in global population and aspirations for increased living standards, the world needs to increase substantially its level of agricultural production and sustain agriculture’s increased productivity. New technologies may enable this to occur but they also bring with them increased sustainability problems. There are many complex dimensions to achieving agricultural sustainability such as deciding on what agricultural attributes are worth sustaining and considering what trade-offs in objectives are required. These issues are discussed from a conceptual point of view. It is also shown using economic theory that market-based agriculture limits the opportunity for individual farmers to adopt sustainable agricultural...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural development; Agricultural sustainability; Biodiversity; Co-evolution; Economic sustainability; Genetically modified organisms; GMOs; Monopolisation; Patents; Social sustainability.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q000; Q010; Q200; Q300; Q500; Q570.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55335
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Biotechnology's Potential Contribution to Global Wood Supply and Forest Conservation AgEcon
Sedjo, Roger A..
Over the past 30 years, industrial plantation forests have become a major supplier of industrial wood. There are several reasons for this, including the improved economics of planted forests due to biotechnological innovations, the increases in natural forest wood costs due to increasing inaccessibility, and rising wood costs from natural forests due to new environmental restrictions related to logging. Forestry today is on the threshold of the widespread introduction of biotechnology into its operational practices. In many cases, the biotechnology likely to be introduced is simply an extension of that being utilized in agriculture, such as herbicide-tolerant genes. However, biotechnology in forestry also is developing applications unique to forestry,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Breeding; Forestry; Tree plantations; Timber; Fiber; Genes; GMOs; Industrial wood; Economics; Benefits; Costs; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q21; Q23; Q16; O32; L73.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10708
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Capturing Preference Heterogeneity in Stated Choice Models: A Random Parameter Logit Model of the Demand for GM Food AgEcon
Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael P..
Analyses of data from random utility models of choice data have typically used fixed parameter representations, with consumer heterogeneity introduced by including factors such as the age, gender etc of the respondent. However, there is a class of models that assume that the underlying parameters of the estimated model (and hence preferences) are different for each individual within the sample, and that choices can be explained by identifying the parameters of the distribution from which they are drawn. Such a random parameter model is applied to stated choice data from the UK, and the results compared with standard fixed parameter models. The results provide new evidence of preferences for various aspects of the UK food system, particularly in relation to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Random parameter logit; Choice modelling; GMOs; Food safety; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58200
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Consumer attitudes toward GM food with hypothetical functional characteristics AgEcon
Marin, Floriana; Notaro, Sandra.
Since their introduction in the early 1990s, genetically modified organisms in agriculture tended to emphasize improved yield. Europeans, perceiving unacceptable risk and too little benefit, resoundingly disapproved of GMO use in agro-food processes. More recently, research has turned to developing products that use GMO components that better match consumer interest, including nutritionally enhanced foods, environmentally friendly crops, and other areas. The question that arises is whether Europeans perceive that the new, prospective benefits outweigh the olds risks, opening the market to such products. This paper investigates consumer preferences for a number of hypothetical genetic modifications in a widely consumed food product: yoghurt. We explore the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: GMOs; Functional properties; Willingness to pay; Choice modelling; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7878
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Economics, Ecology and GMOs: Sustainability, Precaution and Related Issues AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
Ecological, evolutionary and economic issues involved in introducing genetically modified organisms (GMOs), mainly in agriculture, are discussed. The ecological and evolutionary impacts identified hamper (economic) valuation of GMOs and their biosafety regulation and creates difficulties for planning for sustainable development. Assessment of the desirability of releasing GMOs is difficult because of lack of communal agreement about the risks involved, about how much precaution should be exercised given collective risks, and disagreement on the appropriate social criterion to apply. Changes in legal liability are not always economic and cannot eliminate the social conflict generated by GMOs. The economics of developing and marketing GMOs is explored,...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity; Biosafety; Genetically modified organisms; GMOs; Intellectual property rights; Market structure; Sustainable development; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122726
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GM food technology abroad and its implications for Australia and New Zealand AgEcon
Anderson, Kym; Jackson, Lee Ann.
The potential economic benefits from agricultural biotechnology adoption by ANZ need to be weighed against any likely loss of market access abroad for crops that may contain genetically modified (GM) organisms. This paper uses the global GTAP model to estimate effects of other countries' GM policies without and with ANZ farmers adopting GM varieties of various grains and oilseeds. The benefits to ANZ from adopting GM crops under a variety of scenarios are positive even in the presence of the ban on imports from GM-adopting countries by the EU (but not if East Asia also applied such a ban).
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; GMOs; Regulation; Trade policy; Computable general equilibrium; Crop Production/Industries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; C68; D58; F13; O3; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58365
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INFORMATION POLICY AND GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD: WEIGHING THE BENEFITS AND COSTS AgEcon
Teisl, Mario F.; Caswell, Julie A..
The labeling of genetically modified foods (GMFs) is the topic of a debate that could dramatically alter the structure of the U.S. and international food industry. The current lack of harmonization of policy across countries makes GMF labeling an international trade issue. The U.S. and Canada do not require GMFs to be labeled unless the GMF is significantly different than the conventional food or the GMF presents a health concern. However, many other countries are requiring GMFs to be labeled. This paper discusses empirical work on the sources and magnitude of benefits and costs from labeling programs, with particular emphasis on the impact of the design of the labeling program on benefits and costs.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: GMOs; Biotechnology; Labeling; Benefits; Costs; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14534
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MEDIA COVERAGE OF AGROBIOTECHNOLOGY: DID THE BUTTERFLY HAVE AN EFFECT? AgEcon
Marks, Leonie A.; Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas G.; Allison, Kevin; Zakharova, Ludmila.
This study examines media coverage of genetically modified (GM) crops in a risk communication framework. Content analysis is employed to investigate how specific environmental, food safety, and landmark events, such as the monarch butterfly and Pusztai controversies, and the cloning of Dolly-the-sheep, were reported by the media. Media coverage is from United Kingdom and United States newspapers over the period 1990 through 2001. On balance, findings show that the UK press has been more negative than the U.S. press in its coverage of GM crops. In addition, environmental and food safety events had a significant impact on the level and cycle of GM crop coverage.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biosafety; Content analysis; Environment; GM crops; GMOs; Media coverage; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14674
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Strategic approaches to informing the public about biotechnology in Latin America Electron. J. Biotechnol.
Traynor,Patricia L; Adonis,Marta; Gil,Lionel.
Abstract <a href="http://fbpe/img/ejb/v10n2/a01/reprint.html">Reprint (PDF)</a> The benefits of today's biotechnology products are not evident to consumers. The public will accept biotechnology only when individuals decide for themselves that biotec products will contribute to their personal well-being. To make such a decision, people will need greater awareness and understanding of how biotechnology will affect the environment, human health, local and national economies, and the well-being of society. A low level of awareness and understanding about biotechnology is characteristic of Latin America and the Caribbean countries, as elsewhere, efforts to remedy poor public perception often seem inadequate and do not reflect a well-designed...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; GMOs; Public perception.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-34582007000200001
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THE POTENTIAL ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM RESISTANT GM VARIETY ON MAIZE PRODUCTION IN HUNGARY AgEcon
Kruppa, Bertalan.
The paper examines that how the application of the MON88017 GM maize variety could influence the profitability of maize production in Hungary. The most important benefit of this biotech crop lies in its reduced need for chemical use and the additional yield comparing to conventional varieties. Among the economical disadvantages there is the uncertain market of GM products in the EU. After weighing all these factors the results conclude that the farmers could reach an income surplus by growing this GM variety. Although, this surplus is significant only if a similar positive yield impact is achieved under the Hungarian conditions as in the USA.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: GMOs; MON88017; Roundup herbicide; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/104678
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Transgenic trees and forestry biosafety Electron. J. Biotechnol.
Valenzuela,Sofía; Balocchi,Claudio; Rodríguez,Jaime.
The benefits from the development of transgenic trees are expected from the improvement of traits as growth and form, wood quality, industrial processes, disease and insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, ecological restoration, rooting ability, etc. One of the first reported field trials with genetically modified forest trees was established in Belgium in 1988 and the characteristic evaluated was herbicide tolerance in poplars. Since then, there have been more than 200 reported trials, involving at least 15 forest species. The majority of the field trials have been carried out in the USA (64%). More than 50% of the field trials are done with Populus species and the main target traits are herbicide tolerance (31%), followed by marker genes (23%) and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Biosafety; Forestry biotechnology; GMOs; GM trees.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-34582006000300031
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Transgenic Trees: Implementation and Outcomes of the Plant Protection Act AgEcon
Sedjo, Roger A..
The responsibility for protecting U.S. agriculture from pests and diseases is assigned by the Federal Plant Pest Act (FPPA) to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the Department of Agriculture. The Plant Protection Act (Title 7 U.S.C. Sections 7701 et seq.) gives Aphis statutory authority over genetically modified organisms (GMO), in effect assigning to APHIS a related responsibility of determining whether a genetically altered plant, crop, or tree is likely to pose unacceptable risks to the environment. Although APHIS has considerable experience with crop plants, it has only limited experience with trees. Yet the possible benefits of applying genetic engineering to trees are substantial and include industrial wood production and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Forestry; Biotechnology; Transgenic; Tree plantations; Timber supply; Genes; GMOs; Industrial wood; Economics; Regulations; Costs; Benefits; Conservation; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q21; Q23; Q16; O32; L73.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10629
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