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Registros recuperados: 26
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A gap analysis of confined field trial application forms for genetically modified crops in East Africa: evaluating the potential for harmonization AgEcon
Linacre, Nicholas A.; Cohen, Joel I..
The regulatory approval of genetically modified crops in the field initially requires small, restricted experimental trials known as confined field trials. These small scale experiments provide researchers with important information on environmental interactions and agronomic performance of the crop in a safe and contained manner. To authorize confined field trials regulatory review is required, with formats for obtaining relevant information differing from country to country. In this paper, a Gap Analysis is used to identify informational gaps and potential for harmonization of confined field trial application processes in three East African countries - Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda. The basic principle behind gap analysis is a comparison of the status quo...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Genetically modified crops; Gap analysis; Confined field trials; Biotechnology; Biosafety; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55421
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Adoption of Conservation-Tillage Methods and Genetically Modified Cotton AgEcon
Roberts, Roland K.; English, Burton C.; Gao, Qi; Larson, James A..
Adoption of herbicide-tolerant cotton and conservation tillage may be simultaneously related. Bayes' theorem and a two-equation logit model were used to test the simultaneity hypothesis. Evidence for Tennessee suggests that adoption of these technologies reduced residual herbicide use and soil erosion more than if adoption of these technologies were independent.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bayes' theorem; Conservation tillage; Cotton; Genetically modified crops; Herbicide tolerant crops; Simultaneous logit model; Technology adoption; Crop Production/Industries; Q12; Q16; Q24; O33.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/35293
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An exploration of the potential benefits of integrated pest management systems and the use of insect resistant potatoes to control the Guatemalan Tuber Moth (Tecia solanivora Povolny) in Ventaquemada, Colombia AgEcon
Falck-Zepeda, Jose Benjamin; Barreto-Triana, Nancy; Baquero-Haeberlin, Irma; Espitia-Malagon, Eduardo; Fierro-Guzman, Humberto; Lopez, Nancy.
CORPOICA and IFPRI implemented a research project in Ventaquemada, Colombia. The project’s goal was to asses the benefits of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices and the potential of Genetically Modified insect resistant (Bt) potatoes to manage damage caused by the Guatemalan Tuber Moth (Tecia solanivora Povolny). The Guatemalan Tuber Moth is particularly destructive because field spraying on the adult stage is ineffective and there exists damage specificity to the tubers. Excessive pesticide sprays have resulted in resistance to several insecticides. Insect resistant (Bt) potatoes has been shown an effective means to control other members of the Tuber Moth complex. Thus a Bt potato may play a role in managing Tecia in Colombia. This is an ex ante...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Potatoes; Economic aspects; Genetically modified crops; Economic surplus model; Economic impacts; Risk; Research and development; Bt potatoes; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55416
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An update on genetically modified crops Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Schwember,Andrés R.
A. R. Schwember. 2008. An update on genetically modified crops. Cien. Inv. Agr. 35(3):231-250. Genetically modified (GM) crops were introduced in the mid 1990s and two principal transgenic technologies currently domínate the market, herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops and insect-resistant crops (Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops). HT crops have simplified weed management practices, reduced crop production costs, and have had positive effects on the environment. However, there are concerns about the potential development of weeds resistant to glyphosate, the main herbicide employed with HT crops. A second major worry associated with the use of HT crops is the potential introgression of genes from GM crops into wild relatives (i.e. gene flow) and its potential...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Bt crops; Gene flow; Genetically modified crops; Glyphosate; Golden Rice; Herbicide-tolerant crops; Transgenic crops.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202008000300001
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ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN CHINA AgEcon
Huang, Jikun; Hu, Ruifa; van Meijl, Hans; van Tongeren, Frank W..
China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under various scenarios. Based on a unique data from empirical micro-level study and field trial in China and a modified GTAP model, our results indicate that the development of biotechnology has an important impact on China's production, trade and welfare. Welfare gains far outweigh the public biotechnology research expenditures. Most gains occur inside China. Policy makers should put less weight on...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Economic impacts; Biotechnology; Genetically modified crops; China; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C68; D58; F13; O33; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25883
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Effects of Bt Cotton in India During the First Five Years of Adoption AgEcon
Sadashivappa, Prakash; Qaim, Matin.
While previous research has analyzed the impacts of Bt cotton in India, most available studies are based on one or two years of data only. We analyze the technology’s performance over the first five years of adoption, using panel data with three rounds of observations. On average, Bt adopting farmers realize pesticide reductions of about 40%, and yield advantages of 30-40%. Profit gains are in a magnitude of US $60 per acre. These benefits have been sustainable over time. Farmers’ satisfaction is reflected in a high willingness to pay for Bt seeds. Nonetheless, in 2006 Indian state governments decided to establish price caps at levels much lower than what companies had charged before. This intervention has further increased farmers’ profits, but the impact...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Bt cotton; Genetically modified crops; Farm survey; India; Seed markets; Technology adoption; Willingness to pay (WTP); Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O32; O33; Q16; Q55; Q58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49947
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Effects of the GM Controversy on Iowa Corn-Soybean Farmers' Acreage Allocation Decisions AgEcon
Alexander, Corinne E.; Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge; Goodhue, Rachael E..
Prior to the 2000 planting season, some industry observers predicted acreage of genetically modified crops would decline dramatically. However, actual 2000 plantings presented a puzzle. Farmers reduced their acreage of genetically modified corn, but concurrently increased their acreage of genetically modified soybeans. We demonstrate that it may be theoretically optimal for risk-averse farmers to reduce their corn acreage but not their soybean acreage. However, past experience, attitudes, and farm size explained planting decisions to a larger degree than did risk preferences.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Expected utility; Genetically modified crops; Two-limit tobit model; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31066
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Farmer Preferences for Milpa Diversity and Genetically Modified Maize in Mexico: A Latent Class Approach AgEcon
Birol, Ekin; Villalba, Eric Rayn; Smale, Melinda.
Maize, the second most globally important staple crop after wheat, originated in Mexico, where it is typically grown as part of a set of associated crops and practices called the milpa system. This ancient mode of production is practiced today in ways that vary by cultural context and agro-environment. Milpas generate private economic value, in terms of food security, diet quality and livelihoods, for the two-million farm households who manage them. Furthermore, milpas generate public economic value by conserving agrobiodiversity, especially that of maize landraces, which have the potential to contribute unique traits needed by plant breeders for future crop improvement. In this way, milpas contribute to global food security in maize. However, the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Mexico; Maize; Genetically modified crops; Conservation; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42373
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Genetically Modified Crops and Labor Savings in US Crop Production AgEcon
Gardner, Justin G.; Nelson, Carl H..
In spite of widespread adoption there is mixed evidence as to whether or not adopting Genetically Modified (GM) crops increase farm welfare. One possible reason for widespread adoption is labor savings. Using a treatment effect model we estimate the labor savings associated with adopting a GM crop.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Genetically modified crops; Agricultural biotechnology; Endogeneity; Treatment effects; Survey weights; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34919
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GM Foods in the UK between 1996 and 1999: Comments on "Genetically Modified Crops: Risks and Promise" by Gordon Conway Ecology and Society
Krebs, John R; Oxford University; john.krebs@zoo.ox.ac.uk.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: BSE; GM food; Consumer; Genetically modified crops; Risks.
Ano: 2000
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GM technology and the Australian canola AgEcon
Taing, William; Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z..
In this paper, we use a simulation model to measure the potential market and welfare effects of recently introduced genetically modified (GM) canola in Australia. The short-run results indicate that non-GM canola may emerge as a niche product commanding a premium. In the long run, GM technology appears to enhance aggregate welfare. However, when production cost savings are trivial and consumers become highly concerned about GM food products, aggregate welfare may decline. The policy implications of the analysis are explored.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Canola market; Genetically modified crops; Segregation; Welfare..
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48191
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Identifying farmer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) crops in Scotland AgEcon
Hall, Clare.
Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food are well documented but there has been much less focus on farmer attitudes to GM technology in agriculture. This paper reports findings from a study investigating farmers’ attitudes to GM crops in Scotland. Results from a Q methodology study reveal three discourses, one apparently pro-GM and demonstrating an expectation of benefits, the second representing a more uncertain position, wary of the potential risks of the technology but likely to be reluctant adopters, and the third describing a group who demonstrate a somewhat fatalistic attitude towards the issue of GM technology adoption and impact. The paper also reports findings from a postal survey conducted as part of the Q methodology study....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Genetically modified crops; Farmers; Q methodology; Attitudes; Scotland; Technology adoption; Farm Management.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45993
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Impact Assessment of Bt Corn Adoption in the Philippines AgEcon
Mutuc, Maria Erlinda M.; Rejesus, Roderick M.; Pan, Suwen; Yorobe, Jose M., Jr..
This article examines the impact of Bt corn adoption in the Philippines using an econometric approach that addresses simultaneity, selection, and censoring problems. Although previous literature emphasizes the importance of simultaneity and selection problems, this is the first study that addresses the issue of censoring in estimating the effects of Bt corn adoption at the farm in a developing country context. We show that Bt corn adoption provides modest but statistically significant increases in farm yields and profits. Furthermore, our results provide some evidence of inference errors that can potentially arise when censoring in the pesticide application variable is ignored in the estimation procedures.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Bt; Censoring; Corn; Farm level impacts; Genetically modified crops; Pesticide use; Technology adoption; International Development; Production Economics; Q12; Q16.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120452
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Investigation of the factors influencing adoption of GM crops at country level AgEcon
Hall, Clare; Toma, Luiza; Moran, Dominic.
With the possible exception of nuclear technology, few scientific breakthroughs have generated the level of emotive debate that has surrounded the roll-out of agricultural biotechnology. Initial discussion about the environmental impacts of agricultural genetic modification, are now frequently juxtaposed with counter-claims that the technologies could actually be part of a wider global environmental solution in relation to climate change mitigation and food shortages. This study tests whether there are any consistent messages on why some countries seem to be advancing adoption of the technology, while others are not. We consider the range of claims in existing literature on adoption tendencies and then use structural equation modelling to test and estimate...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Genetically modified crops; Structural equation model; Global adoption.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50366
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MARKETING MECHANISMS TO FACILITATE CO-EXISTENCE OF GM AND NON-GM CROPS AgEcon
Henry, Benjamin; Wilson, William W.; Dahl, Bruce L..
Development of genetically modified (GM) and specialty crops has had a great impact on the grain handling industry during recent years. Added costs associated with handling these crops have become an important issue for grain handlers. For this study, data were collected from a survey of elevators in the Upper Midwest. The information focused on segregation practices, time requirements, and costs. This study shows the different costs (grading and handling) associated with segregation practices at the grain-handler level. The results revealed that the cost of modifying systems to handle GM is of major importance. A stochastic simulation model of an engineering cost function is developed to analyze costs for segregation and testing using results from the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Genetically modified crops; Identity preservation; Segregation; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23557
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Net Effect of Education on Technology Adoption by U.S. Farmers AgEcon
Uematsu, Hiroki; Mishra, Ashok K..
The objective of this study is to estimate the net effect of education on technology adoption for U.S. farmers. Using 2006 Agricultural Resource Management Survey data, this study develops a simultaneous equations model to integrate farmers’ labor allocation decision with adoption of both time saving and management intensive technologies.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Education; Technology adoption; Off-farm labor supply; Precision farming; Genetically modified crops; Simultaneous equations model; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Production Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; Q10; Q12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56450
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On the Segregation of Genetically Modified, Conventional, and Organic Products in European Agriculture: A Multi-market Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo; Bulut, Harun; Cembalo, Luigi.
Evaluating the possible benefits of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops must address the issue of consumer resistance as well as the complex regulation that has ensued. In the European Union (EU) this regulation envisions the "co-existence" of GM food with conventional and quality-enhanced products, mandates the labelling and traceability of GM products, and allows only a stringent adventitious presence of GM content in other products. All these elements are brought together within a partial equilibrium model of the EU agricultural food sector. The model comprises conventional, GM and organic food. Demand is modelled in a novel fashion, whereby organic and conventional products are treated as horizontally differentiated but GM products are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Differentiated demand; Genetically modified crops; Identity preservation; Innovation; Welfare; Production Economics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18531
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PRODUCER CONTRACT STRATEGIES IN GM CROPS AgEcon
Maxwell, Brett J.; Wilson, William W.; Dahl, Bruce L..
A number of challenges exist for genetically modified (GM) crop development at the production level. Contract strategies can resolve some of these challenges. Contracts can be designed to induce legal adoption of GM crops by varying technology fees, violation detection, and penalties. The objective of this research is to analyze contracting strategies to determine terms to induce legal adoption of GM wheat and to minimize technology agreement violations. A simulation model of the prospective introduction of GM technology into hard red spring wheat was developed. Results illustrate that contracts can be designed to induce desired behavior. Technology fees, probability of detection, and the level of non-GM premium were the most notable factors...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Contracts; Genetically modified crops; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23534
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Producer Surplus Distributions in GM Crops: The Ignored Impacts of Roundup Ready Wheat AgEcon
Wilson, William W.; Huso, Scott R..
Release of a genetically modified (GM) crop variety would lower prices of competing pesticides used on conventional varieties. This causes an increase in surplus for those farmers who adopt the GM variety, as well as for those who plant the conventional variety. A Cournot model was developed to determine the equilibrium quantities of conventional pesticides. A market with conventional wheat was compared to a market with both conventional and GM wheat varieties to identify price decreases of the conventional pesticide as a result of the GM trait introduction.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Genetically modified crops; Roundup Ready; Wheat; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8608
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Rural Poverty and Employment Effects of Bt Cotton in India AgEcon
Subramanian, Arjunan; Qaim, Matin.
The impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on the poor in developing countries is still the subject of controversy. While previous studies have examined direct productivity effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton and other GM crops, little is known about wider socioeconomic outcomes. We use a microeconomic modelling approach and comprehensive survey data from India to analyze welfare and distribution effects in a typical village economy. Bt cotton adoption increases aggregate employment with interesting gender implications. Likewise, aggregate household incomes rise, including for poor and vulnerable farmers, highlighting that Bt cotton contributes to poverty reduction and rural development.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetically modified crops; Poverty; Rural development; Village economy; Social accounting matrix; Impacts; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Crop Production/Industries; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50555
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