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Registros recuperados: 21
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AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT TO GOVERNMENT POLICIES: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE AgEcon
Ahearn, Mary Clare; Yee, Jet; Korb, Penelope J..
Economic theory alone cannot predict the impacts of government payments on farm structure. We estimate a 5-equation model for the 1978-96 period to measure the impacts using state micro and macro data sets. We found that government payments were positively associated with farm size and farm exits, but negatively associated with the extent of consolidation in farm production and the off-farm work of operators.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Government payments; Productivity; Farm size; Farm exits; Off-farm work; Consolidation; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20367
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America's Diverse Family Farms 2007 Edition AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; Banker, David E.; Korb, Penelope J.; O'Donoghue, Erik J.; MacDonald, James M..
American farms encompass a wide range of sizes, ownership structures, and business types, but most farms are still family farms. Family farms account for 98 percent of farms and 85 percent of production. Although most farms are small and own most of the farmland, production has shifted to very large farms. Farms with sales of $1 million or more make up less than 2 percent of all farms, but they account for 48 percent of farm product sales. Most of these million-dollar farms are family farms. Because small-farm households rely on off-farm work for most of their income, general economic policies, such as tax or economic development policy, can be as important to them as traditional farm policy.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Family farms; Farm program payments; Farm production; Farm household income; Commodity payments; Direct payments; Government payments; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; Contracting; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59029
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America's Diverse Family Farms: 2010 Edition AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; Banker, David E.; MacDonald, James M..
American farms vary widely in size and other characteristics, but farming is still an industry of family businesses. Ninety-eight percent of farms are family farms, and they account for 82 percent of farm production. Small family farms make up most of the U.S. farm count and hold the majority of farm assets, but they produce a modest share of U.S. farm output. In contrast, large-scale family farms and nonfamily farms—only 12 percent of all farms—account for 84 percent of farm production. Small farms are less profitable than large-scale farms, on average, and the households operating them tend to rely on off-farm income for their livelihood. Because small-farm households receive most of their income from off-farm work, general economic policies—such as tax...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Family farms; Farm businesses; Farm financial performance; Farm-operator household income; Farm operators; Farm structure; Farm type; Government payments; Limited-resource farms; Small farms; ERS; USDA; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96653
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ANALYSIS OF U.S. RICE POLICY IN A GLOBAL STOCHASTIC FRAMEWORK AgEcon
Chavez, Eddie C.; Wailes, Eric J..
Replaced with revised version of paper 04/13/11.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Government payments; Stochastic analysis; Deterministic analysis; Rice trade; Empirical distribution; Arkansas Global Rice Model; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade; Q11; Q17.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98846
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Analyzing Crop Revenue Safety Net Program Alternatives and Impacts on Producers and Program Costs AgEcon
Jansen, Jim A.; Lubben, Bradley D.; Stockton, Matthew C..
This study evaluates the policy effects of alternative program designs for federal revenue-based farm income safety net programs. Eight representative farms across Nebraska are used to stochastically simulate the financial impact of changing the current farm crop revenue-based safety net with a state revenue trigger against potential alternative programs involving guarantees at the district, county, or farm level. Results indicate that decreasing the aggregation of the revenue guarantee increases expected farm-level payments and program costs for the revenue-based safety net.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Farm bill; Farm programs; Government payments; Representative farms; Risk management; Simulation; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Risk and Uncertainty; Q12; Q18.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119784
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Commodity Payments, Farm Business Survival, and Farm Size Growth AgEcon
Key, Nigel D.; Roberts, Michael J..
In the last 25 years, U.S. crop farms have steadily declined in number and grown in average size, as production has shifted to larger operations. Larger farms tend to receive more commodity program payments because most payments are tied to a farm’s current or historical production, but whether payments have contributed to farm growth is uncertain. This study uses farm-level data from the census of agriculture to determine whether there is a statistical relationship between farm commodity program payments and greater concentration in production. The analysis indicates that, at the regional level, higher commodity program payments per acre are associated with subsequent farm growth. Also, higher payments per acre are associated with higher rates of farm...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural payments; Farm size; Farm survival; Concentration; Consolidation; Government payments; Commodity programs.; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55968
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Do Decoupled Payments Stimulate Production? Estimating the Effect on Program Crop Acreage Using Matching AgEcon
Key, Nigel D.; Roberts, Robert J..
This study uses matching to evaluate the effect of decoupled payments on the acreage response of Iowa farmers who were in business in 1997 and 2002. Using farm-level panel data from the U.S. Agricultural Census, we examine whether farmers receiving high levels of 1997 agricultural payments per acre had a greater increase in program crop acreage between 1997 and 2002 than farmers receiving low levels of payments. The panel data set allows for conditioning current acreage on past individual acreage and operator characteristics. The large and exhaustive sample allows for comparisons across similar farms. The matching methodology avoids distributional and functional form assumptions about the relationship between the treatment and outcome. Results are...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Decoupled payments; Supply response; Government payments; Program crops; Trade policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Production Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6072
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How Much Do Decoupled Payments Affect Production? An Instrumental Variable Approach with Panel Data AgEcon
Weber, Jeremy G.; Key, Nigel D..
Agricultural support payments that cause no or minimal production distortions are exempt from World Trade Organization restrictions. If and how much decoupled payments, such as direct payments in the U.S., affect agricultural production remains an open empirical question with implications for policy. We use multiple years of the Census of Agriculture to estimate the aggregate supply response to changes in direct payments. To identify an exogenous source of variation in payments we exploit a provision of the 2002 Farm Act that departed from previous policy by making oilseeds eligible for direct payments, thus increasing payments to areas that historically produced more oilseeds. Using a sample of ZIP codes that accounts for more than eighty percent of the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Decoupled payments; Supply response; Government payments; Program crops; Trade policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103455
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Impact of Government Payments, Depreciation and Inflation on Investment Behavior in American Agriculture Sector Using Sample of Kansas Farms AgEcon
Ariyaratne, Chatura B.; Featherstone, Allen M..
A farm’s physical investment is affected by its fundamental q and by its financial situation, with the later comprising both the firm’s liquidity and its possibility of facing capital market imperfections. This study determines the effects of government payments, depreciation, and inflation on crop farm machinery and equipment investment behavior employing the Nonlinear Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) estimator to estimate the investment system. The magnitude of the lagged cash flows such as government payments, cash crop income, and grain income were largely responsible for determining farm investment behavior in the Kansas agriculture sector. An increase in lagged machinery and equipment depreciation and lagged farm motor vehicle and listed property...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Investment; Liquidity; Fundamental q; Government payments; Depreciation; Inflation; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Financial Economics; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49301
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Income Stabilization Through Government Payments: How Is Farm Household Consumption Affected? AgEcon
Whitaker, James B.; Effland, Anne.
We estimate the impacts of various types of government payments to U.S. agriculture on different components of farm household consumption. Using 2003 to 2005 data from the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), we show that marginal rates of consumption differ by consumption category and income source, including different types of farm program payments. The results suggest that farm households treat income from different sources as imperfect substitutes and may reserve income from specific sources for specific types of consumption. Implications for the effects of different types of government payments on the farm household are considered.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Consumption; Farm households; Government payments; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49863
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Intertemporal Risk Management Decisions of Farmers under Preference, Market, and Policy Dynamics AgEcon
Wang, H. Holly; Du, Wen.
This paper adapts a generalized expected utility (GEU) maximization model (Epstein and Zin, 1989 and 1991) to examine the intertemporal risk management of wheat producers in the Pacific Northwest. Optimization results based on simulated data indicate the feasibility of the GEU optimization as a modeling framework. It further extends the GEU model by incorporating a welfare measure, the certainty equivalent, to investigate the impacts of U.S. government programs and market institutions on farmers' risk management decisions and welfare. A comparison between the GEU and other expected utility models further implies GEU has the advantage of specifying farmers' intertemporal preferences separately and completely. Impact analysis results imply that farmers'...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Generalized expected utility; Risk management; Multi-period production; Dynamic optimization; Intertemporal preference; Market institution; Government payments; Risk and Uncertainty; Q14; D9; C61.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19526
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NONPECUNIARY BENEFITS TO FARMING AND DECOUPLED PAYMENTS AgEcon
Key, Nigel D.; Roberts, Michael J..
The first part of this paper presents a simple labor supply and production model wherein farmers with diminishing marginal utility of income derive nonpecuniary benefits from farming. We use the model to show how lump-sum or “decoupled” government payments could have positive and substantial effects on the supply of agricultural products. The result is simple and intuitive: payments allow those who enjoy farming to continue farming while maintaining a reasonably high living standard. Without payments, a lower living standard leads to higher marginal utility of income, making higher off-farm wages more desirable than lower on-farm wages plus non-pecuniary benefits from farming. Farmers respond to a reduction in payments by shifting their labor off-farm...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Decoupled payments; Government payments; Nonpecuniary benefits; Labor supply; Trade; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9831
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Payment for ecosystem services in Brazil: situation and challenges. Repositório Alice
RIBEIRO, J. F.; OLIVEIRA FILHO, E. C. de; AQUINO, F. de G.; ALBUQUERQUE, L. B. de; MATTOS, L. M. de; LIMA, J. E. F. W..
2012
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Payment for Environmental Services; Pagamento por Serviços Ambientais; Serviços ecológicos; Processos ecológicos; Governaça; Brasil; Politica ambiental; Pesquisa; Environmental policy; Government payments; Ecological processes and phenomena; Governance; Brazil.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1009994
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Private Decisions and Public Goods: Trade-Offs in the Conservation Programs in the New Farm Bill: Discussion AgEcon
Davis, Todd D..
The 2002 Farm Bill creates several opportunities for landowners to adopt management practices that protect and improve soil and water quality. Landowners considering enrollment in conservation programs must compare the monetary and nonmonetary costs and benefits from removing land from production agriculture. The overall purpose of this invited paper session was to improve the understanding of the factors affecting a landowner’s decision to enroll in conservation programs. Papers addressed the environmental benefits of conservation programs and compared the returns to enrolling in conservation programs to the returns from production agriculture.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Certainty equivalents; Conservation; Econometrics; Government payments; Risk; Simulation; Q18; Q16; C15; C31.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43417
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Risk-Adjusted Comparison of Conservation Reserve Program Payments Versus Production Payments for a Corn-Soybean Farmer AgEcon
Ibendahl, Gregory A..
Conservation reserve program (CRP) payments amount to several billion dollars annually. Payments are allocated to both remove land from production and to help farmers pay for conservation improvements. However, research examining whether farmers increase their utility with CRPs is limited. This paper uses simulation analysis and certainty equivalents to compare farming income to payments under the CRP. Farming income is a combination of crop production and government payments as specified in the 2002 Farm Bill. This analysis focuses on farms in three different counties in Kentucky. Results indicate that CRPs are good choices for many farmers.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Certainty equivalents; Conservation; CRP; Government payments; Risk; Simulation; Q15; Q18; Q16; C15.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43391
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Risk-Reducing Effectiveness of Revenue versus Yield Insurance in the Presence of Government Payments AgEcon
Vedenov, Dmitry V.; Power, Gabriel J..
Government farm support programs such as Loan Deficiency Payments (LDP) and Counter-Cyclical Payments (CCP) have payoff structures that effectively make them costless price insurance instruments. A combination of these payments with yield insurance may provide a viable alternative to revenue insurance. This paper finds that, contrary to expectations, the revenue product analyzed is uniformly superior to yield insurance under both current (2002) and proposed (2008) Farm Bill structures of government payments. Given minor adjustments, however, yield insurance combined with government payments can provide more effective risk management than revenue insurance in production areas with low yield–price correlation.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Copulas; Crop insurance; Farm bill; Government payments; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Q14; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46982
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Space, Government Payments, and Off-Farm Labor Response of Principal Farm Operators: A County-Level Analysis AgEcon
Shrestha, Sundar S.; Findeis, Jill L..
We examine the effects of space and government payments on off-farm employment among principal farm operators for the entire US as well as for ERS/USDA farm resource regions. Spatial dependency in off-farm employment of principal farm operators in the U.S. overall is evident; however, this is not the case for all farm resource regions. While the effects of government payments overall are significant for the U.S., important variations exist by farm program type and across ERS/USDA regions.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Government payments; Off-farm employment; Off-farm labor supply; Spatial dependence; ERS regions; Farm Management.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19511
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Structural and Financial Characteristics of U.S. Farms, 1995: 20th Annual Family Farm Report to Congress AgEcon
Sommer, Judith E.; Hoppe, Robert A.; Green, Robert C.; Korb, Penelope J..
National average statistics related to farm production mask the diversity in the Nation's 2 million farms and the people who operate them. Farms in the United States differ not only by size (sales and acres) and type of production, but also by organizational characteristics (land ownership, legal organization, contracting arrangements) and financial characteristics (debt, assets, income, expenditures). Farm operators and their households vary with respect to demographic characteristics (occupation, age, education), financial characteristics (dependence on farm income, operator/spouse labor allocation), and management characteristics (information sources, business goals).
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Farm structure; Farm income; Financial performance; Farm management; Farm business; Government payments; Farm loans; Computer use; Minority farmers; Female farm operators; Farm operator household; Family farm; Small farm; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33620
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Structural and Financial Characteristics of U.S. Farms: 2001 Family Farm Report AgEcon
Johnson, James D.; Perry, Janet E.; Korb, Penelope J.; Sommer, Judith E.; Ryan, James T.; Green, Robert C.; Durst, Ron L.; Monke, James D..
Family farms vary widely in size and other characteristics, ranging from very small retirement and residential farms to establishments with sales in the millions of dollars. The farm typology developed by the Economic Research Service (ERS) categorizes farms into groups based primarily on occupation of the operator and sales class of the farm. The typology groups reflect operators' expectations from farming, position in the life cycle, and dependence on agriculture. The groups differ in their importance to the farm sector, product specialization, program participation, and dependence on farm income. These (and other) differences are discussed in this report.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural Resource Management Study (ARMS); Family farms; Farm businesses; Farm financial situation; Farm operator household income; Farm operators; Farm structure; Farm typology; Female farm operators; Government payments; Spouses of farm operators; Taxes; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33707
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The Farm Level Impacts of Replacing Current Farm Programs with a Whole Farm Revenue Program AgEcon
Raulston, J. Marc; Richardson, James W.; Outlaw, Joe L.; Knapek, George M..
This study evaluates the farm level economic impacts of implementing a whole farm revenue insurance program in lieu of current government program payments on agricultural producers in major production areas of the United States. Realizing a multitude of viable options exist, this study demonstrates one way a whole farm revenue coverage program could work at the farm level and makes comparisons between the current baseline situation and alternative levels of revenue coverage implementation.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Simulation; Representative farms; Government payments; Crop insurance; Revenue coverage; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98785
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