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Registros recuperados: 14
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Access to OECD Agricultural Market: A Gravity Border Effect Approach AgEcon
Olper, Alessandro; Raimondi, Valentina.
This paper uses the border effect estimate from a gravity model to assess the level of trade integration in agricultural markets between 22 OECD countries, over the 1995-2002 period. The empirical analysis shows that using a gravity equation derived from theory, in the estimation of the border effect, matters. A representative estimate of the border effect shows that crossing a national border into the OECD countries induces a trade-reduction effect by a factor of 8. This average value masks substantial differences in market access across the country groups considered, with higher value in trade between EU countries and lower in trade between CEEC countries. However, the trade integration between CEECs and others OECDs increases substantially in the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Border effect; Gravity equation; OECDs; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24543
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Aflatoxin Redux: Does European Aflatoxin Regulation Hurt Groundnut Exporters from Africa? AgEcon
Xiong, Bo; Beghin, John C..
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/02/10.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food safety; Standards; Aflatoxin; Maximum Residues Limit; Groundnut; Gravity equation; Africa; Market access; EU; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Crop Production/Industries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Q17; F13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61314
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ASYMMETRIC PATTERN OF INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA AgEcon
Kim, MinKyoung; Cho, Guedae; Koo, Won W..
This study proposes alternative rationales to explain an asymmetric intra-industry trade pattern between the United States and Canada after the free trade agreement became effective. Using time-series data, a gravity equation is developed which enables us to examine the impacts of relative market size, exchange rates, and transportation costs on bilateral trade. It is found that these three effects have to be taken together in order to explain the asymmetric intra-industry trade pattern. Exchange rate impacts on bilateral trade are found to the most significant, indicating that U.S. dollar appreciation causes a more asymmetric trade pattern for agricultural goods than for large-scale manufacturing goods.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Border effects; Exchange rates; Gravity equation; Intra-industry trade; National product differentiation model; Product differentiation model; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23625
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Augmented Gravity Model: An Empirical Application to Mercosur-European Union Trade Flows AgEcon
Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Nowak-Lehmann, Felicitas.
This paper applies the gravity trade model to assess Mercosur-European Union trade, and trade potential following the agreements reached recently between both trade blocs. The model is tested for a sample of 20 countries, the four formal members of Mercosur plus Chile and the fifteen members of the European Union. A panel data analysis is used to disentangle the time invariant country-specific effects and to capture the relationships between the relevant variables over time. We find that the fixed effect model is to be preferred to the random effects gravity model. Furthermore, a number of variables, namely, infrastructure, income differences and exchange rates added to the standard gravity equation, are found to be important determinants of bilateral...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Gravity equation; Panel data; Infrastructure; Integration; International Relations/Trade; F14; F15.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43996
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Disentangling the Demand-enhancing Effect and Trade-cost Effect of Technical Measures in Agricultural Trade among OECD countries AgEcon
Xiong, Bo; Beghin, John C..
Domestic technical measures such as SPS and TBTs can enhance import demand via information disclosure and quality improvement, or hamper foreign export supply via imposing sizeable compliance costs, or both. The traditional gravity equation model estimates the net effect of these measures on international trade with a loss of useful inference on separate effects. We stipulate a generalized gravity equation model to disentangle the two effects. We apply the augmented approach to agricultural trade among OECD countries in 2004. We find that technical measures in agriculture often jointly enhance import demand and hinder export supply with the net effect of promoting the propensity to trade. Further disaggregated data analysis reveals heterogeneity across...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Sanitary and phytosanitary; SPS; Technical measures; NTM; TBT; Standards; Gravity equation; Protectionism; OECD; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116898
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Exchange Rate Volatility and Bilateral Agricultural Trade Flows: The Case of the United States and OECD Countries AgEcon
Kafle, Kashi R.; Kennedy, P. Lynn.
This study documents the effect of exchange rate volatility and the real exchange rate on bilateral agricultural exports, imports and total trade (exports + imports) flows between the United States and OECD countries. The effect of exchange rate volatility is estimated both separately from and in combination with the real exchange rate. In addition, implementation of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) and use of the Euro as a national currency (Euro) are included as dummy variables and their effects on trade flows are also determined. A panel data set, which contains 28 cross-sections and 1148 observations, is used for bilateral trade flows between the United States and OECD countries from 1970 to 2010. With an empirical model based on a gravity equation, the...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Bilateral agricultural trade; Exchange rate volatility; OECD¬ countries; Gravity equation; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119736
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How Much do Non-Tariff Measures Explain the Border Effect at Entry to the EU Market? The CEECs Agri-Food Exports to EU in the Pre-Accession Period. AgEcon
Chevassus-Lozza, Emmanuelle; Latouche, Karine; Majkovic, Darja.
Since the Single European Market (SEM) has been established, the free movement of goods has been facilitated not only by removing border formalities, but also by the technical harmonisation of national legislation in each member state. For the agri-food sector a particular concern is to guarantee the safety and integrity of products. In this respect, the European Commission has developed a stringent policy regarding food safety (sanitary and phytosanitary measures) and consumer information (quality measures). Strict regulation is therefore imposed for all agri-food products commercialised in the SEM, whether of European or third countries. In the case of EU enlargement, accession to the SEM is conditional upon the candidate countries accepting the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Eastern EU Enlargements; Gravity equation; Border effect; Tariffs and NTBs; Trade resistance; Agri-food products; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9852
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Impact of Sanitary and Technical Measures on Brazilian Exports of Poultry Meat AgEcon
Fassarella, Luiza Meneguelli; Souza, Mauricio Jorge Pinto de; Burnquist, Heloisa Lee.
The major objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of technical and sanitary measures introduced by the main world importers upon Brazilian poultry meat in the international market. The impact of the measures is estimated using a gravity model constructed with disaggregated data about bilateral poultry meat between Brazil and its major trade partners for the period from 1996 to 2009. The gravity model is estimated with a fixed effects model and the results indicate that the impact of TBT and SPS measures upon Brazilian poultry meat exports is ambiguous. The results indicated that the existence of technical and sanitary regulations related to labelling might be stimulating trade of this product, while the presence regulations related to compliance...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Technical and Sanitary measure; Poultry meat; Gravity equation; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103453
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Reciprocal Trade Agreements in Gravity Models: A Meta-analysis AgEcon
Cipollina, Maria; Salvatici, Luca.
Over the time a large number of reciprocal preferential trade agreements (RTAs) have been concluded among countries. Recently many studies have used gravity equations in order to estimate the effect of RTAs on trade flows between partners. These studies report very different estimates since they differ greatly in data sets, sample sizes and independent variables used in the analysis. So, what is the "true" impact of RTAs? This paper combines, explains and summarizes a large number of results (1827 estimates included in 85 papers), using a meta-analysis (MA) approach. Notwithstanding quite a high variability, studies consistently find a positive RTAs impact on bilateral trade: the hypothesis that there is no effect of trade agreements on trade is easily and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Free trade agreements; Gravity equation; Meta-regression analysis; Publication bias; International Relations/Trade; C10; F10.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18877
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Renewable energy - new forces in global ethanol trade? AgEcon
Salamon, Petra; Ledebur, Oliver von; Elmahdi, Kamal; Klepper, Rainer.
The paper presents an extended gravity equation application for the global trade with ethanol. The background and different attempts for a theoretical foundation of the standard approach are discussed. The econometric work takes regional integration schemes into account, as well as the influence of the production factor agricultural land and the level of oil prices on the world market. Results indicate that global bilateral trade flows of ethanol can be explained by a set of comprehensive explanatory variables, including regional agreements and the price level of oil. From a global perspective the EU effect on trade flows is trade diverting as the regional agreement reduces the linkage to world markets and increases the intra-regional level of trade with...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Gravity equation; Bilateral trade flows; Trade with renewable energy; Biofuels; And econometric estimation; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10045
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Technical Barriers to Trade in the European Union : Importance for the New EU Members. An Assessment for Agricultural and Food Products AgEcon
Chevassus-Lozza, Emmanuelle; Majkovic, Darja; Persillet, Vanessa; Unguru, Manuela.
This paper aims to assess the role of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) for new member states (NMSs) exports in the agri-food sector, in the period just before the EU accession actually stepped into force. The assessment is based on a detailed sectoral gravity model, which was enhanced with inclusion of different categories of NTBs: sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS), quality measures and import certificates. While the first two categories have implications primarily on production costs, the last category relates to transaction costs. SPS and quality measures do not so much act as barriers to trade for NMSs agro-food exports in the period immediately before joining the single market (year 2003), and their diminishing role, confirmed by the use of gravity...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Non-tariff barriers; Eastern European enlargement; Acquis communautaire; Gravity equation; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24621
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The border effect in agricultural markets between European Union, OECD and LDC countries AgEcon
Olper, Alessandro; Raimondi, Valentina.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Border effect; Gravity equation; Agricultural trade; European Union; LDCs; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37817
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The Effect of Innovation on Agricultural and Agri-food Exports in OECD Countries AgEcon
Ghazalian, Pascal L.; Furtan, William Hartley.
This paper investigates the effect of innovation on primary agricultural and processed food product exports among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. A theoretical gravity equation that accounts for innovation is derived. The empirical exercise uses panel data sets covering 21 OECD countries for the period 1990-2003. The R&D capital stock is employed as a tangible way of measuring innovation. Empirical results show that R&D has enhanced exports in the primary agricultural sector. Meanwhile, the market expansion effect of R&D appears to be more than offset by the market power effect in the food processing sector, resulting in a decrease in exports. Also, evidence was found of a positive vertical...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Food; Gravity equation; Innovation; OECD; R&D; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7075
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Trade Impact of European Measures on GMOs Condemned by the WTO Panel AgEcon
Disdier, Anne-Celia; Fontagne, Lionel.
In May 2003, the United States, Canada and Argentina launched a World Trade Organization (WTO) case against the European Union concerning its authorization regime for biotech products. In November 2006, the WTO condemned this regime. Using a gravity equation, we estimate the reduction of exports from the complainants to the European Union for potentially affected products. Our results suggest that the European moratorium and product-specific measures have a negative effect on trade, as well as safeguard measures adopted by Germany, Italy and Greece.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Genetically modified organisms; WTO dispute settlement; Gravity equation; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44392
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