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Registros recuperados: 14
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Analysis of Budget Policy on Agriculture under Different Governance Regimes AgEcon
Ayoola, Gbolagade Babalola.
Towards resolving the role of governance in economic development, a model of factualcounterfactual analysis was formulated to determine the relative preference of two different regimes for agriculture in the public expenditure budget of developing countries. The poster is in eight main slides: Introduction (1); Model presentation (2, 3); Application to Nigeria (4,5); Empirical Results (6, 7); Conclusion (8). The results indicate that (a) the military showed greater preference for capital allocations to agriculture in the budget while the civil regime showed greater preference for recurrent allocation, which reflects the presence of strong opposition during the civilian regime that tends to over blow the size of civil service workforce engaged in...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Budget policy; Governance regimes; Factual-counterfactual; Preference for agriculture; Capital allocation; Recurrent allocation; Total allocation; Agricultural and Food Policy; H5; H6.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25560
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Are Agricultural Policies Making Us Fat? Likely Links Between Agricultural Policies and Human Nutrition and Obesity, and their Policy Implications AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Sumner, Daniel A.; Vosti, Stephen A..
Rates of obesity among adults and children in the U.S. are soaring, with potentially huge private and social costs. Increasing attention is being paid to agricultural policies as both the culprits through their perceived roles in reducing the relative prices of energy-dense foods, and as the potential saviors through their perceived ability to do the opposite. However, the effects of agricultural policies on human nutrition and obesity are not well understood. This paper considers (1) trends in agricultural commodity prices, and the contributions of commodity policies and agricultural R&D policies to those trends, (2) the links between changes in commodity prices and changes in food prices; and (3) the implications of price-induced changes in food...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: H5; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q18; Q16; I0.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25343
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Auctioning Conservation Payments using Environmental Indices AgEcon
Cattaneo, Andrea.
A framework for analyzing conservation programs that rank applications using environmental indices is presented. We derive the optimal bid from the farmer's perspective for both land retirement and working lands agri-environmental payment programs and we analyze how these solutions depend on program design parameters. The distinction is made between environmental objectives based on whether the farmer exercises control or not over the level proposed in a bid to participate in a program. The optimization model is solved analytically for two cases - a land retirement and a working lands program - highlighting the differences in the results. For land retirement programs we conclude that, for the cases considered, the exogenous environmental performance does...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental payments; Program design; Participation incentives; D8; H5; Q28; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25438
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Developing Poverty Assessment Tools Based on Principal Component Analysis: Results from Bangladesh, Kazakhstan, Uganda, and Peru AgEcon
Zeller, Manfred; Houssou, Nazaire; Alcaraz V., Gabriela; Schwarze, Stefan; Johannsen, Julia.
Developing accurate, yet operational poverty assessment tools to target the poorest households remains a challenge for applied policy research. This paper aims to develop poverty assessment tools for four countries: Bangladesh, Peru, Uganda, and Kazakhstan. The research applies the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to seek the best set of variables that predict the household poverty status using easily measurable socio-economic indicators. Out of sample validations tests are performed to assess the prediction power of a tool. Finally, the PCA results are compared with those obtained from regressions models. In-sample estimation results suggest that the Quantile regression technique is the first best method in all four countries, except Kazakhstan. The PCA...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty assessment; Targeting; Principal component analysis; Bangladesh; Peru; Kazakhstan; Uganda; Food Security and Poverty; H5; Q14; I3.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25396
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Does Composition of Government Spending Matter to Economic Growth? AgEcon
Yu, Bingxin; Fan, Shenggen; Saurkar, Anuja.
This paper assesses the impact of the composition of government spending on economic growth in developing countries. We use a dynamic GMM model and a panel data set for 44 developing countries between 1980 and 2004. We find that the various types of government spending have different impact on economic growth. In Africa, human capital spending contributes to economic growth whereas in Asia, capital formation, agriculture and education has strong growth promoting effect. In Latin America, none of government spending items has significant impact on economic growth. Our results are robust regardless of model specifications and instruments chosen.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Government expenditure; Growth; GMM; Agricultural and Food Policy; Financial Economics; International Development; H5; O1; C232.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51684
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Food Security and Efficacy of the Intervention Mechanism in India AgEcon
Prahadeeswaran, M.; Ramasamy, C.; Selvaraj, K.N..
Rice and wheat are the two major foodgrains in India and their level of production determines the country self-sufficient. Forecasts on cereals supply range from 250 to over 300 million tones in the country by the year 2020. Mere availability of foodgrains is not a sufficient condition to ensure food security but also necessary that the poor have sufficient means to purchase food. Poor economic access leads to food security and it has been checked by the government mechanism through the operation of Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) and foodgrains are distributed at subsidized prices to the people living Below Poverty Line (BPL). It is a safety net to more than 330 million poor and those nutritionally at risk and an important delivery channel with...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Security; Targeted Public Distribution System; Fair Price Shops; Minimum Support Price; Monte Carlo Technique; Food Security and Poverty; J21; H4; H5; O2; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25465
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Innovations in Government Responses to Catastrophic Risk Sharing for Agriculture in Developing Countries AgEcon
Skees, Jerry R.; Barnett, Barry J.; Hartell, Jason G..
Markets for transferring catastrophic risk in agriculture are woefully lacking in developing countries. Even in developed countries, markets for transferring the risk of crop losses caused by natural hazards generally exist only with large government subsidies. However, such subsidies can be expensive, inefficient, and have detrimental implications that make future catastrophes even worse. In developing countries fiscal constraints limit the degree to which governments can subsidize markets for agricultural risk-sharing. Nonetheless, there are specific things governments can do to facilitate the development of these markets. This paper addresses the role of government in agricultural risk-sharing for natural disasters that impact crop yields or livestock...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Risk and Uncertainty; D8; H5; Q14; Q18; Q54.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25548
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ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENT OF STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL IN UZBEKISTAN AgEcon
Pulatov, Dilshod.
State financial system reforms in Uzbekistan among other priorities aims to provide effective public financial control. Taken steps have already provided satisfactory results in increasing efficiency in revealing and preventing infringements of budgetary entities. Important direction in the area is further development of treasury system, new budget classifications and accounting for budget expenditures, strengthening public audit of public expenditures allocation.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: State financial control; Treasury; Budget expenditures efficiency; Audit; Financial Economics; International Development; H5; H83.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94541
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Oil and Agriculture in the Post-Separation Sudan AgEcon
Siddig, Khalid H.A..
The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), which was signed by the government of Sudan and the Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) ended more than 20 years of civil war. According to the CPA, the Sudan’s government has 50% of the oil exploited from the wells existing in the south in addition to the oil produced from the northern wells. The latter represents about 30% of the total oil production in Sudan. In January 2011, the people in southern Sudan have voted for separation from the Sudan and in July 2011 the Republic of South Sudan was officially announced as Africa’s newest state. Now the CPA period is over and the south possesses its entire production of oil, but need to use the export infrastructure that exists in the north to export it. For...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Oil; Agriculture; Sudan; South Sudan; Separation; CGE modelling; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; C6; D5; D6; F1; F2; H5; N5.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122341
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Public Expenditure and International Specialisation AgEcon
Brulhart, Marius; Trionfetti, Federico.
It is widely recognised that public-sector purchasers tend to discriminate in favour of domestic suppliers. We study the consequences of home-biased public procurement on international specialisation. In the theoretical analysis we find two effects. First, a country will specialise in the sector for which it has relatively large home-biased procurement (the "pull" effect). Second, home-biased procurement can counter agglomeration forces and thereby attenuate the overall degree of international specialisation (the "spread" effect). Our empirical analysis, conducted on input-output data for the European Union, yields supporting evidence for the pull effect and some support for the spread effect. Es ist hinlänglich bekannt, dass Käufer aus dem öffentlichen...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Public expenditure; International specialisation; Economic geography; European Union; Input-output analysis; Public Economics; H5; F1; R3; R15.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26299
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Should China revisit the 1994 fiscal reforms? AgEcon
Ahmad, Ehtisham.
The 1994 reforms in China were remarkably successful in stabilizing the economy and raising revenues for the benefit of sustainable growth and permitting the central government to redistribute resources to poorer regions through an equalization framework. However, the rise of informal local borrowing in the absence of effective own-source revenues raises possible risks and imbalances in the future. There is thus a need to reconsider the fundamentals of intergovernmental fiscal relations, building on the basis laid in the 1994 reforms.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Financial Economics; H2; H5; H6; H7.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115922
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Systematic Policy Decisions on Direct Income Payments in Agricultural Policies AgEcon
Fellmann, Thomas; Mollers, Judith.
Direct income payments (DIP) are in the centre of the discussion in the ongoing political debate whether agricultural policy objectives can be pursued in an economically more efficient and less distorting way. This paper discusses under which circumstances DIP are an appropriate and efficient measure to address the objectives of agricultural policies. It identifies and examines the characteristics that DIP should have in the context of different objectives. If governments want to meet their policy objectives by the use of DIP efficiently, a precise definition of the objective is crucial. An optimal policy design achieves a specific objective while keeping the impact on economic distortions low and ensuring efficiency in the allocation of resources. The...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Direct income payments; Agricultural policy; Policy objectives; Decision tree; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q18; E6; H5.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25684
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The CAP and the EU budget: Do the ex-ante data tell the true? AgEcon
Sotte, Franco.
The aim of this paper is to suggest the adoption of an "evidence based" approach in the analysis of CAP expenditure. The debate on CAP expenditure is generally based on ex-ante images of the budget as presented in the Multiannual Financial Framework and, before each financial year, on the budget appropriations for commitments. But this differs significantly from the actual payments as recorded ex-post in the Financial Reports. These differences are mainly concentrated on structural policies (such as regional and rural development policy), while they do not exist, or are minimal, in the mere transfer policies (such as in Pillar 1 of the CAP). Based as it is on a partial and distorted image of the expenditure, the analysis and discussion on the CAP reform is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: CAP expenditure; Financial reports; Evidence based approach; CAP reform; Agricultural and Food Policy; H5; F5.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99835
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The Incidence of Agricultural Subsidies on Farmland Rental Rates: Overcoming Bias From Inertia, Expectations, and Tenancy Arrangements AgEcon
Hendricks, Nathan P.; Janzen, Joseph P.; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C..
Recent studies indicate that the effect of government subsidies on rental rates for farmland may be lower than once thought and lower than predictions from theory. However, there are still a number of unresolved issues in estimating subsidy incidence econometrically. We identify three such issues, inertia, expectations, and tenancy arrangements, and employ panel data from the state of Kansas to resolve them. Our econometric model suggests that subsidy incidence on rental rates is low in the short run, but consistent with predictions from theory in the long run.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm subsidies; Incidence; Cash rents; Agricultural and Food Policy; Land Economics/Use; Q1; H5.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61469
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