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A Partial Equilibrium Model of the Beef and Dairy Sector in Italy Under Imperfect Competition AgEcon
Moro, Daniele; Sckokai, Paolo; Soregaroli, Claudio.
In this paper we present a partial equilibrium model for the bovine sector (beef and dairy) in Italy, which can be used for simulation and forecasting. The structure of the model follows the vertical chain of the beef and dairy sector, allowing trade of both agricultural raw materials and final products. Since the processing and retailing stage is characterised by an imperfectly competitive structure, the model accounts for market power in modelling the price transmission mechanism. This provides further insights on the vertical transmission of shocks, both at the final level (i.e. the BSE crisis) and at the farm level (i.e. agricultural policy reform).
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Simulation models; Policy analysis; Imperfect competition; Beef; Dairy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24787
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ALTERNATIVE OLIGOPOLISTIC STRUCTURES IN INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY MARKETS: PRICE OR QUANTITY COMPETITION? AgEcon
Carter, Colin A.; MacLaren, Donald.
It has been shown in new trade theory that trade taxes/subsidies may be optimal in the case of oligopolistic markets. This result has relevance for international commodity markets because there is growing evidence of imperfect competition in commodity trade. However, it has also been demonstrated that the optimal strategic trade policy depends on whether the market is distinguished by Bertrand (price) or Cournot (quantity) competition. We argue that commodity markets may be characterised by either form of imperfect competition and also by product differentiation. As an illustration, we present a set of models of the Japanese market for beef imports in which account is taken of various forms of strategic interaction between Australian and United States...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Strategic trade theory; Imperfect competition; Oligopolistic international commodity markets; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51223
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An Analysis of Pricing in the U.S. Cotton Seed Market AgEcon
Shi, Guanming; Stiegert, Kyle W.; Chavas, Jean-Paul.
The purpose of the research in this paper is to investigate the impact of differentiated vertical strategies by agricultural biotechnology firms in the U.S. cottonseed market. The model advances the measurement of industry concentration to consider substitution/complementarity relationships among differentiated products delivered under different vertical structures. We find evidence of sub-additive pricing in the stacking of bundled biotech traits. Prices paid by farmers for cottonseed sold under vertical integration are found to be higher than under licensing. The model is flexible and allows for evaluation of the effects of changing market structures. The parameters on traditional measures of concentration indicate that higher concentration leads to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Modal Vertical Strategy; Imperfect competition; Cotton seed; Biotechnology; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; Industrial Organization; L13; L4; L65.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51617
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Climate Policy, Carbon Leakage and Competitiveness: How Might Border Tax Adjustments Help? AgEcon
Sheldon, Ian M.; McCorriston, Steve.
In this paper, analysis is presented relating to the impact of border tax adjustments for climate policy on the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries, and the related problem of carbon leakage. While many of the economic and legal issues are not particularly new, climate policy does present some possible twists to the analysis of border tax adjustments when vertically-related markets can be characterized as a successive oligopoly. Specifically, an appropriate border tax adjustment will depend on the incidence of a domestic carbon tax, the nature of competition in upstream and downstream sectors, as well as the basis for assessing the trade neutrality of any border tax adjustment. If trade neutrality is defined in terms of market...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate policy; Carbon leakage; Border tax adjustments; Imperfect competition; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; H87; Q38.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103207
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Crop Research Incentives in a Privatized Industry: A Stochastic Approach AgEcon
Malla, Stavroula; Gray, Richard S..
We model today's privatized crop research industry as a small number of firms, developing and selling differentiated products to heterogeneous producers. Crop variety research is modeled as a search process, which allows us to differentiate between applied and basic research and recognize research as a stochastic process. We use the framework to develop a number of propositions regarding private research incentives, the spillovers of knowledge, and the impact of public policy. The results suggest an underinvestment in research even when property rights have been established.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Search process; Stochastic process; Biotechnology; IPRs; Applied R&D; Basic R&D; Imperfect competition; Differentiated products; Heterogeneous producers.; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24936
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Effects of Country of Origin Labeling in the U.S. Meat Industry with Imperfectly Competitive Processors AgEcon
Chung, Chanjin; Zhang, Tong; Peel, Derrell S..
The study examines the impacts of implementing mandatory country of origin labeling (COOL) on producer and consumer welfare in the U.S. meat industry. The equilibrium displacement model developed in this study includes twenty-nine equations representing retail-, processing-, and farm-level equilibrium conditions for the beef, pork, and chicken industries. Unlike previous studies, the model allows trade between domestic- and foreign-origin products and considers the imperfectly competitive market structure of meat processers. Empirical results show that without a significant increase in domestic meat demand, producers are not expected to benefit from the mandatory COOL implementation. Results of a sensitivity analysis indicate that consumers tend to bear...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Checkoff; Country of origin labeling; Imperfect competition; Price elasticity; Marketing.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59255
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ESTIMATING MARKET POWER BY RETAILERS IN THE ITALIAN PARMIGIANO REGGIANO AND GRANA PADANO CHEESE MARKET AgEcon
Sckokai, Paolo; Soregaroli, Claudio; Moro, Daniele.
In this paper, we evaluate the role of market power by retailers within the supply chain of Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano, the two most famous Italian quality cheeses. Market power is analysed in the context of an imperfect competition model of the supply chain, in which retailers are allowed to exercise market power both downstream and upstream. We jointly estimate market power parameters together with supply and demand elasticities, by means of a structural system of demand, supply and price transmission equations, estimated using the Generalised Method of Moments. We find clear evidences of downstream market power by retailers (toward final consumers), and no evidences of upstream market power (toward processors/ripeners). These results may be...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Market power; Imperfect competition; PDO cheese; Agricultural and Food Policy; Industrial Organization; Q13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51425
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EVALUATING U.S. GENERIC MILK ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS USING AN IMPERFECT COMPETITION MODEL AgEcon
Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Kaiser, Harry M.; Lenz, John E.; Forker, Olan D..
An analytical model to evaluate the effectiveness of u.s. generic milk advertising which incorporates the degree of market competition is presented. Unlike traditional perfect competition models, the imperfect competition model allows for simultaneous movement of both price and quantity with an endogenous fluid (Class I) price differential. The simulation results of the imperfect competition model are compared with the conventional exogenous fluid price differential model. It is shown that the conventional fixed fluid price differential model may under-state the effectiveness of U.s. generic milk advertising in terms of returns to producers.
Tipo: Technical Report Palavras-chave: Generic milk advertising; Imperfect competition; Fluid differential; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123015
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Grain Distribution in Ghana under Imperfectly Competitive Market Conditions AgEcon
Langyintuo, Augustine S..
Interspatial and intertemporal grain distribution in Ghana is a private sector activity carried out mainly by traders. These traders sometimes collude to maximize their joint profits. By so doing they influence the conduct of the grains market. To examine the effect of their actions on the informal maize market in Ghana, a spatial equilibrium model was estimated under three scenarios: (1) Perfect competition, (2) Cournot-Narsh conjectures, and (3) Collusion. The results indicate that imperfect competition distorts grain flows, reduces consumer welfare and depresses traders’ sales revenue. Collusive behavior of traders, on the other hand, causes the greatest distortion of grain flows as well as trader and consumer welfare. These results draw attention to...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Spatial equilibrium; Monopoly; Imperfect competition; Interspatial; Cournot- Narsh conjectures; Crop Production/Industries; D4; L1.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96166
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Imperfect Competition and Total Factor Productivity Growth in U.S. Food Processing AgEcon
Azzam, Azzeddine M.; Lopez, Elena; Lopez, Rigoberto A..
This article examines the role of imperfect competition in determining total factor productivity growth (TFPG) by bringing together a New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) model and the TFPG model of Nadiri and Mamuneas (1998). Applying the integrated model to 1973-92 data from 29 food processing industries revealed that changes in markups, economies of scale, and demand growth contributed positively to TFPG while the disembodied technical change was a negative contributor. Furthermore, the TFPG estimates are starkly different from the conventional (Solow's residual) TFPG measures, underscoring the need to account for imperfect competition, returns to scale, and demand in analyses of this type.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Productivity growth; Imperfect competition; Scale economies; Food processing; Agribusiness; Industrial Organization; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25147
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Imperfect Competition between Milk Manufacturers and Retailers in a Midwestern State in the U.S. AgEcon
Hovhannisyan, Vardges; Stiegert, Kyle W..
This manuscript studies the market conduct of the milk manufacturers and retail chains in a Midwestern state in the U.S. Following the menu approach we employ a random coefficient logit demand model to investigate several possible scenarios on the supply side. Demand estimates are obtained using both cross-sectional and time series variation in data. We also allow annual variation in consumer demographics which helps identify the coefficients of interaction between consumer demographics and product characteristics. To further enhance identification power we allow choice set of milk to vary across markets. The results are most supportive of the conjecture that manufacturers behave competitively letting the retailers be the residual claimants. Later they...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Market conduct; Random coefficient logit; Vertical chain; Imperfect competition; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; Industrial Organization; D43; L13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98844
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Imperfect competition in the fresh tomato industry AgEcon
Hadj Djelloul, Mohammed; Requillart, Vincent; Simioni, Michel.
In this paper, we analyse the market power of the retail industry in the French tomato market. Following the methods developed in the New Empirical Industrial Organization, we develop a structural model of this industry. The analysis is based on detailed data on final consumption and prices at both shipper and consumer levels for two types of tomatoes in France. The structural model is composed of a system of demand equation and supply equation. Supply equation includes a term that represents the market power of the retail sector. We use different models of demand in order to test the robustness of our results. We show that i) elasticity of demand varies during the year ii) the retail sector exercise only a "moderate" market power iii) the estimated...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Market power; Imperfect competition; Fresh products; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; Marketing; L13; Q13; L66; L81.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6682
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INFORMATION SHARING AND OLIGOPOLY IN AGRICULTURAL MARKETS: THE ROLE OF BARGAINING ASSOCIATIONS AgEcon
Hueth, Brent; Marcoul, Philippe.
We study incentives for information sharing (about uncertain future demand for final output) among firms in imperfectly competitive markets for farm output. Information sharing generally leads to increases in expected total welfare but may reduce expected firm profits. Even when expected firm profits increase, information sharing does not represent equilibrium behavior because firms face a prisoner?s dilemma in which it is privately rational for each firm to withhold information, given that other firms report truthfully. This equilibrium can be overcome if firms commit to simultaneously reporting their information and if reports are verifiable. We argue that agricultural bargaining associations serve both these roles.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural markets; Bargaining; Imperfect competition; Information; Marketing.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18576
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Market Power and Output-Based Refunding of Environmental Policy Revenues AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn.
Output-based refunding of environmental policy revenues combines a tax on emissions with a subsidy to output. With imperfect competition, subsidies can discourage output underprovision. However, when market shares are significant, endogenous refunding suffers compared to a fixed subsidy. Refunding the emissions tax according to market share reduces the incentive to abate, and marginal abatement costs will not be equalized if market shares differ. In a Cournot duopoly, endogenous refunding leads to higher output, emissions, and possibly costs compared to a fixed rebate program. These results hold whether emission rates are determined simultaneously or strategically in a two-stage model.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions tax; Earmarking; Tradable performance standards; Imperfect competition; Cournot; Duopoly; Refunding; Subsidy; Environmental Economics and Policy; H21; H23; Q2.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10893
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Market Power in UK Food Retailing: Theory and Evidence from Seven Product Groups AgEcon
Lloyd, Tim A.; McCorriston, Steve; Morgan, C. Wyn; Rayner, Anthony J.; Weldegebriel, Habtu T..
Establishing the presence of market power in food chains has become an increasingly pertinent line of enquiry given the trend towards increasing concentration that has been observed in many parts of the world. This paper presents a theoretical model of price transmission in vertically related markets under imperfect competition. The model delivers a quasi-reduced form representation that is empirically tractable using readily available market data to test for the presence of market power. In particular, we show that the hypothesis of perfect competition can be rejected if shocks to the demand and supply function are significant and correctly signed in price transmission equations. Using a cointegrated vector autoregression, we find empirical results that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Imperfect competition; Cointegrated VARs; UK food industry; Marketing; D4; L81.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25712
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Measuring Competitiveness in Twos AgEcon
Cahill, Sean A..
Improvements in competitiveness can be achieved through policy initiatives, but the success of these policies will depend upon the way that firms and consumers respond. This paper establishes the conditions under which a policy change can lead to an improvement in the competitiveness of a Canadian firm. There are two firms (Canadian, U.S.) each with two brands and each making sales in two markets (Canada, U.S.) and two consumers, one in Canada and one in the U.S. Equilibrium is shown to depend on inverse compensated demand function coefficients, the conjectured best response coefficients for each firm and marginal cost functions for each firm. An improvement in competitiveness from an investment in public infrastructure in Canada is shown to depend upon...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Competitiveness; Imperfect competition; Public infrastructure investment; Industrial Organization; International Relations/Trade; F12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102038
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MIRAGE, Updated Version of the Model for Trade Policy Analysis: Focus on Agriculture and Dynamics AgEcon
Decreux, Yvan; Valin, Hugo.
MIRAGE is a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model, devoted to trade policy analysis. It incorporates imperfect competition, horizontal and vertical product differentiation, and foreign direct investment, in a sequential dynamic set-up where installed capital is assumed to be immobile. Adjustment inertia is linked to capital stock reallocation. MIRAGE draws upon a very detailed measure of trade barriers and of their evolution under given hypotheses, thanks to the MAcMap database. The most recent version, presented in this paper, offers improvements in the modelling of agriculture policy and dynamics.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Computable general equilibrium model; Trade policy; Dynamics; Foreign direct investment; Imperfect competition; International Relations/Trade; D58; F12; F13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7284
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Noncompetitive Pricing and Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Mauritanian Octopus Export Markets AgEcon
Kazmierczak, Richard F., Jr.; Zapata, Hector O.; Diop, Hamady.
Octopus exports are an important source of foreign exchange for Mauritania. The export market has historically been dominated by coordinated Japanese buyers, a situation that led Mauritania to create the Societe Mauritanienne de Commercialisation de Poisson (SMCP) to negotiate with buyers and manage all octopus exports. Issues concerning competitiveness, price discrimination, and exchange rate pass-through in the Mauritanian octopus export market corrected for contemporaneous and serial correlation. Results indicate some degree of price discrimination across destination markets, market share enhancement through local currency price stabilization, and increases in marginal costs of production following nationalization of the Mauritanian trawler fleet. Thus,...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International trade; Exchange rates; Imperfect competition; Octopus fisheries; Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90407
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NONCOMPETITIVE PRICING AND EXCHANGE RATE PASS-THROUGH IN SELECTED U.S. AND THAI RICE MARKETS AgEcon
Yumkella, Kandeh K.; Unnevehr, Laurian J.; Garcia, Philip.
A "pricing to market" international trade model is applied to U.S. and Thai rice exports to high and middle income countries that are continuous rice importers. These markets are characterized by strong quality preferences and highly inelastic demand, and thus exporters may exercise market power. Evidence of noncompetitive pricing either through price discrimination across destinations or through imperfect exchange rate pass-through is found in this small but growing segment of the international rice trade.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Exchange rates; Imperfect competition; International trade; Rice; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15183
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OBSERVATIONS ON COOPERATIVE BARGAINING IN U.S. AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AgEcon
Hueth, Brent; Marcoul, Philippe.
This paper identifies market and commodity characteristics that seem to support successful cooperative bargaining in markets for farm output. Bargaining is not just about increasing prices paid to farmers; indeed, although there is very little empirical research that addresses the issue, what evidence does exist suggests that cooperative bargaining has very little direct influence on price. Nevertheless, the price negotiation process may be useful in itself as a form of price discovery in markets where there is uncertainty about market supply and demand conditions, and bargaining associations can play an important role in ensuring contract reliability. These and other benefits must be weighed against the organizational and ongoing operational costs of a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural markets; Cooperative bargaining; Imperfect competition; Marketing.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18526
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