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Registros recuperados: 166
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A Diagnostic Procedure for Transformative Change Based on Transitions, Resilience, and Institutional Thinking Ecology and Society
Ferguson, Briony C.; Monash Water for Liveability; Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities; Monash University; briony.ferguson@monash.edu; Brown, Rebekah R.; Monash Water for Liveability; Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities; Monash University; Rebekah.Brown@monash.edu; Deletic, Ana; Department of Civil Engineering; Monash Water for Liveability; Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities; Monash University; ana.deletic@monash.edu.
Urban water governance regimes around the world have traditionally planned large-scale, centralized infrastructure systems that aim to control variables and reduce uncertainties. There is growing sectoral awareness that a transition toward sustainable alternatives is necessary if systems are to meet society’s future water needs in the context of drivers such as climate change and variability, demographic changes, environmental degradation, and resource scarcity. However, there is minimal understanding of how the urban water sector should operationalize its strategic planning for such change to facilitate the transition to a sustainable water future. We have integrated concepts from transitions, resilience, and institutional theory to develop a...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Institutions; Resilience; Strategic planning; Sustainability; Transformative change; Transition; Urban water.
Ano: 2013
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A Framework to Analyze the Robustness of Social-ecological Systems from an Institutional Perspective Ecology and Society
Anderies, John M; Arizona State University; m.anderies@asu.edu; Janssen, Marco A; Indiana University; maajanss@indiana.edu; Ostrom, Elinor; Indiana University; ostrom@indiana.edu.
What makes social-ecological systems (SESs) robust? In this paper, we look at the institutional configurations that affect the interactions among resources, resource users, public infrastructure providers, and public infrastructures. We propose a framework that helps identify potential vulnerabilities of SESs to disturbances. All the links between components of this framework can fail and thereby reduce the robustness of the system. We posit that the link between resource users and public infrastructure providers is a key variable affecting the robustness of SESs that has frequently been ignored in the past. We illustrate the problems caused by a disruption in this link. We then briefly describe the design principles originally developed for robust...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Institutions; Resilience; Robustness; Social-ecological systems.
Ano: 2004
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A MULTIFUNCIONALIDADE DA AGRICULTURA E SUAS EXTERNALIDADES POSITIVAS PARA O DESENVOLVIMENTO LOCAL AgEcon
Watanabe, Kassia; Schmidt, Carla Maria.
A idéia do conceito da Multifuncionalidade da Agricultura é: agricultura é multifuncional porque além da função central de fornecimento de alimento e fibra, também fornece outras funções ou serviços para toda sociedade, produzindo externalidades positivas. Este conceito pode ser relevante para construir políticas públicas de desenvolvimento para o Brasil, internalizando as externalidades positivas. A questão é: “Como as externalidades positivas podem ser internalizadas?” Um modo para internalizar as externalidades positivas da agricultura seria adicionar valor aos produtos locais através das certificações, considerando que atividades agrícolas têm um papel essencial para o desenvolvimento da área rural e preservação das tradições culturais. Será...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Instituições; Multifuncionalidade; Externalidades positivas; Institutions; Multifunctionality; Positive Externalities; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113380
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A Portfolio Approach to Analyzing Complex Human-Environment Interactions: Institutions and Land Change Ecology and Society
Young, Oran R.; University of California at Santa Barbara, Bren School; young@bren.ucsb.edu; Lambin, Eric F.; University of Louvain; lambin@geog.ucl.ac.be; Alcock, Frank; New College of Florida; falcock@ncf.edu; Haberl, Helmut; Institute of Social Ecology; Helmut.Haberl@uni-klu.ac.at; Karlsson, Sylvia I.; Finland Futures Research Centre; sylvia.karlsson@tukkk.fi; McConnell, William J.; LUCC Focus 1 Office; wjmcconn@indiana.edu; Myint, Tun; CIPEC; tmyint@indiana.edu; Polsky, Colin; Clark University; cpolsky@clarku.edu; Ramakrishnan, P. S.; Jawaharlal Nehru University; psrama@jnuniv.ernet.in; Schroeder, Heike; University of California at Santa Barbara; schroeder@bren.ucsb.edu; Scouvart, Marie; University of Louvain; scouvart@geog.ucl.ac.be; Verburg, Peter H; Wageningen University; Peter.Verburg@wur.nl.
The challenge confronting those seeking to understand the institutional dimensions of global environmental change and patterns of land-use and land-cover change is to find effective methods for analyzing the dynamics of socio-ecological systems. Such systems exhibit a number of characteristics that pose problems for the most commonly used statistical techniques and may require additional and innovative analytic tools. This article explores options available to researchers working in this field and recommends a strategy for achieving scientific progress. Statistical procedures developed in other fields of study are often helpful in addressing challenges arising in research into global change. Accordingly, we start with an assessment of some of the enhanced...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Land change; Institutions; Methodology; Analysis; Socio-ecological systems; Statistical techniques.
Ano: 2006
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A Review of Design Principles for Community-based Natural Resource Management Ecology and Society
Cox, Michael; Indiana University; miecox@indiana.edu; Arnold, Gwen; Indiana University; gbarnold@indiana.edu.
In 1990, Elinor Ostrom proposed eight design principles, positing them to characterize robust institutions for managing common-pool resources such as forests or fisheries. Since then, many studies have explicitly or implicitly evaluated these design principles. We analyzed 91 such studies to evaluate the principles empirically and to consider what theoretical issues have arisen since their introduction. We found that the principles are well supported empirically and that several important theoretical issues warrant discussion. We provide a reformulation of the design principles, drawing from commonalities found in the studies.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Common-pool resources; Design principles; Diagnostics; Institutions.
Ano: 2010
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A Revised Conceptual Framework for Payments for Environmental Services Ecology and Society
Sommerville, Matthew M.; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London; m.sommerville06@imperial.ac.uk; Jones, Julia P. G.; School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Bangor; julia.jones@bangor.ac.uk; Milner-Gulland, E. J.; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London; e.j.milner-gulland@imperial.ac.uk.
Over the past decade, “Payments for Environmental Services” (PES) have received a great deal of attention as a natural-resource management approach. We propose a revised definition and framework for PES implementation that focuses on the use of positive incentives as the philosophy behind PES and conditionality as the method for influencing behaviors. We note the importance of additionality of PES interventions to justify their value in a wider context. Finally, we highlight the need to understand the local institutional context in terms of the characteristics of buyers, sellers, and their relationship for implementation to be effective. Our framework acts as a platform to begin examining how the variety of options for structuring PES...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Additionality; Conditional; Ecosystem services; Environmental management; Incentives; Institutions; Monitoring; Transactions.
Ano: 2009
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Adaptive Comanagement in the Venice Lagoon? An Analysis of Current Water and Environmental Management Practices and Prospects for Change Ecology and Society
Munaretto, Stefania; University IUAV of Venice, Faculty of Urban and Regional Planning, Venice, Italy; VU University - Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam, Netherlands; stefania.munaretto@ivm.vu.nl; Huitema, Dave; VU University - Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam, Netherlands; dave.huitema@ivm.vu.nl.
Adaptive comanagement (ACM) is often suggested as a way of handling the modern challenges of environmental governance, which include uncertainty and complexity. ACM is a novel combination of the learning dimension of adaptive management and the linkage dimension of comanagement. As has been suggested, there is a need for more insight on enabling policy environments for ACM success and failure. Picking up on this agenda we provide a case study of the world famous Venice lagoon in Italy. We address the following questions: first, to what extent are four institutional prescriptions typically associated with ACM currently practiced in the Venice system? Second, to what extent is learning taking place in the Venice system? Third, how is learning related to the...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptiveness; Comanagement; Governance; Institutions; Learning; Venice lagoon.
Ano: 2012
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AGRICULTURAL FINANCING POLICIES AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA AgEcon
Eze, Christopher C.; Lemchi, J.I.; Ugochukwu, Albert I.; Eze, V.C.; Awulonu, C.A.O.; Okon, A.X..
The study examined the agricultural financing policies of the government of Nigeria and effects on rural development .The study found that though the government has made serious efforts at making good agricultural policies through schemes, programmes and institutions, it has not been able to back them up with adequate budgetary allocation and financing coupled with corruption in the execution of the policies. It is recommended that for the government agricultural financing policies to achieve its target of rural development, Nigeria will need an adequate level of strategically targeted investment in agriculture, upgrade rural infrastructure, boost productivity, and increase competitiveness of the farm output, in addition to fighting corruption.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural financing; Policies; Institutions; Rural; Development; International Development.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91677
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Agricultural science and technology policy for growth and poverty reduction AgEcon
Omamo, Steven Were; Naseem, Anwar.
This paper argues that the largely unrealized potential of agricultural science and technology (S&T) in promoting growth and poverty reduction in developing countries results from deeply rooted incompatibility among policy environments, institutional arrangements, and micro conditions and behavior in agricultural research and development (R&D). Achieving growth and poverty reduction based on greater agricultural productivity therefore means achieving greater compatibility among these three dimensions of agricultural innovation systems. Research is sorely needed to build understanding of (1) the “big picture” influencing agricultural S&T policy design and implementation in developing countries, (2) strategies for sustainable funding and delivery...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Science; Technology; Policy; Institutions; Poverty reduction; Agricultural technology; Agricultural science; Policy research; Food Security and Poverty; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59694
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Agricultural Sciences in Upland Northern Vietnam: Situating Research in a Dynamic Environment AgEcon
Friedrichsen, Rupert.
This paper aims to provide an introductory overview over the socio-cultural context of Northern Vietnam to agricultural researchers. The paper focuses on the interplay between Vietnam's lowlands and the uplands to specify what makes the Northern uplands a distinct region; as an object of empirical agricultural research and as a context of application of research results. The paper reviews the developments of selected social institutions from pre-colonial times to the current era of "renovation". First, developments in Vietnam's legal and administrative structures are outlined. Second, education and higher education, particularly the agricultural sciences, are discussed. The third and main part elaborates on social, political, and economic specifics of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Vietnam; Northern uplands; Agricultural research; Ethnic minorities; Institutions; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8532
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Agricultural Statistics in Sub-Saharan Africa: Differences in Institutional Arrangements and their Impacts on Agricultural Statistics Systems. A Synthesis of Four Country Case Studies. AgEcon
Kelly, Valerie A.; Donovan, Cynthia.
A major push supporting improved data collection and analysis is required if African countries are to successfully design and implement results- based Poverty Reduction Strategy Programs (PRSP) and the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program (CAADP) being promoted by the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD). Over the years there have been many initiatives to build statistical capacity in Africa. Many problems have plagued these efforts, including inadequate funding and...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Africa; Agriculture; Statistics; Institutions; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q10.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54558
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Agriculture and Protection of Landscape Area of the White Carpathians AgEcon
Krumalova, Veronika; Backman, Stefan.
The protected landscape area of the White Carpathians in Czech Republic is confronted with several threats. The protection of the landscape involves instituted policies and restrictions on production. Due to the approaching EU accession and the possible subsequent institutional changes, there is an increased demand for knowledge on production opportunities and threats. In addition there are immediate concerns on the relation between agricultural production and the environment. One major concern is the abandonment of agricultural land. In this article the combination of production elements and protection is described. Factor analyses are used to identify groups of farms with similarities in production structure and organisation. The results of the factor...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Factor analysis; Landscape protection; Livestock production; Policies; Institutions; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18883
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Aid, Governance, and Private Foreign Investment: Some Puzzling Findings and a Possible Explanation AgEcon
Harms, Philipp; Lutz, Matthias.
Does official aid pave the road for private foreign investment or does it suffocate private initiative by diverting resources towards unproductive activities? In this paper we explore this question using data for a large number of developing and emerging economies. Controlling for countries' institutional environment, we find that, evaluated at the mean, the marginal effect of aid on private foreign investment is close to zero. Surprisingly, however, the effect is strictly positive for countries in which private agents face a substantial regulatory burden. After testing the robustness of this result, we offer a theoretical model that is able to rationalize our puzzling observation.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Aid; Foreign Direct Investment; Institutions; International Relations/Trade; F35; F21; O16; O19.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26128
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Aligning Key Concepts for Global Change Policy: Robustness, Resilience, and Sustainability Ecology and Society
Anderies, John M; Arizona State University; m.anderies@asu.edu; Folke, Carl; Beijer Institute for Ecological Economics; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University; carl.folke@beijer.kva.se; Walker, Brian; CSIRO Ecosystem Science; Brian.Walker@csiro.au; Ostrom, Elinor; Indiana University; ostrom@indiana.edu.
Globalization, the process by which local social-ecological systems (SESs) are becoming linked in a global network, presents policy scientists and practitioners with unique and difficult challenges. Although local SESs can be extremely complex, when they become more tightly linked in the global system, complexity increases very rapidly as multi-scale and multi-level processes become more important. Here, we argue that addressing these multi-scale and multi-level challenges requires a collection of theories and models. We suggest that the conceptual domains of sustainability, resilience, and robustness provide a sufficiently rich collection of theories and models, but overlapping definitions and confusion about how these conceptual domains articulate with...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Fragility; Global change; Governance; Institutions; Resilience; Robustness; Sustainability.
Ano: 2013
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An Approach to Assess Relative Degradation in Dissimilar Forests: Toward a Comparative Assessment of Institutional Outcomes Ecology and Society
Tucker, Catherine M.; Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana; tuckerc@indiana.edu; Randolph, J. C.; Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana; randolph@indiana.edu; Evans, Tom; Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana; evans@indiana.edu; Andersson, Krister P.; University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado;; Persha, Lauren; Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana;; Green, Glen M.; Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana;.
A significant challenge in the assessment of forest management outcomes is the limited ability to compare forest conditions quantitatively across ecological zones. We propose an approach for comparing different forest types through the use of reference forests. We tested our idea by drawing a sample of 42 forests from the Midwest USA, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Brazil, Bolivia, Uganda, and Nepal. We grouped these forests by shared characteristics and selected a reference forest to serve as a baseline for each forest type. We developed an index of disturbances using ratios of several forest measurements to assess differences between each study forest and its reference forest. None of the study forests was known to have been impacted by major natural...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Biophysical factors; Comparative analysis; Forest management; Institutions; Multidisciplinary methodology; Reference forests.
Ano: 2008
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An Econometric Test of the Endogeneity of Institutions: Water Markets in the Western United States AgEcon
Hansen, Kristiana; Howitt, Richard E.; Williams, Jeffrey C..
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/28/05.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Water markets; Institutions; Environmental costs; Third-party costs; Water rights; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q25.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19548
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An Immune System Perspective on Ecosystem Management Ecology and Society
Janssen, Marco A; Indiana University; maajanss@indiana.edu.
A new perspective for studying the complex interactions between human activities and ecosystems is proposed. It is argued that biological immune systems share a number of similarities with ecological economic systems in terms of function. These similarities include the system's ability to recognize harmful invasions, design measures to control and destroy these invasions, and remember successful response strategies. Studying both the similarities and the differences between immune systems and ecological economic systems can provide new insights on ecosystem management.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive systems; Artificial immune systems; Biological invasions; Ecological economic systems; Ecosystem management; Immune systems; Institutions; Models.
Ano: 2001
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An Integrated Approach to Analyzing (Adaptive) Comanagement Using the “Politicized” IAD Framework Ecology and Society
Whaley, Luke; Water Science Institute, Cranfield University; l.whaley@cranfield.ac.uk; Weatherhead, Edward K.; Water Science Institute, Cranfield University; k.weatherhead@cranfield.ac.uk.
Scholars of comanagement are faced with a difficult methodological challenge. As comanagement has evolved and diversified it has increasingly merged with the field of adaptive management and related concepts that derive from resilience thinking and complex adaptive systems theory. In addition to earlier considerations of power sharing, institution building, and trust, the adaptive turn in comanagement has brought attention to the process of social learning and a focus on concepts such as scale, self-organization, and system trajectory. At the same time, a number of scholars are calling for a more integrated approach to studying (adaptive) comanagement that is able to situate these normative concepts within a critical understanding of how context and power...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Comanagement; Adaptive comanagement; IAD Framework; Politicized IAD Framework; Methodology; Institutions; Power; Discourse; Resilience.
Ano: 2014
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An investigation of the relationship between depth to groundwater and malaria prevalence, Punjab, Pakistan AgEcon
Donnelly, M.J.; Birley, M.H.; Konradsen, Flemming.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Groundwater; Malaria; Waterborne diseases; Land use; Public health; Farmers; Institutions; Infrastructure; Maps; Statistics; Rice; Farm Management; Health Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113607
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Assessing the Factors Underlying Differences in Group Performance: Methodological Issues and Empirical Findings from the Highlands of Central Kenya AgEcon
Place, Frank; Kariuki, Gatarwa; Wangila, Justine; Kristjanson, Patricia; Makauki, Adolf; Ndubi, Jessica.
This paper examines the performance of rural groups in Kenya and addresses the methodological issues and challenges faced in doing this, and presents the empirical evidence regarding various hypothesized explanatory factors for relative performance levels. Eighty-seven groups and 442 households were surveyed using several approaches. Various performance measures were tested. Both descriptive analysis and regression models were used to gain a better understanding of the group-level and household-level factors that explain performance. Collective action is desired and practiced for a large number of tasks. The findings highlight the incredible number, diversity and dynamic nature of groups in the highlands of Kenya (and we suspect this finding is not...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Collective action; Natural resource management; Technology adoption; Institutions; Kenya; Calliandra; Farm Management.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50060
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