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Building Criminal Capital Behind Bars: Social Learning in Juvenile Corrections AgEcon
Bayer, Patrick; Pintoff, Randi; Pozen, David E..
This paper analyzes the influence that juvenile offenders serving time in the same correctional facility have on each other’s subsequent criminal behavior. The analysis is based on data on over 8,000 individuals serving time in 169 juvenile correctional facilities during a two-year period in Florida. These data provide a complete record of past crimes, facility assignments, and arrests and adjudications in the year following release for each individual. To control for the non-random assignment of juveniles to facilities, we include facility fixed effects in the analysis. This ensures that the impact of peers on recidivism is identified using only the variation in the length of time that any two individuals serving a sentence in the same facility happen to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social learning; Peer effects; Social interactions; Recidivism; Juvenile crime; Human capital accumulation; Labor and Human Capital; H0; J0; J2; K1.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28511
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Children's Educational Completion Rates and Dropouts in the Context of Ethiopia's National Poverty Reduction Strategy AgEcon
Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele.
A combination of quantitative and qualitative method was used to analyse the determinants of school completion/dropout of children from primary education. A Cox box proportional hazard model was used analyse the survival of children in primary education. The findings have important implications for the formulation and revising Ethiopian Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. While the policy focus of the 1996-initiated ESDP and the SDPRP (2002-5) on increasing educational access for all has been broadly successful, children from poor and/or highly indebted families still face significant constraints because they have to contribute to household survival through paid and unpaid work. It is therefore imperative to increase efforts to improve the livelihood options...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Education; Children; Ethiopia; PRSP; Poverty; Survival analysis; Labor and Human Capital; A2; D1; J2.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25351
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¿Crisis real o crisis de expectativas?: el empleo en el Perú antes y después de las reformas estructurales AgEcon
Saavedra Chanduvi, Jaime.
En esta investigación se analizan los mecanismos de ajuste del mercado de trabajo entre 1986 y 1997. Luego de un estancamiento del empleo entre 1988 y 1992, periodo recesivo en el cual el mercado de trabajo se ajustó a través de una reducción en los ingresos reales y una menor tasa de participación laboral, a partir de 1993, el empleo empezó a crecer junto con el nivel de actividad económica. El mercado de trabajo fue capaz de absorber el aumento de la oferta de empleo en ese periodo. El aumento del empleo fue generado íntegramente por el sector privado, ya que el empleo público se redujo. Sin embargo, hay grupos demográficos específicos, como los hombres de mayor edad, para quienes el crecimiento del empleo ha sido muy pequeño, y las probabilidades de...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Empleo; Desempleo; Ingreso; Mercado de trabajo; Sector informal; Ajuste estructural; Employment; Unemployment; Income; Labour market; Informal sector; Structural adjustment; Peru; Labor and Human Capital; E24; D31; J2; J4.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37981
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Determinants of Farm Household Income Diversification in the United States: Evidence from Farm-Level Data AgEcon
Mishra, Ashok K.; Erickson, Kenneth W.; Harris, James Michael; Hallahan, Charles B.; Uematsu, Hiroki.
This study examines the determinants of income diversification of farm households in the United States. Farm households allocate their time between farm and off-farm activities to help stabilized household income (consumption). What characterizes those households who engage in off-farm activities? Is there any pattern over time? Using 1999, 2003 and 2007 farm-level data from the USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), this study estimates intensity of off-farm income (or income diversification). The results show that older operators, full owners, and small farms have higher intensity of off-farm income in total household income. In contrast, dairy farms, vertically coordinated farms and farms located in the Southern and Pacific regions have...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Tobit; Income diversification; Vertical integration; Tenure; Farm households; Agricultural Finance; Consumer/Household Economics; D1; J2; Q12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61632
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El beneficio de los caminos rurales: ampliando oportunidades de ingreso para los pobres AgEcon
Escobal D'Angelo, Javier; Ponce, Carmen.
Muchos estudios han evaluado los beneficios de los caminos rurales concentrándose en la reducción de costos monetarios y de tiempo en que los pobladores incurren para acceder a mercados de bienes e insumos o a servicios públicos clave. Esta investigación complementa dicho enfoque con una evaluación del impacto de este tipo de infraestructura sobre indicadores clave de bienestar como el ingreso y el gasto de los hogares atendidos. Con una muestra de hogares rurales de algunos de los distritos más pobres del Perú, este estudio compara hogares conectados a caminos rurales rehabilitados con hogares control cuidadosamente escogidos, mediante técnicas de propensity score matching. Los resultados muestran que las mejoras en la infraestructura rural de transporte...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carreteras; Ingresos de hogares; Empleo; Zonas rurales; Peru; Roads; Household income; Employment; Rural areas; Peru; Community/Rural/Urban Development; H54; P25; J17; R2; J2.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37750
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Family Values and the Regulation of Labor AgEcon
Alesina, Alberto; Algan, Yann; Cahuc, Pierre; Giuliano, Paola.
Flexible labor markets requires geographically mobile workers to be efficient. Otherwise, firms can take advantage of the immobility of workers and extract monopsony rents. In cultures with strong family ties, moving away from home is costly. Thus, individuals with strong family ties rationally choose regulated labor markets to avoid moving and limiting the monopsony power of firms, even though regulation generates lower employment and income. Empirically, we do find that individuals who inherit stronger family ties are less mobile, have lower wages, are less often employed and support more stringent labor market regulations. There are also positive cross-country correlations between the strength of family ties and labor market rigidities. Finally, we find...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Family Values; Regulation of Labor; Labor Markets; Labor and Human Capital; J; J2; J4.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90908
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Gender Policies in Entrepreneurship Development: An Intra-Household Market Analysis AgEcon
Ayoola, Josephine Bosede.
The universal implementation of women empowerment programmes has received analytical attention within the economic theory context . A two-commodity structure of the customary household economy was conceptualized, and analysed under the usual assumptions to describe the nature of the intra-household market for women entrepreneurship. The low-income household system produces two hypothetical commodities namely, Women Entrepreneurship (WE) and Non-Entrepreneurial Works (NEW) which form the main elements of the Stone-Geary type utility function. A system of linear expenditure equation was derived and estimated by regression to yield the empirical parameters of demand curve for WE. while the supply curve was derived based on the traditional production function...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Women entrepreneurship; Non-entrepreneural works; Supply curve; Demand curve; Equilibrium analysis; Gender-segregated policies; Labor and Human Capital; D1; Q12; J2.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25382
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HIV/AIDS and Adolescent's School-Work Choices in Malawi AgEcon
Nankhuni, Flora J..
Malawi is facing a severe HIV/AIDS Pandemic. With an estimated prevalence rate of 14.2%, it ranks eight in the world. About 900,000 Malawians were infected by 2003 and there were110,000 new infections and 87,000 deaths due to HIV/AIDS in 2003. The disease has poten tially devastating impacts. For example, 'taking children out of school' is mentioned as one of the coping mechanisms (Garbus 2003) but evidence is mixed. Doctor (2004) found no statistically significant difference between enrollment of orphans and non-orphans and mentioned an effective extended family structure as explanation. However, HIV/AIDS, poverty, macroeconomic policies, and food shortages are reported to render informal safety networks of the extended family systems irrelevant (Garbus...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Demographic Economics; Time Allocation; Malawi; Labor and Human Capital; 01; J1; J2; Human Capital; 05.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25540
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Human Capital Investment and the Gender Division of Labor in a Brawn-Based Economy AgEcon
Pitt, Mark M.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Hassan, Md. Nazmul.
We use a model of human capital investment and activity choice to explain facts describing gender differentials in the levels and returns to human capital investments. These include the higher return to and level of schooling, the small effect of healthiness on wages, and the large effect of healthiness on schooling for females relative to males. The model incorporates gender differences in the level and responsiveness of brawn to nutrition in a Roy-economy setting in which activities reward skill and brawn differentially. Empirical evidence from rural Bangladesh provides support for the model and the importance of the distribution of brawn.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Brawn; Health; Schooling; Gender; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; O1; J1; J2.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93916
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INTERTEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYMENT DECISIONS ON AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS IN SLOVENIA AgEcon
Juvancic, Luka; Erjavec, Emil.
The paper attempts to quantify determinants influencing dynamics of employment decisions on agricultural households in Slovenia and to test specific aspects of labour reallocation during transition period by application of agricultural household model. Through the use of 1991-2000 panel data for 22,055 farm households, quantitative analysis of intertemporal employment decisions of farm holders is carried out by the use of probit techniques. Determinants tested refer to personal characteristics of reference persons (gender, age, education level, opportunity off-farm income), household characteristics (size, structure),characteristics of the agricultural holding (economic size, labour input,labour intensity) and local labour market conditions. The model...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Employment decisions; Mobility of labour supply; Off-farm employment; Probit model; Labor and Human Capital; J2; J6.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25840
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Labor Market Competitiveness and Poverty AgEcon
Goto, Hideaki.
How does labor market competitiveness frame the impact of greater labor productivity and lower inequality on poverty? Specifically, does greater competitiveness increase the impact of higher labor productivity and lower inequality on poverty reduction? In a simple model, we show that there is complementarity between competitiveness and productivity – the greater is one, the larger is the impact of the other. This suggests that improving labor market competitiveness is worthwhile not only for its own sake, but because it improves the transmission mechanism from productivity increases to poverty reduction. We also derive precise conditions under which there is a similar complementarity between equality and competitiveness in poverty reduction.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Inequality; Labor productivity; Market competitiveness; Poverty; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Political Economy; D6; I32; J2; J64.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51159
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Measuring and Analyzing Farm Financial Stress AgEcon
Harris, James Michael; Williams, Robert P.; Morehart, Mitchell J.; Erickson, Kenneth W.; Mishra, Ashok K..
The financial health of the agricultural economy has been excellent for the past few years, especially with farm income reaching record levels. However, the U.S. economy has experienced a recession and a credit crisis. Although the U.S. farm sector has been mostly shielded from the economic downturn, farm financial stress is still possible under current conditions. Are some U.S. farm businesses, especially those with term debt, poised to experience significant financial stress in 2010? We use the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), sponsored jointly by USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS) and National Agricultural Statistical Service, to help answer this question.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Off-farm income; Farm investment; Double hurdle; Agricultural Finance; Financial Economics; D1; J2.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61528
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Microeconomic Flexibility in Latin America AgEcon
Caballero, Ricardo J.; Engel, Eduardo M.R.A.; Micco, Alejandro.
We characterize the degree of microeconomic inflexibility in several Latin American economies and find that Brazil, Chile and Colombia are more flexible than Mexico and Venezuela. The difference in flexibility among these economies is mainly explained by the behavior of large establishments, which adjust more promptly in the more flexible economies, especially when accumulated shocks are substantial. We also study the path of flexibility in Chile and show that it declined in the aftermath of the Asian crisis. This decline can account for a substantial fraction of the large decline in TFP-growth in Chile since 1997 (from 3.1 percent per year for the preceding decade, to about 0.3 percent after that). Moreover, if it were to persist, it could permanently...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Microeconomic rigidities; Creative-destruction; Job flows; Restructuring and reallocation; Productivity growth; Financial Economics; E2; J2; J6.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28527
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Migration and Income Diversification Evidence from Burkina Faso AgEcon
Taylor, J. Edward; Wouterse, Fleur.
This paper uses limited-dependent variable methods and new data from Burkina Faso to test the impact of inter-continental and continental migration on activity choice and incomes in rural households. We provide theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence that the impact of emigration varies both by migrant destination and production activity. We find no evidence of either positive or negative effects of continental migration on agricultural or livestock activities and a small negative impact on non-farm activities. However, inter-continental migration, which tends to be long term and generates significantly larger remittances, stimulates livestock production while being negatively associated with staple and non-farm activities.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital; D1; J2; Q12.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25379
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Off-farm Income and Investments in Farm Assets: A Double Hurdle Approach AgEcon
Harris, James Michael; Blank, Steven C.; Erickson, Kenneth W.; Hallahan, Charles B..
The farm household structure is a complex set of inter-relationships between and among a variety of internal and external factors involving consumption, investment, and income-earning activities. In this paper we use ARMS data to explore the contribution of off-farm income to the viability of the farm business. We focus on the link between off-farm income and farm investment and whether off-farm income drives on-farm investment. The results indicate the importance of farm characteristics such as type, size, and location on the probability of investment but lead us to reject the hypothesis that off farm income is driving farm investment. Further research will be needed to further unweave some of the complex relationships involved in the farm household...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Off-farm income; Farm investment; Double hurdle; Agricultural Finance; Financial Economics; D1; J2; Q12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61531
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Place of Work and Place of Residence: Informal Hiring Networks and Labor Market Outcomes AgEcon
Bayer, Patrick; Ross, Stephen L.; Topa, Giorgio.
We use a novel dataset and research design to empirically detect the effect of social interactions among neighbors on labor market outcomes. Specifically, using Census data that characterize residential and employment locations down to the city block, we examine whether individuals residing in the same block are more likely to work together than those in nearby blocks. We find evidence of significant social interactions operating at the block level: residing on the same versus nearby blocks increases the probability of working together by over 33 percent. The results also indicate that this referral effect is stronger when individuals are similar in sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., both have children of similar ages) and when at least one individual...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Neighborhood effects; Job referrals; Social interactions; Social networks; Labor supply; Labor and Human Capital; J0; J2; J3; J6; R0.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28433
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The benefits of rural roads: enhancing income opportunities for the rural poor AgEcon
Escobal D'Angelo, Javier; Ponce, Carmen.
Most studies have measured the benefits of rehabilitated rural roads by focusing on reductions in monetary or time costs needed to access product and factor markets or key public social services. This paper complements these studies by evaluating their impact on key welfare indicators such as income or consumption. Looking at rural households living in some of the poorest districts of Peru, this study compares (using propensity score matching techniques) households located near rehabilitated roads to suitable controls. Results show that rehabilitated road accessibility can be related to changes in income sources, as the rehabilitated road enhances non-agricultural income opportunities, especially from wage-employment sources. The study also finds that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carreteras; Ingresos de hogares; Empleo; Zonas rurales; Perú; Roads; Household income; Employment Rural areas; Peru; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; H54; P25; J17; R2; J2.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37751
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The Effect of Farm Labor Organization on IPM Adoption: Empirical Evidence from Thailand AgEcon
Beckmann, Volker; Irawan, Evi; Wesseler, Justus.
This paper examines the empirical evidence of a theoretical economic model of the effect of labor organization on IPM adoption developed by Beckmann and Wes seler (2003). We use cross section data collected from the participatory farming system survey of 150 durian growers in Chanthaburi, Thailand, on March – April 2005. In contrast to many studies of IPM adoption, this work uses the form of farm labor organiza tion as endogenous factor for identifying the rate of IPM adoption of durian growers. Instrumental variables method was employed to relate econometrically a set of suspected variables as instruments of labor organization to the rate of IPM adoption of duri an growers. Results show that, among others, farms employing hired labor have a lower adoption...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Labor Organization; IPM Adoption; IV -Tobit; Farm labor; Agricultural Extension; Farm Management; Labor and Human Capital; Q16; J2; J43.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25711
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The Effect of Farm Labor Organization on IPM Adoption. Empirical Evidence from Thailand AgEcon
Beckmann, Volker; Irawan, Evi; Wesseler, Justus.
This paper examines the effect of labor organization on integrated pest management (IPM), using cross section data collected from a participatory farming system survey of 157 durian growers in Chanthaburi, Thailand, in 2005. In contrast to many studies of IPM adoption, this work uses the form of farm labor organization as an endogenous factor for identifying the rate of IPM adoption among durian growers. The instrumental variables method was employed to econometrically relate a set of alleged variables as instruments of labor organization to the rate of IPM adoption. Results show that, among others, farms employing hired labor have a significantly lower adoption rate of IPM.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Labor Organization; IPM Adoption; 2SLS; Farm Labor; Agricultural Extension; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Financial Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Political Economy; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q16; J2; J43.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55767
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The Impact of Immigration on American Workers and Businesses AgEcon
Lewis, Ethan.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital; J2; J43.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94469
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