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Registros recuperados: 20
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Causes and Consequences of Supply-Demand Gap for Labour in Sugarcane in India AgEcon
Sharma, Ashwani K.; Prakash, Brahm.
The paper has estimated the demand for human labour use in sugarcane and other competing crops and changes over time in its use in major cane-growing states. It has also examined the supply-demand gap in human labour for sugarcane and has provided some coping strategies. The study, based on the primary as well as secondary data on the use of human labour for sugarcane for the past 30 years (1980 to 2010), has found that sugarcane cultivation is least mechanized and most labour-intensive in almost all major canegrowing states of India. The labour-use per hectare has increased in all the cane-growing states, except Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Study has revealed that the proportion of casual labour has increased over the years in sub-tropical states because...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Labour supply; Supply-demand gap; Labour demand; Sugarcane; Agricultural and Food Policy; J22; J23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119389
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Coping with the Supply-Demand Gap of Agricultural Labourers: A Case Study of Uttar Dinajpur District of West Bengal AgEcon
Roy, Tapan Kumar; Bagchi, Kanak Kanti; Sarkar, Chinmoy.
The present paper has analyzed the mechanism by which farmers try to cope with the supply-demand gap of agricultural labourers during busy agricultural seasons in the face of growing shortage of agricultural labourers. The traditional mechanism of patron-client relationship between farmers and agricultural labourers has been dealt with in this regard. In this paper an attempt has been made to find answer to the following questions: What is the degree of attachment of the agricultural labourers with the employer? Is there any patron-client relationship between the employer and the employee? How effective is this relationship as a coping mechanism to mitigate the problem of supply-demand gap of agricultural labourers? The paper is based on a micro level...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Patron-client relationship; Supply-demand gap; Farmer-labourer attachment; Agricultural labourers; Agricultural and Food Policy; J22; J23; J43.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119404
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Demand for seasonal wage labour in agriculture: what does family farming hide? AgEcon
Darpeix, Aurelie; Bignebat, Celine; Perrier-Cornet, Philippe.
Seasonal wage labour was rarely distinguished from the permanent one in farm-household models although it has sharply increased in developed countries. Therefore, we propose to endogenize the demand for this peculiar labour type and highlight the trade-offs for the various labour combinations on farms. We use data on fruit and vegetables farms drawn from the 2000 French agricultural census. We show that seasonal wage labour is a substitute for permanent wage employment, and doesn't entirely follow the seasonality of the agricultural activity: competition on the labour and product markets play a significant role in the employment of labour types.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural household model; Wage labour; Seasonality; France; Consumer/Household Economics; Farm Management; Labor and Human Capital; Production Economics; J43; D13; J23; Q12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50956
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Determinantes da duração esperada do emprego urbano e rural no Nordeste brasileiro AgEcon
Monte, Paulo Aguiar do; Penido, Mariangela Rangel Jacques.
This study seeks to examine the determinants of the duration in employment in all Northeastern states of Brazil for the years 1993 and 2003. In order to do so, we used the data from the National Survey per Residence Samples (PNAD) which is done by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), every year. Results obtained by the parametric model showed that the duration of the relationship of employment is higher for men and older workers. With regard to the regional aspect, it was found that residents in the states of Pernambuco and Bahia - precisely those with the highest unemployment rates - have higher turnover when compared to other northeastern states.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Duration; Urban employment; Rural employment.; Agribusiness; J23; J64..
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61194
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Determinants of Poverty among U.S. Farm Households AgEcon
El-Osta, Hisham S.; Morehart, Mitchell J..
This research uses data from the 2004 Agricultural Resource Management Survey and probit regression to examine the determinants of poverty among U.S. farm households. The findings reveal, among others, the importance of a livelihood strategy that combines participation in government programs and off-farm work in lowering poverty rates. Findings also show the importance of educational attainment of the farm operator in mitigating poverty, but only when poverty is measured on a relative rather than an absolute basis. Policy recommendations are provided in the context of these findings.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Composite measure of economic well-being; Government programs; Off-farm work; Poverty; Agricultural Finance; Financial Economics; Labor and Human Capital; J23; J24; D3; I21; I32; C81.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45037
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Do Trading Partners Matter for Labour Market Inequality? The Malaysian Case AgEcon
Devadason, Evelyn.
This study examines the differential impact of major bilateral trade flows on labour market inequality for the period 1983 to 2000. The focus is on the key trading partners of Malaysia, which are the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the United States of America and Japan. The paper finds that the direction of trade or rather the “whom” aspects of trade matter for inequality trends. There are striking differences on the labour market when export destinations are considered relative to import sources. The results suggest that an expansion in exports to countries that are relatively skilled labour abundant causes greater product market competition, thereby increasing the demand for skilled labour vis-a-vis unskilled labour in the domestic...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Bilateral trade flows; Skill inequality; Wage inequality; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; J23; F16.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50161
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Effective Labor Regulation and Microeconomic Flexibility AgEcon
Caballero, Ricardo J.; Cowan, Devin N.; Engel, Eduardo M.R.A.; Micco, Alejandro.
Microeconomic flexibility, by facilitating the process of creative-destruction, is at the core of economic growth in modern market economies. The main reason for why this process is not infinitely fast is the presence of adjustment costs, some of them technological, others institutional. Chief among the latter is labor market regulation. While few economists would object to such a view, its empirical support is rather weak. In this paper we revisit this hypothesis and find strong evidence for it. We use a new sectoral panel for 60 countries and a methodology suitable for such a panel. We find that job security regulation clearly hampers the creative-destruction process, especially in countries where regulations are likely to be enforced. Moving from the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Microeconomic rigidities; Creative-destruction; Job security regulation; Adjustment costs; Rule of law; Productivity growth; Labor and Human Capital; E24; J23; J63; J64; K00.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28486
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Exchange Rate Uncertainty and Labour Market Adjustment under Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates AgEcon
Chen, Yu-Fu; Funke, Michael.
The standard literature on working time has modelled the decisions of firms in a deterministic framework in which firms can choose between employment and overtime (given mandated standard hours). Contrary to this approach, we follow the real options approach, which allows us to investigate the value to a firm of waiting to adjust labour when the firm´s revenues in domestic currency are stochastic and adjustment costs are sunk. The simulations reject the null hypothesis that all exchange rate regimes obey common employment adjustment thresholds.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Real Option Theory; Uncertainty; Working Time; Employment; Labour Demand; Exchange Rates; Financial Economics; Labor and Human Capital; D81; E24; J23; F31.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26287
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Impact of MGNREGA on Rural Employment and Migration: A Study in Agriculturally-backward and Agriculturally-advanced Districts of Haryana AgEcon
Ahuja, Usha Rani; Tyagi, Dushayant; Chauhan, Sonia; Chaudhary, Khyali Ram.
The study conducted in the state of Haryana has investigated the impact of implementation of MGNREGA in two districts — one agriculturally-advanced (Karnal) and the other agriculturally-backward (Mewat). Besides demographic characteristics, the paper has investigated the difference in the employment status, income, landholding size, herd size and other assets of the sample farm households in these two districts by taking 120 farm families, 60 from each district. The impact of MGNREGA within a district has also been studied in terms of income and employment security, migration, debt repayment, extent of participation in MGNREGA works, socio-economic status, etc. by seeking information from 30 participating and 30 nonparticipating households in MGNREGA works...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: MGNREGA; Rural employment; Rural-urban migration; Haryana; Agricultural and Food Policy; J23; J61.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119403
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Impact of Rural Development Scheme on Availability of Agricultural Labour — A Study of Dairy Farmers in Thanjavur District of Tamil Nadu AgEcon
Maheshwari, M. Selva; Gangwar, L.S..
This study conducted in the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu, has indentified the problems being faced by dairy farmers due to scarcity of farm labour for agricultural and livestock production. The study is based on the data collected from 40 selected respondents involved in crop production and dairying in the study area during the year 2008-09 through primary survey. The study has revealed that the implementation of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) has provided employment opportunities to rural workers and has checked the migration of farm labour from villages to cities and nearby industrial townships. All the eligible family member of landless dairy farmers had the job cards, but medium and large dairy farmers...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: MGNREGS; Agricultural labour; Labour demand; Labour wage rates; Rural – urban migration; Agricultural and Food Policy; J22; J23; J38; J39.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119390
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Internationalisierung der Dienstleistungserstellung: Konsequenzen fur den schweizerischen Arbeitsmarkt AgEcon
Henneberger, Fred; Ziegler, Alexandre.
This paper analyses the potential employment effects of foreign direct investment in the Swiss services industry. First, the theoretical analysis considers the consequences on domestic employment resulting from the specific characteristics of services compared with those of industrial goods. It is demonstrated that conventional research in this field systematically ignores important factors which influence domestic employment. We point out that, not only the degree of tradability of services, but also the mobility of consumers and producers, as well as the motives underlying the decisions for foreign investment have a crucial influence on the consequences to be expected for the domestic labour market. Second, an initial attempt was undertaken to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Foreign direct investment; Employment effects; Services; Tourism; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; F21; F23; J23; L80; L83.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26248
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Labour Demand and Labour-saving Options: A Case of Groundnut Crop in India AgEcon
Govindaraj, G.; Mishra, A.P..
Groundnut is a labour-intensive crop, especially for operations like sowing, weeding, harvesting, and drying. But, of-late, due to timely unavailability of labour, many farmers are not able to exercise timely operations resulting in low yield realization. The present study conducted in two major groundnut-growing states, viz. Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, has revealed that farmers employ more human labour in weeding and harvesting operations in groundnut than in other operations. The practise of manual decortication and stripping is followed by a larger number of farmers in Andhra Pradesh than in Gujarat, indicating less mechanization in the former. For weeding, though, the human labour-use in weedicide + bullock intercultivation + hand weeding technique is...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Labour demand; Groundnut cultivation; Labour-saving techniques; Agricultural and Food Policy; J23; J21.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119394
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Labour Migration in Indo-Gangetic Plains: Determinants and Impacts on Socio-economic Welfare AgEcon
Singh, N.P.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, Ranjit; Padaria, R.N.; Singh, Alka; Varghese, Nisha.
In India, male out-migration from rural to urban areas has increased in recent years, especially in the Indo- Gangetic regions of the country. This indicates that most of the developed regions of India are utilizing labour force of backward areas. The paper has investigated on labour out-migration from the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar to find its determinants and its impacts on farm economy. The analysis of determinants shown that the number of members in a family and their educational status have a positive impact on migration. As a result of male out-migration, the women left behind in the villages assume a major role in various farm activities resulting in the so-called ‘feminization of agriculture’. It has also empowered the female members of the...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Labour migration; Feminization of agriculture; Farm-women empowerment; Impact on farm socio-economy; Agricultural and Food Policy; J61; J23; J31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119396
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Locating Foreign Affiliates in Germany: The Case of Swedish MNEs AgEcon
Braconier, Henrik; Ekholm, Karolina.
This paper uses a dataset on the foreign activities by Swedish manufacturing firms to examine the performance of German affiliates compared with affiliates in other locations. It is found that German affiliates, on average, have higher labour productivity, R&D expenditure per employee and skill-intensity. There is also evidence suggesting that German affiliates are more oriented towards selling in the local market than affiliates in other European countries. We also analyse the effect of labour costs in the Swedish multinational enterprises' (MNEs') decision to locate in Germany. We find that the location decision is sensitive to the level of wage costs in Germany and in other potential locations in high-income Europe, but not to the level of wage...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Labor demand; Multinational firms; Foreign affiliates; Germany; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; F23; J23.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26200
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Poverty and the Rural Non-Farm Economy in Oromia, Ethiopia AgEcon
van den Berg, Marrit; Kumbi, Girma Earo.
The rural non-farm sector has gained increasing importance over the past decades. In much of Africa, this has had limited effect on the poor, who face entry barriers to non-farm activities. As a result, the nonfarm economy does not reduce poverty but increases inequality instead. Some, but not all, evidence for Ethiopia, however, contradicts this general pattern: the poor do participate in the nonfarm economy, but apparently this does not lift them out of poverty. The present paper analyses the relation between non-farm income and inequality in Oromia, the largest state of Ethiopia, where most households rely on rainfed agriculture for their livelihood. The traditional development approach of providing technology and infrastructure to increase agricultural...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty; J23; J32; O15; Q12.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25689
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Recent Developments in Farm Labour Availability in India and Reasons behind its Short Supply AgEcon
Alha, Akhil; Yonzon, Bijoyata.
The agricultural sector is India has been characterized with high supply of labour than demand, low wages, skewed distribution of land, and limited options of earning livelihood. This sector has undergone a vast change in recent past, mainly due to the increased rural-to-urban migration and partly due to the inception of MGNREGS and other public works. The structural changes in Indian economy in recent past have made male-migration a lucrative phenomenon while schemes like MGNREGS are found to be attractive for females in rural locations due to various reasons discussed in the paper. This has caused a shortage of farm labour and consequently, an upward push in agricultural wages. The study has suggested that there is a need to implement MGNREGA and other...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: MGNREGS; Farm labour; Rural employment; Labour availability; Agricultural and Food Policy; J22; J61; J23; H23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119388
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Rural Employment Diversification in India: Trends, Determinants and Implications on Poverty AgEcon
Kumar, Anjani; Kumar, Sant; Singh, Dhiraj Kumar; Shivjee.
This paper has studied rural employment diversification in India and across major states using NSSO data at household level for the period 1983 and 2009-10. Factors affecting rural employment diversification towards non-farm sector have also been studied. Analysis has shown that the non-farm sector has consistently grown over time and employed nearly one-third of the rural workforce in 2009-10, as compared to merely one-fifth in 1983 at all-India level. The similar trend is seen across major states as well, though the pace and pattern varied widely. In providing employment to rural workforce, increasing dominance of crop production, followed by animal husbandry was observed across major states during 2009-10. The share of fishery and forestry was...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Rural employment; Employment diversification; Crop sector; Agricultural and Food Policy; J21; J23; O15; O18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119386
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Scarcity of Agricultural Labour in Cold-Arid Ladakh: Extent, Implications, Backward Bending and Coping Mechanism AgEcon
Baba, S.H.; Wani, M.H.; Shaheen, F.A.; Zargar, Bilal A.; Kubrevi, S.S..
This paper has investigated the extent of agricultural labour shortage, its implications and combating strategies in a cold-arid eco-region of Ladakh in Jammu & Kashmir. The study has observed that the intensity of male agricultural labour has decreased and of female labour has increased in the cold-arid region of Ladakh, thereby, suggesting imparting of professionalism through extension trainings and other capacity building programmes among female labourers. Regression analysis has revealed that the extent of mechanization, literacy and income of non-agricultural workers are significant and negative determinants of labour availability, while improvement in landholding size and land productivity would significantly improve their supply to the farming...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Labour scarcity; Implications of labour scarcity; Coping strategies for labour scarcity; Agricultural and Food Policy; J21; J23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119391
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Superstores and Labour Demand: Evidence from Great Britain AgEcon
Guariglia, Alessandra.
The objective of this paper is to quantify the net effect that the massive opening of edge or out-of-town superstores, which took place in Great Britain in the mid-eighties and early nineties, had on local employment. Our data set consists of the location and the opening dates of Tesco and Sainsbury’s stores, in combination with Census of Employment data from 1984 to 1991. Using both a fixed-effects specification and a system-GMM specification which allows to control for endogeneity, we find that in spite of the adverse effects they had on competing smaller stores, superstores had an overall positive net effect on employment.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Superstores; Labor demand; Labor and Human Capital; J23; R23.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44291
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Wages and Employment Growth: Disaggregated Evidence for West Germany AgEcon
Suedekum, Jens; Blien, Uwe.
We address the effects of wages on employment growth on the basis of a theoretical model from which cost and demand effects can be derived. In the empirical analysis we take a highly disaggregated perspective and apply a newly developed shift-share regression technique on an exhaustive and very accurate data set for West Germany. The regression shows that the impact of regional wages on employment growth is significantly negative. There is some variation of this effect across sectors, but in no case we find support for the claim that an exogenous wage increase leads to higher employment growth.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Employment Growth; Shift-Share-Analysis; Regional Wages; Purchasing Power Argument; Labor and Human Capital; J23; E24; R11.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26283
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