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Registros recuperados: 23
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A Social Network Analysis of Occupational Segregation AgEcon
Van der Leij, Marco J.; Buhai, I. Sebastian.
We develop a social network model of occupational segregation between different social groups, generated by the existence of positive inbreeding bias among individuals from the same group. If network referrals are important for job search, then expected homophily in the contact network structure induces different career choices for individuals from different social groups. This further translates into stable occupational segregation equilibria in the labor market. We derive the conditions for wage and unemployment inequality in the segregation equilibria and characterize first and second best social welfare optima. Surprisingly, we find that socially optimal policies involve segregation.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social Networks; Homophily; Inbreeding Bias; Occupational Segregation; Labor Market Inequality; Social Welfare; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital; J24; J31; J70; Z13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6224
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An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of Imperfect Information on Wages in Canada AgEcon
Sharif, Najma R.; Dar, Atul A..
Most studies of wage differentials explain such differentials in terms of factors like gender, race, and human capital. But systematic gaps in earnings can arise even among homogenous individuals as a result of asymmetric employer and worker information gaps, thereby reflecting labour market inefficiency. This paper estimates these gaps in terms of wage differentials across various population groups in Canada. We examine 21 populations groups, which include a number of immigrant groups as well. Information gaps are likely to be important in the context of immigrants, especially those new to Canadian labour markets. Our special interest is not only to compare information gaps of immigrant and other population groups, but also to assess whether (and how)...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Labour markets; Information gaps; Wages; Labor and Human Capital; J31; J61; J64.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50162
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Applications and Interviews. A Structural Analysis of Two-Sided Simultaneous Search AgEcon
Wolthoff, Ronald P..
Much of the job search literature assumes bilateral meetings between workers and firms. This ignores the frictions that arise when meetings are actually multilateral. I analyze the magnitude of these frictions by presenting an equilibrium job search model with an endogenous number of contacts. Workers contact firms by applying to vacancies, whereas firms contact applicants by interviewing them. Sending applications and interviewing applicants are costly activities but increase the probability to match. In equilibrium, contract dispersion arises and workers spread their applications over the different contract types. Estimation of the model on the Employment Opportunities Pilot Projects data set provides values for the cost of an application, the cost of an...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Directed Search; Recruitment; Stable Matching; Labor Market Frictions; Structural Estimation; Efficiency; Policy Analysis; Labor and Human Capital; J64; J31; D83.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119114
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Changes in Returns to Education in India, 1983-94: By Gender, Age-Cohort and Location AgEcon
Duraisamy, P..
There is hardly any estimate of the returns to schooling in India based on a national level representative data for the recent period. This paper provides estimates of the returns to education in India by gender, age cohort and location (by rural-urban) for the most recent period 1993/4, and also evaluates the changes in returns over a period of time from 1983-94 using a large national level household survey data. The data show that the returns to education increases up to the secondary level and declines thereafter. There is evidence of substantial gender and rural-urban differences in the returns to schooling. The returns to women's education for the primary and middle levels have declined while those for secondary and college levels have increased...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Rate of return; Human capital; India; Labor and Human Capital; J31; I21.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28505
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Emigration and Wages: The EU Enlargement Experiment AgEcon
Elsner, Benjamin.
This paper studies the impact of a large emigration wave on real wages in the source country. Following EU enlargement in 2004, a large share of the workforce of the Central and Eastern Europe emigrated to Western Europe. Using data from Lithuania for the calibration of a factor demand model I show that emigration had a significant short-run impact on real wages in the source country. In particular, emigration led to a change in the wage distribution between young and old workers. The wages of young workers increased by 6%, whereas the wages of old workers decreased by around 1%. On the contrary, I find no effect on the wage distribution between workers of different education levels.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Emigration; EU Enlargement; European Integration; Wage Distribution; Labor and Human Capital; F22; J31; O15; R23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119098
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Evidence of Returns to Schooling in Africa from Household Surveys: Monitoring and Restructuring the Market for Education AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
Wage-differentials by education of men and women are examined from African household surveys to suggest private wage returns to schooling. It is commonly asserted that returns are highest at primary school levels and decrease at secondary and postsecondary levels, whereas private returns in six African countries are today highest at the secondary and post secondary levels, and rates are similar for women as for men. The large public subsidies for postsecondary education in Africa, therefore, are not needed to motivate students to enroll, and those who have in the past enrolled in these levels of education are disproportionately from the better-educated families. Higher education in Africa could be more efficient and more equitably distributed if the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Africa; Wage returns to schooling; Inequality; HIV; AIDS; Labor and Human Capital; 015; 055; J31; J24.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28481
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Global Wage Inequality and the International Flow of Migrants AgEcon
Rosenzweig, Mark R..
A framework for understanding the determinants in the variation in the pricing of skills across countries and the model underlying the Mincer specification of wages that is used widely to estimate the relationship between schooling and wages are described. A method for identifying skill prices and for testing the Mincer model, using wages and the human capital attributes of workers located around the world, is discussed. A global wage equation that nests the Mincer specification is estimated that provides skill price estimates for 140 countries. The estimates reject the Mincer model. The skill price estimates indicate that variation in skill prices dominates the cross-country variation in schooling levels or rates of return to schooling in accounting for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Wage; Skill price; International migration; Inequality; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; J31; J61.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56757
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Globalization and Urban-Rural Migration in Taiwan AgEcon
Huang, Fung-Mey.
In this study, we examine the association of urban-to-rural migration with the deterioration of labor market in urban sector due to the globalization of markets and production. Two measures of the relative impacts of globalization on urban and rural labor markets: changes in rural-urban real earning differential and changes in the rural-urban probabilities of being employed. We, thus, address the following questions. What would be the changes in both rural-urban real earning differential and the rural-urban differential in the probabilities of being employed over the last decade? Can real earning differentials or employment differentials, or both significantly influence the urban-to-rural migration decisions? Which one plays a pivotal role in the analysis?...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Globalization; Labor migration; Agricultural sector; Community/Rural/Urban Development; J31; I20.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9953
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Immigration and National Wages: Clarifying the Theory and the Empirics AgEcon
Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P.; Peri, Giovanni.
This paper estimates the effects of immigration on wages of native workers at the national U.S. level. Following Borjas (2003) we focus on national labor markets for workers of different skills and we enrich his methodology and refine previous estimates. We emphasize that a production function framework is needed to combine workers of different skills in order to evaluate the competition as well as cross-skill complementary effects of immigrants on wages. We also emphasize the importance (and estimate the value) of the elasticity of substitution between workers with at most a high school degree and those without one. Since the two groups turn out to be close substitutes, this strongly dilutes the effects of competition between immigrants and workers with...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Less Educated Workers; Physical Capital Adjustment; Skill Complementarities and Wages; Labor and Human Capital; F22; J31; J61.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44227
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Impact of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act on Rubber Block Plantation Scheme in Tripura AgEcon
Sharma, Gaurav; Joseph, Joby; Tharian, George K.; Dey, S.K..
Among the various promotional schemes targeted for the promotion of rubber in Tripura, Block Plantation Scheme (BPS) has been introduced exclusively for the rehabilitation of scheduled tribes and scheduled castes. BPS is a comprehensive scheme with the characteristic features of group/community approach in all spheres of operations up to primary processing and marketing and family labour participation as wage labour during the immature phase of the plantations spanning six years. However, there has been a distortion in the uninterrupted supply of family labour to the scheme in the recent past due to growing popularity of employment opportunities under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 (MGNREGA) programme, which may eventually...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Natural rubber; Block Plantation Scheme; Tripura; Rehabilitation; Labour; MGNREGA; Agricultural and Food Policy; J15; J21; J43; J31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119406
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Impact of MGNREGA on Reducing Rural Poverty and Improving Socio-economic Status of Rural Poor: A Study in Burdwan District of West Bengal AgEcon
Sarkar, Prattoy; Kumar, Jagdish; Supriya.
The present study conducted in the Burdwan district of West Bengal, has examined the socio-economic impact of MGNREGA on the rural poor who are mainly comprised of small and marginal farmers & agricultural labourers. The study is based on a random sample of 102 respondents (82 beneficiary and 20 non-beneficiary households) drawn by the PPS method from two good-performing and two poorly-performing Gram Panchayats randomly selected from one randomly selected good-performing block in the district. It has been found that significant changes have taken place in the socio-economic variables like annual per capita income, monthly per capita food expenditure, annual per child expenditure on education, per capita savings, condition of the dwelling houses,...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Impact of MGNREGA; Socio-economic conditions; Poverty reduction; MGNREGA constraints; Agricultural and Food Policy; I15; I38; J31; J33.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119395
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Impacts and Implications of MGNREGA on Labour Supply and Income Generation for Agriculture in Central Dry Zone of Karnataka AgEcon
Harish, B.G.; Napraj, N.; Chendrakant, M.G.; Murthy, P.S. Srikantha; Chengappa, P.G.; Basavaraj, G..
This study has evaluated the impact of MGNREGA on income generation and labour supply in agriculture in one of the districts in central dry zone of Karnataka. Results have shown that the number of days worked in a year with the implementation of MGNREGA programme has significantly increased to 201 days, reflecting 16 per cent increase. Regression analysis has revealed that gender, education and family size of the workers are the significant factors influencing the worker’s employment under the Program. The increase in income is to the tune of 9.04 per cent due to additional employment generated from MGNERGA. In the total income, the contribution of agriculture is the highest (63%), followed by non-agricultural income (29%) and MGNREGA income (8%)....
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: MGNREGA; Labour supply; Labour scarcity; Income generation; Employment; Agricultural and Food Policy; J21; J22; J31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119402
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Income distribution, standard of living and capabilities: a cross-sectoral analysis. AgEcon
Croci Angelini, Elisabetta; Sorana, Silvia.
The aim of the paper is to investigate how agricultural relative incomes have changed in recent years, since the CAP has switched its emphasis from price support to rural development. The distributional implications of agricultural and rural policies are indirectly evaluated looking at the dynamics of earnings and wages in agriculture, as well as at the rural household incomes described through monetary and non monetary variables, so to proxy their living standards. Our concern is not particularly on the agricultural policy tools, as much as on the evaluation of their end results. A comparison spanning through time and across countries is performed on the basis of the information provided by the ECHP and EU-SILC surveys. The paper seeks to unravel the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Income distribution; Standard of living Earnings in agriculture.; Agricultural and Food Policy; D31; E24; J31; N50.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99587
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International Trade, Productivity Growth, Education and the Wage Differential: A Case Study of Taiwan AgEcon
Chang, Hsiao-chuan.
The cause of changes in the wage differential between skilled and unskilled labor has been an important subject of debate for several decades. International trade and productivity growth are two main causes that have been suggested from large country studies. Recent research proposes that education is another influence. All three causes have been significantly associated with Taiwan’s economic development. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature by investigating the wage differential in Taiwan, a small open economy. A Dynamic Intertemporal General Equilibrium (DIGE) model is used to perform theoretical simulation. An Error Correction Model (ECM) incorporating both short- and long-run effects is employed to accomplish the empirical examination....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Wage differential; Dynamic intertemporal general equilibrium model; Error correction model; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; C12; C15; C51; F10; F41; H52; J31.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44011
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Labour Migration in Indo-Gangetic Plains: Determinants and Impacts on Socio-economic Welfare AgEcon
Singh, N.P.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, Ranjit; Padaria, R.N.; Singh, Alka; Varghese, Nisha.
In India, male out-migration from rural to urban areas has increased in recent years, especially in the Indo- Gangetic regions of the country. This indicates that most of the developed regions of India are utilizing labour force of backward areas. The paper has investigated on labour out-migration from the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar to find its determinants and its impacts on farm economy. The analysis of determinants shown that the number of members in a family and their educational status have a positive impact on migration. As a result of male out-migration, the women left behind in the villages assume a major role in various farm activities resulting in the so-called ‘feminization of agriculture’. It has also empowered the female members of the...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Labour migration; Feminization of agriculture; Farm-women empowerment; Impact on farm socio-economy; Agricultural and Food Policy; J61; J23; J31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119396
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Long-run costs of piecemeal reform: wage inequality and returns to education in Vietnam AgEcon
Phan, Diep; Coxhead, Ian A..
“Shock therapy” transitions in Eastern Europe facilitated movement of skilled workers into privatized industries offering high wage premia relative to state industries. Other transitional economies (notably China and Vietnam) have been slower to relinquish control over key industries and factor markets. Some costs of this piecemeal approach are now becoming apparent. We examine the spillover of continuing capital market distortions into the market for a complementary factor, skilled labor. Using Vietnamese data we find that capital market segmentation creates a two-track market for skills, in which state sector workers earn high salaries while non-state workers face lower demand and lower compensation. Growth is reduced directly by diminished allocative...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Labor; Skills; State-owned; Inequality; Wages; Vietnam; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; J31; P23; F16.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124207
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On‐Farm and Off‐Farm Returns to Education among Farm Operators in Northern Ireland AgEcon
Wallace, Michael T.; Jack, Claire G..
This paper estimates returns to education for a sample of farm operators in Northern Ireland. The analysis examines the relationship between education and on-farm and off-farm labour incomes. Human capital earnings functions are estimated to identify the marginal return to education measured as years of schooling as well as the qualification level attained. Extending to a structural model, the methodology controls for the endogeneity of education in the earnings function and potential selection bias associated with off-farm labour market participation. In off-farm employment, the analysis shows that returns to education are of the order of between 6% and 9% for each additional year of schooling. However, on-farm earnings were not found to be significantly...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Human Capital; Time Allocation and Labor Supply; Agricultural Labor Markets; Wage Level; Labor and Human Capital; J24; J22; J43; J31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108786
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Os empregados da agricultura brasileira: diferenciais e determinantes salariais AgEcon
Cunha, Marina Silva da.
This work studies the wage differentials and determinants of the employees in Brazilian agriculture, in period 1981-2005, on the basis of the information of the National Research for Sample of Domiciles of the IBGE. The methodology of Heckman is used to correct bias of selection, common in wage equations gotten by Least Ordinary Square, besides the decomposition of Oaxaca-Blinder, to analyze the wage differentials between 1981 and 2005. Between wage determinants, had been analyzed: education, experience, region, weekly working time and formal work, besides some macroeconomic determinants. The results of the work suggest a reduction of the wage differentials, mainly in the end of the studied period, and that the variable education, age and formal work had...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Wages; Heckman; Decomposition of Oaxaca.; Agribusiness; J31; J43.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61227
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Public-Private Employment Choice, Wage Differentials and Gender in Turkey AgEcon
Tansel, Aysit.
There is no evidence on the extent of public versus private wage differentials in Turkey. The main objective of this paper is to examine the factors which explain the employment choice and the wage differentials in the public administration, state owned enterprises and the formal private wage sector in Turkey. Selectivity corrected wage equations are estimated for each sector for men and women separately. Oaxaca decomposition of the wage differentials between sectors for men and women are carried out. For this purpose, results of the 1994 Household Expenditure Survey Conducted by the State Institute of Statistics are used. The results indicate that when controlled for observed characteristics and sample selection, for men, public administration wages are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Public-private wages; Gender; Turkey; Labor and Human Capital; J31; J45; J16.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28377
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Read This Paper Even Later: Procrastination with Time-Inconsistent Preferences AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn.
Salience costs, along with imperfect foresight, have been used in previous studies to explain procrastination of a one-time task. A companion to this paper, "Read This Paper Later: Procrastination with Time-Consistent Preferences" analyzes the extent to which procrastination of a divisible task is compatible with rational behavior. While the fully rational model explains key qualitative observations, it requires an extremely high rate of time preference or elasticity of intertemporal substitution to generate serious procrastination and cannot explain undesired procrastination at all. This paper investigates the extent to which dynamically inconsistent preferences can better explain such impatience and address the issue of self-control failures. Two types...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Procrastination; Natural resource economics; Hyperbolic discounting; Differential discounting; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Q3; D9; J22; J31.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10725
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