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Registros recuperados: 22
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Agricultural Organization in an Era of Traceability AgEcon
Sykuta, Michael E..
From production to retail, information systems have become increasingly important in the agrifood system. Retailers use information systems to improve inventory management and increase efficiency in production and logistics. Innovations in agribiotechnology and food safety issues highlighted by incidences related to Starlink corn and “mad cow disease” have raised consumer concerns about their food products. In addition to food safety concerns, consumers are increasingly willing to pay premiums for nonobservable quality characteristics in their food products. This paper outlines a framework for evaluating the implications of traceability for the organization of the agricultural system and highlights potential organizational responses to traceability...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agrifood system; Contracting; Organizational economics; Traceability; L14; L22; L23; Q13.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43512
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Agriculture, Income Risks and Rural Poverty Dynamics: Strategies of Smallholder Producers in Kenya AgEcon
Kuyiah, Joanne Wasswa; Obare, Gideon A.; Herrero, Mario; Waithaka, Michael M..
Poverty in Kenya has been on the increase over the last decade. It is estimated that 56% of the total population live in absolute poverty. Most of the poor reside in rural areas where agriculture is the main livelihood activity. Majority of Kenya's farmers are smallholders. They account for 75% of the total agricultural output and about 70% of marketed agricultural produce. The fate of smallholder agriculture in this country is therefore central to poverty reduction. A collapse in output and incomes from smallholder agriculture is likely to have damaging welfare effects and retard pro-poor economic growth. Smallholders often operate in a risky environment, which affects the level and variability of household resource endowments and income. The importance...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Smallholder farms; Income risk; Rural Poverty; Linear Programming; Kenya; Farm Management; C61; D13; L23; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25596
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Contract Duration and the Division of Labor in Agricultural Land Leases AgEcon
Yoder, Jonathan K.; Hossain, Ishrat; Epplin, Francis M.; Doye, Damona G..
Short-term contracts provide weak incentives for durable input investment if post-contract asset transfer is difficult. Our model shows that when both agents provide inputs, optimal contract length balances weak incentives of one agent against the other. This perspective broadens the existing contract duration literature, which emphasizes the tradeoff between risk sharing and contract costs. We develop hypotheses and test them based on private grazing contracts from the Southern Great Plains. We find broad support for the implications of our model. For example, landowners provide durable land-specific inputs more often under annual versus multiyear contracts.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land lease contracts; Moral hazard; Contract duration; Division of labor; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; J43; L23; Q15.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12962
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Current Challenges in Financing Agricultural Cooperatives AgEcon
Barton, David G.; Boland, Michael A.; Chaddad, Fabio Ribas; Eldon, Eversull.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural; Cooperatives; Finance; Agribusiness; L10; L23; L16; Q13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117410
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Current Issues in Strategy For Agricultural Cooperatives AgEcon
Boland, Michael A.; Hogeland, Julie A.; McKee, Gregory J..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural; Agribusiness; Cooperatives; Management; Strategy; Agribusiness; L10; L23; L16; Q13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117409
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Explaining Agro-Industrial Contract Breaches: The Case of Brazilian Tomatoes Processing Industry AgEcon
Zylbersztajn, Decio; Nadalini, Lygia B..
Three hundred small tomato growers located in Brazilian northeast states, supplied a processing industry. In view of the large number of contract hazards and weak enforcement of clauses, managers have decided to move to the Midwest, where a reduced number of larger farmers have been contracted. The industry blamed high transaction costs due to the weak mechanism of public enforcement of property rights. The industry blamed some farmers of selling the product at the market for fresh consumption. Also, farmers blamed the industry for taking advantage of asymmetric information related to quality. This study presents an analysis of contract architecture and an evaluation of effects of transaction costs related variables on the likelihood of contract breaches....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agro-food governance; Transaction costs and strategy; Agroindustry contracts.; Agribusiness; D23; L23.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61922
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Explaining differences in farms efficiencies in Polish agriculture AgEcon
Hockmann, Heinrich; Pieniadz, Agata.
This paper deals with the estimation of a random coefficient model. The virtue of this approach is that it considers firm heterogeneity, which conventional SFA models do not. When the model is applied to Polish farms, the results indicate that the conventional random and fixed effect models overestimate the potential production increases due to the reduction of inefficiency. Additionally, our findings provide evidence of the importance of input quality for efficiency analysis. Moreover, the results indicate that farm heterogeneity is a significant determinant of agricultural production. We found that differences in productivity between the farms can partly be attributed to farm size, degree of integration in the product markets and incurred transaction...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: SFA; Random component model; Poland; Agriculture; Firm heterogeneity; Farm Management; Labor and Human Capital; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Q12; C23; D24; L23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51051
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Externalities, Decreasing Returns, and Common Ownership AgEcon
Simpson, R. David.
Placing production units under common ownership is often suggested as a solution to the problem of externalities. This will not always be true when there are decreasing returns to scale. An atomistic industry could be more efficient than a monopoly in some instances. Even when the "optimal" industry configuration would involve a finite number of producers, no two may have appropriate incentives to combine. An omniscient and benign regulator can always assure a more efficient outcome than would result from the combination of private producers. Whether real-world regulators should be called upon, however, is less clear.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Externalities; Mergers; Returns to scale; Incentives; Land Economics/Use; L23; Q24.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10457
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Farmer Participation in Supermarket Channels, Production Technology, and Efficiency: The Case of Vegetables in Kenya AgEcon
Rao, Elizaphan J.O.; Brümmer, Bernhard; Qaim, Matin.
Supermarkets are gaining ground in the agri-food systems of many developing countries. While recent research has analyzed income effects in the small farm sector, impacts on productivity and efficiency have hardly been studied. We use a meta-frontier approach and combine this with propensity score matching to estimate treatment effects among vegetable farmers in Kenya. Participation in supermarket channels increases farm productivity in terms of meta-technology ratios by 45%. We also find positive and significant impacts on technical efficiency and scale efficiency. Supermarket expansion therefore presents opportunities for agricultural growth in the small farm sector, which is crucial for poverty reduction in Africa.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Supermarkets; Technical efficiency; Scale efficiency; Meta-frontier; Meta-technology ratio; Sample selection; Kenya; International Development; Marketing; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; D24; L23; O12; Q12; Q16.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113508
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Firm Heterogeneity, Contract Enforcement, and the Industry Dynamics of Offshoring AgEcon
Naghavi, Alireza; Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P..
We develop an endogenous growth model to study the long run consequences of offshoring with firm heterogeneity and incomplete contracts. In so doing, we model offshoring as the geographical fragmentation of a firm’s production chain between a home upstream division and a foreign downstream one. On the positive side, we show that, when contracts are incomplete, the possibility of offshoring has favorable implications for economic growth. Yet, offshoring induced by a higher bargaining power of the upstream division can hamper growth: while there is always a positive correlation between upstream bargaining weight and offshoring activities, there is a non-monotonic relationship between these and growth. Whether offshoring with incomplete contracts also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Offshoring; Heterogeneous Firms; Incomplete Contracts; Growth; Industry Dynamics; Industrial Organization; D23; F23; L23; O31; O43.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52542
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Gewinnentwicklung und Betriebsaufgabe in der Landwirtschaft: Angebotseffekte, Nachfrageeffekte und regionale Heterogenität AgEcon
Margarian, Anne.
Zusammenfassung: Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit besteht in der Bestimmung der Betriebsaufgabewahrscheinlichkeit verschiedener Betriebstypen im Westen Deutschlands in Abhängigkeit von Gewinnniveau und Gewinnentwicklung. Dabei wird davon ausgegangen, dass die Reaktion der Betriebe auch von der erwarteten Nachhaltigkeit der Gewinnschwankungen sowie von der Betroffenheit anderer Betriebe abhängt. Es wird deshalb auch erwartet, dass die Betriebe in Abhängigkeit vom regionalen Kontext unterschiedlich reagieren. Die Gewinnerwartung der Betriebe wird mithilfe des Testbetriebsnetzes des BMELV geschätzt. Die Betriebsaufgabewahrscheinlichkeit wird in einem zweiten Schritt anhand der flächendeckenden Daten der Agrarstrukturerhebung in einem logistischen Modell für...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agrarstrukturwandel; Betriebsaufgabeentscheidung; Heterogene Effekte; Nachbarschaftseffekte; Farm structural change; Farm-exit decision; Heterogeneous effects; Neighbour-hood effects; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Industrial Organization; Land Economics/Use; D22; D92; L16; L23; Q12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102643
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Governance Issues in the Principal-Agent Framework: Producing Cellulosic Ethanol in Michigan AgEcon
Pandey, Vivek; Shanoyan, Aleksan; Ross, Brent.
This article analyzes the incentives and compensation problems faced by cellulosic ethanol producer and logging firms and the consequent impact on the organization of the wood based cellulosic ethanol industry in the US. The success of this relationship is central to setting up the biofuel industry in Michigan and in the US at large. The theoretical results indicate that specification contract under the principal-agent framework is of limited utility due to’ metering’ problem when the principal contracts with multiple agents for the supply of feedstock.. Alternative arrangements including JVs have the potential to provide close to first best solutions.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Principal-Agent; Cellulosic Ethanol; Michigan; Multiple agents; Asymmetric Information; Agribusiness; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D82; D86; L23; L24; Q42.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61362
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INCENTIVES AND STANDARDS IN AGENCY CONTRACTS AgEcon
Chambers, Robert G..
This paper studies the structure of state-contingent contracts in the presence of moral hazard and multi-tasking. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the presence of multi-tasking to lead to fixed payments instead of incentive schemes are identified. It is shown that the primary determinant of whether multi-tasking leads to higher or lower powered incentives is the role that noncontractible outputs play in helping the agent deal with the production risk associated with the observable and contractible outputs. When the noncontractible outputs are socially undesirable and risk substitutes, standards are never optimal. If the noncontractible outputs are socially desirable, standards are never optimal if the noncontractible outputs play a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Incentives; Multi-tasking; Agency; Risk complementarity; Risk substitutability; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty; D82; L23; L50.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28605
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Industrialization and Contracting in U.S. Agriculture AgEcon
Ahearn, Mary Clare; Korb, Penelope J.; Banker, David E..
This paper examines the industrialization process of U.S. agriculture by examining the trends in the number of farms, the concentration of production during the last decade, and the dynamics of farm survivability, entry, and exit underlying aggregate statistics. We next examine vertical coordination as part of the industrialization process and highlight contracting in the poultry industry. The analysis provides evidence that production is continuing to be concentrated on a smaller number of farms at a relatively rapid rate, in spite of the stability in the number of farms. Although contracting clearly dominates the broiler industry, it is less prevalent in egg and turkey production, where other forms of vertical coordination are likely established.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Broilers; Contracting; Eggs; Industrialization; Poultry; Structural change; Turkeys; Vertical integration; D23; D40; L11; L14 L22; L23; Q12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43511
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Intrafirm Effects on Water Conservation in Agriculture AgEcon
Moreno, Georgina.
Conservation technology adoption behavior is frequently analyzed at the smallest unit of production to capture important heterogeneity among adopters. Conclusions about firm-level decisions are drawn from these microunit outcomes. However, there may be significant intrafirm interactions that create a dependence among the microunits. This paper tests and quantifies these effects. Using a unique dataset of agricultural water use in California, this paper finds significant differences in water price elasticities of conservation technology adoption between the standard model and models that accounts for the intrafirm interactions.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Conservation; Technology adoption; Agriculture; Water resources; Irrigation intrafirm behavior; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q16; Q25; Q28; Q55; L23.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19166
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La externalizacion del trabajo agrario y las empresas de servicios a la agricultura AgEcon
Navarro, Alicia Langreo.
Resumen: En este artículo se analiza el proceso de externalización de las labores agrarias y el consiguiente desarrollo de una agricultura terciarizada. La fragmentada dimensión laboral y económica de las explotaciones agrarias determina el proceso de externalización de las tareas agrarias en la medida en que no permite ni la incorporación de innovaciones que exige el desarrollo del sistema alimentario ni la incorporación del capital humano necesario. Esta demanda ha propiciado la existencia de una red de empresas de servicios a la agricultura capaz de favorecer la incorporación de innovaciones y de aportar cualificación profesional que se ha convertido en una oportunidad de empleo en el mundo rural. La externalización de las labores agrarias comenzó con...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Outsourcing; R&D; Work force organisation; Labor and Human Capital; L23.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28756
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Polluters and Abaters AgEcon
Nimubona, Alain-Desire; Bernard, Sinclair-Desgagne.
To comply with laws, regulations and social demands, polluting firms increasingly purchase the needed means from specialized suppliers. This paper analyzes this relatively recent phenomenon. We show how environmental regulation, the size of the output market, the elasticity of demand for abatement goods and services, and the fact that in-house and outsourced abatement expenses are substitutes or complements can influence a polluter’s make-or-buy decision. Specific features of abatement outsourcing are highlighted, qualifications and refinements of the theory of vertical integration are then proposed, and some consequences for environmental policy are briefly discussed.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Eco-industry; Make-or-buy Decision; Outsourcing; Vertical Integration; Environmental Economics and Policy; L23; L24; Q52.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98467
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Production Outsourcing, Organizational Governance and Firm's Technological Performance: Evidence from Italy AgEcon
Antonietti, Roberto; Cainelli, Giulio.
Aim of this paper is to study whether and how the firm’s decision to outsource production activities affects its technological performance. In particular, we look at how the alignment between the firm’s governance strategy and the underlying attributes of the transactions affects the capacity of the firm to introduce new products and processes. Using microeconomic data on a repeated cross-section of Italian manufacturing firms for the period 1998-2003, we develop a two-stage approach: first, we estimate the determinants of the firm’s organizational governance (production outsourcing); second, we incorporate a measure of governance misalignment into a technological performance relation. We find (i) that firms not aligned with the optimal organizational...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Production Outsourcing; Organizational Governance; Misalignment; Technological Performance; Non-Linearity; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; L23; L24; L25; O31.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9553
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Protection of Intellectual Property while Outsourcing AgEcon
Sen Gupta, Rajorshi; Love, H. Alan.
Food and Beverage companies need to share their Intellectual Property (IP) when they outsource production and/or R&D to contract agents. IP sharing can facilitate misappropriation and the contractor may eventually start competing with the client. We design an incentive compatible contract that can protect company IP. A two-pronged strategy is proposed: Companies should share less know-how and give high incentive payments to deter IP misappropriation. Strategies like product differentiation may be highly useful to deter piracy.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Intellectual Property Protection; Outsourcing; Product Differentiation; R&D; Agribusiness; Industrial Organization; Risk and Uncertainty; L14; L21; L23; L66; 031; 032; 034.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103856
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SATISFACTION OF THE EMPLOYED IN FOOD BUSINESSES AND SUCCESS OF FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AgEcon
Grujic, Radoslav; Grujic, Slavica; Durasinovic, Pejo; Pavlovic, Pero.
Efficiency of food safety management system application, such as HACCP system, depends on personnel employed in a company (salary, social status, job stability, superiors’ relation toward workers and relationship among workers themselves, knowledge background, etc). Results presented in this paper are the results of surveys conducted in food businesses in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A special part of the research is related to employees’ social status and employees’ opinion of their status in a company.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: HACCP; Employees’ social status; Efficiency of HACCP system application.; Food Security and Poverty; Industrial Organization; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; J28; L23; L66; M11; UDC: 664.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92357
Registros recuperados: 22
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