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Advertising and Retail Promotion of Washington Apples: A Structural Latent Variable Approach to Promotion Evaluation AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Gao, Xiaoming; Patterson, Paul M..
"Commodity promotion" consists of many activities, each designed to contribute to a consumer's product knowledge or influence tastes. However, both knowledge and tastes are unobservable, or latent, variables influencing demand. This paper specifies a dynamic structural model of fresh fruit demand that treats promotion and other socioeconomic variables as "causal" variables influencing these latent variables. Estimating this state-space model using a Kalman filter approach provides estimates of both the system parameters and a latent variable series. The results show that these latent effects contribute positively to apple and other fruit consumption, while reducing banana consumption.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Commodity promotion; Demand system; DYMIMIC; Fresh fruit; Kalman filter; LA/AIDS; Latent variables; Marketing.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28547
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ADVERTISING AND RETAIL PROMOTION OF WASHINGTON APPLES: A STRUCTURAL LATENT VARIABLE APPROACH TO PROMOTION EVALUATION AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Gao, Xiaoming; Patterson, Paul M..
"Commodity promotion" consists of many activities, each designed to contribute to a consumer's product knowledge or influence tastes. However, both knowledge and tastes are unobservable, or latent, variables influencing demand. This paper specifies a dynamic structural model of fresh fruit demand that treats promotion and other socioeconomic variables as "causal" variables influencing these latent variables. Estimating this state-space model using a Kalman filter approach provides estimates of both the system parameters and a latent variable series. The results show that these latent effects contribute positively to apple and other fruit consumption, while reducing banana consumption.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Commodity promotion; Demand system; DYMIMIC; Fresh fruit; Kalman filter; LA/AIDS; Latent variables; Marketing.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15132
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Food Demand in Slovenia AgEcon
Regorsek, Darja; Erjavec, Emil.
The objective of this research is to analyse food consumption patterns in Slovenia for households segmented by quartile income levels and for whole Slovenian population. Food items are divided into seven commodity groups. Cross-sectional household data from Household Budget Survey 2001 were used. We apply the linearly approximated Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). Empirical results show positive expenditure elasticities being close to one where in general demands for dairy products and for vegetables have expenditure elasticities higher than unity. All Marshallian and Hicksian own price elasticities are negative and less than one. Demand for meat and fish is quite price inelastic whereas demand for vegetables is pretty sensitive to its own price...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food demand system; LA/AIDS; Expenditure and price elasticities; Household Budget Survey; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9409
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Gradual Switching Structural Changes of Meat Consumption in Taiwan AgEcon
Hsu, Jane Lu.
This paper utilized a linear approximate version of the Almost Ideal Demand System to evaluate structural changes of meat consumption in Taiwan. Time transition paths for each product were identified and first-order autocorrelation was taken into consideration. Structural changes of beef consumption (1979-1984) were completed before structural changes of other products had started. Shifting in consumption patterns of pork (1990-1995) and poultry (1988-1994) took about the same time length. Structural changes of fishery products (1994-1996) occurred toward the end of the time period. With the gradual switching time paths, estimated elasticities show that own-price elasticities for pork, beef, and fishery products became more responsive to their own-price...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Gradual switching structural changes; Meat consumption; LA/AIDS; Time transition paths; Elasticities; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123663
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HEALTH, FOOD SAFETY AND MEAT DEMAND AgEcon
Flake, Oliver L.; Patterson, Paul M..
For nearly two decades, the U.S. beef industry has faced a long term structural change, which has resulted in consumers shifting from beef to chicken. This shift has occurred due to consumer concerns on cholesterol consumption. More recently, this industry has confronted new challenges on the safety of beef, due to the potential presence of biological contaminants. This study incorporates a measure on food safety with a measure on health information in a meat demand system. Beef safety information is found to have a modest impact on beef demand, but is dominated by health information.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Meat demand; Health; Food safety; LA/AIDS; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21648
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IMPORT DEMAND FOR MALT: A TIMES SERIES AND ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS AgEcon
Satyanarayana, Vidyashankara; Wilson, William W.; Johnson, D. Demcey.
European Union (EU) dominance of the world malt trade is thought to be due to quality advantages and/or due to export restitutions. A Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) was estimated for four major malt importing countries: Japan, Brazil, Philippines, and Venezuela. Elasticities of substitution for malt among different sources were computed. Results show that malt imported from the EU is least substitutable with malt from other sources, and demand for EU malt is less responsive to changes in price. Expenditure elasticities indicate that the four importers spend proportionately more on malt imports from the EU compared to malt from other sources. For these reasons, the study concludes that price subsidy-based export expansion...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Malt Import Demand; LA/AIDS; Export Subsidy; Substitutability; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23343
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Improved Legume Seed Demand Systems in Central Malawi: What Do Farmers' Seed Expenditures Say about Their Preferences? AgEcon
Kankwamba, Henry; Mangisoni, Julius H.; Simtowe, Franklin; Mausch, Kai; Siambi, Moses.
The overall objective of this paper is to assess the demand for improved groundnut, bean, and soybean seed in central Malawi. Specifically, it examines how smallholder farmers respond to changes in market prices of improved legume seed. It also assesses factors that affect the decision to participate in improved seed technology transfer. Considering four commodities namely groundnuts, beans, soybeans and maize, a staple food, the paper estimates a multivariate probit and a linear approximate of the Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) using cross section data collected by ICRISAT in 2010. Uncompensated price and expenditure elasticities are reported for the LA/AIDS model. The paper finds high own price elasticities in all four commodities considered. It...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Legumes; Multivariate Probit; LA/AIDS; Malawi; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123945
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Pesticides Uses in Crop Production: What Can We Learn from French Farmers Practices? AgEcon
Fadhuile, Adelaide; Lemarie, Stephane; Pirotte, Alain.
This article focuses on the demand system of French farmers concerning pesticides uses. We estimate the demand elasticities of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides with respect to pesticide expenditure, and considering crop differentiation. Then we compare two indexes that are used in agronomic literature to measure the intensity of pesticides uses. We retain a Linear Approximated Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) specification. A Full-Information Maximum Likelihood estimation procedure is used for dealing with the problem of censored dependent variable. We consider two cross-sections observed in 2001 and 2006 covering pesticides uses of three crops. We confirm the previous results of the literature that farmers response to price variation is very...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Pesticides; LA/AIDS; Elasticities; Censored System of Equations; Two-Step procedure; Quasi Maximum Likelihood; Full-Information Maximum Likelihood.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; C30; C31; C34; L11; Q11; Q12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103654
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Quantifizierung der Preis– und Ausgabenelastizitäten für Nahrungsmittel in Deutschland: Schätzung eines LA/AIDS AgEcon
Wildner, Susanne.
Complete and consistent, i.e. theoretically appropriate demand systems have seldom been developed for Germany. Econometric food demand analyses have concentrated on single products and product groups. Generally, demand functions have been estimated using single equation methods. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the food demand in former West Germany on the basis of the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) developed by DEATON and MUELLBAUER (1980). A two-stage demand system is based on data for the household type III gathered on a monthly basis during the period from 1966 to 1997. At a first stage, five aggregates of food (meats and fish; dairy and eggs; edible fats; cereals, fruits and vegetables; and other foods) and one non-food group are specified....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Demand analysis; LA/AIDS; Elasticities; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98889
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Wie sensibel reagieren deutsche Verbraucher auf Preisänderungen bei Bio-Eiern? Eine Nachfrageanalyse mit Haushaltspanel-Daten AgEcon
Schroeck, Rebecca.
Die Studie analysiert die Nachfrage nach Eiern aus konventioneller und ökologischer Erzeugung in Deutschland auf der Basis von Daten des Haushaltspanels der Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung (GfK) für frische Lebensmittel. Die Datengrundlage ist in ihrer Größe und ihrem Informationsgehalt einzigartig, da sie Einkäufe von mehr als 13.000 Haushalten über einen Fünfjahreszeitraum abbildet. Es wird eine zweistufiges Schätzverfahren angewandt. Im ersten Schritt wird mit einer Probit- Analyse untersucht, welche Faktoren die Kaufwahrscheinlichkeit für die untersuchten Eiersorten beeinflussen. Im zweiten Schritt liefert die Schätzung eines Linear Approximated Almost Ideal Demand Systems (LA/AIDS) detaillierte Preis- und Ausgabenelastizitäten. Dabei berücksichtigt...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bio-Eier; Haushaltspanel; LA/AIDS; Preiselastizitäten; Deutschland; Organic eggs; Household Panel; Price elasticities; Germany; Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114492
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