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A Personal Touch: Text Messaging for Loan Repayment AgEcon
Morten, Melanie; Karlan, Dean S.; Zinman, Jonathan.
We worked with two microlenders to test impacts of randomly assigned reminders for loan repayments in the “text messaging capital of the world”. We do not find strong evidence that loss versus gain framing or messaging timing matter. Messages only robustly improve repayment when they include the loan officer’s name. This effect holds for clients serviced by the loan officer previously but not for first-time borrowers. Taken together, the results highlight the potential and limits of communications technology for mitigating moral hazard, and suggest that personal obligation/reciprocity between borrowers and bank employees can be harnessed to help overcome market failures.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Microcredit; Microfinance; Randomized evaluation; Development finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Financial Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; D21; D92; G21; O16; O17.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121867
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Access to Microfinance: Does it Matter for Profit Efficiency Among Small Scale Rice Farmers in Bangladesh? AgEcon
Sumelius, John; Islam, K.M. Zahidul; Sipilainen, Timo.
This paper measures profit efficiency and examines the effect of access to microfinance on the performance of rice firms in Bangladesh. An extended Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier profit function was used to assess profit efficiency and profit loss of rice farmers in Bangladesh in a survey data of 360 farms throughout the 2008-2009 growing seasons. Model diagnostics reveal that serious selection bias exists that justifies the uses of sample selection model in stochastic frontier models. After effectively correcting for selectivity bias, the mean profit efficiency of the microfinance borrowers and non-borrowers were estimated at 68% and 52% respectively, thereby suggesting that a considerable share of profits were lost due to profit inefficiencies in rice...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Stochastic frontier function; Profit efficiency; Selection bias; Bangladesh; Microfinance; Agricultural Finance; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116067
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Assessing the Role of Microfinance in Fostering Adaptation to Climate Change AgEcon
Agrawala, Shardul; Carraro, Maelis.
Much of the current policy debate on adaptation to climate change has focussed on estimation of adaptation costs, ways to raise and to scale-up funding for adaptation, and the design of the international institutional architecture for adaptation financing. There is however little or no emphasis so far on actual delivery mechanisms to channel these resources at the sub-national level, particularly to target the poor who are also often the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. It is in this context that microfinance merits a closer look. This paper offers the first empirical assessment of the linkages between microfinance supported activities and adaptation to climate change. Specifically, the lending portfolios of the 22 leading microfinance...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Climate Change; Financing; Adaptation; Bangladesh; Nepal; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q56; Q54; R51.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92709
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Community-driven development and scaling-up of microfinance services: case studies from Nepal and India AgEcon
Sharma, Manohar P..
This case study examines the scaling-up experiences of two microfinance institutions: the Nirdhan Utthan Bank Limited (NUBL) in Nepal and the Self-Help Group (SHG)-Bank linkage program of the National Agricultural Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) in India. Both NUBL and NABARD groups use self-regulation (peer selection, peer monitoring, and peer enforcement of contracts) as key to gaining access to services not otherwise available to them. There are two community-based drivers. First, loan products are closely driven by client preferences, as evidenced by strong demand to join the program, high repayment rates, and very low dropout rates. Second, the process of organizing clients into groups has a significant empowering effect, providing...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Community-driven development (CDD); Scaling up; Microfinance; Case studies; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60396
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Deposit Collectors AgEcon
Ashraf, Nava; Karlan, Dean S.; Yin, Wesley.
Informal lending and savings institutions exist around the world, and often include regular door-to-door deposit collection of cash. Some banks have adopted similar services in order to expand access to banking services in areas that lack physical branches. Using a randomized control trial, we investigate determinants of participation in a deposit collection service and evaluate the impact of offering the service for micro-savers of a rural bank in the Philippines. Of 137 individuals offered the service in the treatment group, 38 agreed to sign-up, and 20 regularly used the service. Take-up is predicted by distance to the bank (a measure of transaction costs of depositing without the service) as well as being married (a suggestion that household bargaining...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Savings behavior; Microfinance; Field experiment; Savings mobilization; Deposit collector; Financial Economics; D1; D9; G1; G2; O1.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28502
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Desarrollo del sector microfinanciero en México. Colegio de Postgraduados
Álvarez González, Evelina.
El propósito de este trabajo fue analizar el desarrollo y desempeño del sector microfinanciero en México durante el periodo de 1996-2012, mediante los indicadores profundidad y amplitud con el objetivo de conocer sobre que niveles de pobreza están realmente incidiendo las instituciones de microfinanzas en nuestro país y como se está comportando el mercado de prestatarios. El estudio se realizó con una muestra correspondiente a 120 IMF´S (Instituciones de Microfinanzas) mexicanas registradas y disponibles en las bases de datos de Microfinance Information Exchange, Inc. (Mix). y ProDesarrollo, Finanzas y Microempresa A.C. (Benchmarking 2012), para lo cual se empleo una metodología de tipo cuantitativa analítica con grupos de control y de estudio para...
Palavras-chave: Microfinanzas; Profundidad; Amplitud; Pobreza; Microfinance; Depth; Breadth; Poverty; Economía; Maestría.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/2173
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Does microfinance reduce rural poverty? Evidence based on household panel data from northern Ethiopia AgEcon
Berhane, Guush; Gardebroek, Cornelis.
This paper evaluates the long-term impact of microfinance credit from the intensity of participation in borrowing. We use a four-round panel data set on 351 farm households that had access to microfinance in northern Ethiopia. Over the years 1997-2006, with three-year intervals, households are observed on key poverty indicators: improvements in annual consumption and housing improvements. The relatively long duration in the panel enables to measure household poverty changes between consecutive periods and see the long-run effects of exposure to microfinance from the intensity of participation borrowing. The fixed-effects model is innovatively modeled to account for potential selection biases due to both time-invariant and time-varying unobserved individual...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Treatment effects; Trend model; Panel data; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Security and Poverty; International Development.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51472
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Elasticities of Demand for Consumer Credit AgEcon
Karlan, Dean S.; Zinman, Jonathan.
The price elasticity of demand for credit has major implications for macroeconomics, finance, and development. We present estimates of this parameter derived from a randomized trial. The experiment was implemented by a consumer microfinance lender in South Africa and identifies demand curves that, while downward-sloping with respect to price, are flatter than recent estimates in both developing and developed countries throughout most of a wide price range. However, demand becomes highly price sensitive at higher-than-normal rates. We discuss several interpretations of this kink and present some related evidence. We also find that loan size is far more responsive to changes in loan maturity than to changes in interest rate. This pattern is more pronounced...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Credit markets; Microfinance; Demand elasticity; Development finance; Maturity elasticity; Consumer credit; Liquidity constraints; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; D1; D9; E2; G2; O1.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28485
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Expanding Microenterprise Credit Access: Using Randomized Supply Decisions to Estimate the Impacts in Manila AgEcon
Karlan, Dean S.; Zinman, Jonathan.
Microcredit seeks to promote business growth and improve well-being by expanding access to credit. We use a field experiment and follow-up survey to measure impacts of a credit expansion for microentrepreneurs in Manila. The effects are diffuse, heterogeneous, and surprising. Although there is some evidence that profits increase, the mechanism seems to be that businesses shrink by shedding unproductive workers. Overall, borrowing households substitute away from labor (in both family and outside businesses), and into education. We also find substitution away from formal insurance, along with increases in access to informal risk-sharing mechanisms. Our treatment effects are stronger for groups that are not typically targeted by microlenders: male and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Microcredit; Microentrepreneurship; Risk sharing; Formal and informal finance; Financial Economics; O1; D1; D2 G2.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52600
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Factores relacionados con la permanencia de un organismo microfinanciero local, el caso de la caja de ahorro y préstamo comunitario "San Juan", Palmarito Tochapan, Puebla. Colegio de Postgraduados
Olmos Ramírez, Yannet.
Este trabajo de investigación tuvo como objetivo encontrar los elementos administrativos y sociales que permiten la permanencia, funcionamiento y viabilidad de una caja de ahorro y préstamo comunitario (CAPC) en la comunidad de Palmarito Tochapan, Puebla. El método utilizado fue el estudio de caso, a través de técnicas de observación directa y participativa. Los resultados son: la CAPC implementó su propio proceso administrativo y la responsabilidad directamente recae en el comité y posteriormente en cada uno de sus integrantes. El capital social está sustentado por los lazos de parentesco y de amistad reflejados en la cooperación, reciprocidad y confianza, las cuales mantienen fuertemente cohesionado al grupo permitiendo la generación de la acción...
Palavras-chave: Administración; Acción colectiva; Caja de ahorro; Capital social; Microfinanzas; Administration; Collective action; Microfinance; Savings; Social capital; EDAR; Estrategias para el Desarrollo Agrícola Regional; Maestría.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/589
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Factors Influencing Group Repayment Performance in Haryana: Application of Tobit Model AgEcon
Feroze, S.M.; Chauhan, A.K.; Malhotra, Ravinder; Kadian, K.S..
Microfinance through self-help groups (SHGs) has evolved as a mechanism for social inclusion of the rural poor. This paper has identified the factors that influence the repayment performance of the SHGs in India, by conducting a study on a sample of 120 SHG members from 60 dairy SHGs and 60 non-members selected from the state of Haryana. Results of Tobit regression have shown that peer monitoring, group size and female percentage have positive influence, whereas homogeneity and loan amount have negative influence on the repayment performance of the SHGs. The study has concluded that if the essence of self-help and cooperation is fostered and monitored properly, the poor can also repay.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Loan repayment; Deliquency rate; Haryana; Tabit model; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q13; Q14.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109416
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Farmer Groups Enterprises and the Marketing of Staple Food Commodities in Africa AgEcon
Coulter, Jonathan.
There are some apparently successful cases of collective marketing with staple food commodities (grains and root crops), but these are less common than cases involving higher value agricultural products. These can be attributed to the benefit/cost ratio to participants being generally higher for collective marketing of the higher-value crops. Some of the costs are ‘hidden’, in the sense that they are borne by individuals in time spent in attending meetings, and not shown in the financial statements of the enterprises concerned. Examining a series of cases, the paper advocates an approach to the marketing of staples which involves analyzing the value chain and identifying those activities which on the one hand, best lend themselves to individual initiative,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Collective marketing; Producer organization; Staple food; Village storage; Inventory credit; Microfinance; Disbursement-driven; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50003
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Governance and Performance of Microfinance Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States AgEcon
Hartarska, Valentina M..
This paper presents the first evidence on the impact of board diversity and independence, and management compensation on outreach and sustainability of microfinance institutions in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States. Results indicate that board diversity improves both outreach and sustainability while larger and less independent boards lower sustainability. Performance-based compensation is not effective in aligning the interest of managers and stakeholders, and underpaying managers reduces outreach.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Governance; Microfinance; Board of directors; Managerial compensation; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24568
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Group versus Individual Liability: Long Term Evidence from Philippine Microcredit Lending Groups AgEcon
Gine, Xavier; Karlan, Dean S..
Group liability in microcredit purports to improve repayment rates through peer screening, monitoring, and enforcement. However, it may create excessive pressure, and discourage reliable clients from borrowing. Two randomized trials tested the overall effect, as well as specific mechanisms. The first removed group liability from pre-existing groups and the second randomly assigned villages to either group or individual liability loans. In both, groups still held weekly meetings. We find no increase in default and larger groups after three years in pre-existing areas, and no change in default but fewer groups created after two years in the expansion areas.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Group lending; Group liability; Joint liability; Social capital; Microenterprises; Informal economies; Access to finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Financial Economics; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; C93; D71; D82; D91; G21; O12; O16; O17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50951
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Group versus Individual Liability: Long Term Evidence from Philippine Microcredit Lending Groups AgEcon
Gine, Xavier; Karlan, Dean.
Group liability in microcredit purports to improve repayment rates through peer screening, monitoring, and enforcement. However, it may create excessive pressure, and discourage reliable clients from borrowing. Two randomized trials tested the overall effect, as well as specific mechanisms. The first removed group liability from pre-existing groups and the second randomly assigned villages to either group or individual liability loans. In both, groups still held weekly meetings. We find no increase in default and larger groups after three years in pre-existing areas, and no change in default but fewer groups created after two years in the expansion areas.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Group lending; Group liability; Joint liability; Social capital; Micro-enterprises; Informal economies; Access to finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Financial Economics; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; C93; D71; D82; D91; G21; O12; O16; O17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/229136
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How Important are Peer Effects in Group Lending? Estimating a Static Game of Incomplete Information AgEcon
Li, Shanjun; Liu, Yanyan; Deininger, Klaus W..
We quantify the importance of peer effects in group lending by estimating a static game of incomplete information. In our model, group members make their repayment decisions simultaneously based on their household and loan characteristics as well as their expectations on other members' repayment decisions. Exploiting a rich data set of a microfinance program in India, our estimation results suggest that the probability of a member making a full repayment would be 15 percentage points higher if all the other fellow members make full repayment compared to the case where none of the other members repay in full. We also find that large inconsistencies exist in the estimated effects of other variables in models that do not incorporate peer effects and control...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Repayment; Strategic default; International Development.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51699
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How Rising Competition Among Microfinance Lenders Affects Incumbent Village Banks AgEcon
McIntosh, Craig; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
This paper uses data from Uganda's largest incumbent microfinance institution to analyze the impact of entry by competing lenders on client behavior. We first examine the geographic placement decisions of competitors, and find that placement decisions are strongly affected by district-level characteristics. We observe that increased competition induces a decline in repayment performance and in savings deposited with the incumbent Village Bank, suggesting multiple loan-taking by clients. Urban clients take multiple loans primarily from lenders with more individual methodologies, while rural clients borrow from several group lenders. Individuals who operate larger businesses are the ones most likely to leave the incumbent Village Bank when a Solidarity Group...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Competition; Credit markets; Financial Economics; O16; D14; L1.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25073
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Impacto socioeconómico de las microfinanzas en el desarrollo rural desde la sustentabilidad y la institucionalidad en el Municipio del Cuá, 2010. Colegio de Postgraduados
José Espinoza, Edward.
El impacto socioeconómico de las microfinanzas en el desarrollo rural se presenta como una alternativa en el combate a la pobreza y desigualdades sociales del campo rural, por lo general excluidos de los servicios financieros clásicos. El objetivo de la investigación fue analizar el impacto socioeconómico que ejercen las microfinanzas en el desarrollo rural desde la sustentabilidad e institucionalidad en cinco comunidades del municipio del Cuá-Bocay, Nicaragua. Se utilizó el muestreo conglomerado de dos etapas, obteniendo 63 unidades muéstrales distribuidas según el tamaño de de las comunidades. Se estudiaron 6 variables: microfinanzas rurales, transformaciones territoriales rurales e institucionales, sustentabilidad del sistema de producción, desempeño...
Palavras-chave: Desarrollo rural; Institucionalidad; Microfinanzas; Sustentabilidad; Rural development; Institutionality; Microfinance; Sustainability; EDAR; Desarrollo Rural Territorial Sustentable CP-UNAN; Maestría Tecnológica.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/522
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Impacto socioeconómico de las microfinanzas en el desarrollo rural desde la sustentabilidad y la institucionalidad en el Municipio del Cuá, 2010. Colegio de Postgraduados
José Espinoza, Edward.
El impacto socioeconómico de las microfinanzas en el desarrollo rural se presenta como una alternativa en el combate a la pobreza y desigualdades sociales del campo rural, por lo general excluidos de los servicios financieros clásicos. El objetivo de la investigación fue analizar el impacto socioeconómico que ejercen las microfinanzas en el desarrollo rural desde la sustentabilidad e institucionalidad en cinco comunidades del municipio del Cuá-Bocay, Nicaragua. Se utilizó el muestreo conglomerado de dos etapas, obteniendo 63 unidades muéstrales distribuidas según el tamaño de de las comunidades. Se estudiaron 6 variables: microfinanzas rurales, transformaciones territoriales rurales e institucionales, sustentabilidad del sistema de producción, desempeño...
Palavras-chave: Desarrollo rural; Institucionalidad; Microfinanzas; Sustentabilidad; Rural development; Institutionality; Microfinance; Sustainability; EDAR; Desarrollo Rural Territorial Sustentable CP-UNAN; Maestría Tecnológica.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/522
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Joint-liability borrowing decisions under risk: Empirical evidence from rural microfinance in Ethiopia AgEcon
Berhane Tesfay, G.; Gardebroek, Cornelis.
This paper investigates borrowing decisions of rural households from a microfinance in Tigray, Ethiopia using household panel data on 5 years and a dynamic panel probit model. The theoretical model takes two types of risk involved in joint-liability lending explicitly into account: risk of partner failure and the risk of losing future access to credit. Empirical results show that these risks are important in explaining borrowing decisions. Another finding is that the probability of repeat-borrowing is higher than the probability of new participation, with possible implications that perceived joint-liability threats deter participation and easing stringent punishments might help poor households’ access to credit.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Risk; Dynamic panel probit; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44202
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