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Registros recuperados: 16
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Agricultural Distortion Patterns Since the 1950s: What Needs Explaining? AgEcon
Anderson, Kym; Croser, Johanna L.; Sandri, Damiano; Valenzuela, Ernesto.
This paper summarizes a new database that sheds light on the impact of trade-related policy developments over the past half century on distortions to agricultural incentives and thus also to consumer prices for food in 75 countries spanning the per capita income spectrum. Price-support policies of advanced economies hurt not only domestic consumers and exporters of other products but also foreign producers and traders of farm products, and they reduce national and global economic welfare. On the other hand, the governments of many developing countries have directly taxed their farmers over the past half-century, both directly (e.g., export taxes) and also indirectly via overvaluing their currency and restricting imports of manufactures. Thus the price...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Political economy; Agricultural price and trade policies; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; F59; H20; N50; O13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50305
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Agriculture's Terms of Trade: Issues and Implications AgEcon
Colman, David R..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade; F14; N50; N60; N70; O13; P45; Q17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53200
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Aproximacion a las perdidas economicas ocasionadas a corto plazo por los incendios forestales en Galicia en 2006 AgEcon
Barrio, Melina; Loureiro, Maria L.; Chas, Maria Luisa.
Resumen Este estudio cuantifica parte de las pérdidas económicas a corto plazo o inmediatas (excluyendo las de uso pasivo) ocasionadas por los incendios forestales de Galicia ocurridos en el 2006. El modelo de análisis se basa en la estimación económica de los servicios ecosistémicos perdidos debido a los incendios ocurridos. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que los daños a corto plazo (desde agosto-diciembre 2006) reflejados en las partidas cuantificadas se aproximan a los 300 millones de euroes (dependiendo del escenario de análisis). ABSTRACT This study quantifies part of the short-term or immediate economic losses (excluding the non-use or pasive losses) caused by the wildfires in Galicia during 2006. The background of the empirical work is...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Wildfires; Economic losses; Ecosystem services; Incendios forestales; Perdidas economicas; Servicios ecosistemicos; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; N50; Q23.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7056
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Distribution of Agricultural NRAs across Countries and Products, 1955-84 and 1985-2007 AgEcon
Anderson, Kym; Croser, Johanna L..
The global database developed as an integral part of the World Bank's research project on Distortions to Agricultural Incentives, which is publicly available at www.worldbank.org/agdistortions, provides around 30,000 estimates of nominal rates of assistance to agricultural industries (NRAs) and associated consumer tax equivalents for 75 countries that together account for between 90 and 95 percent of the world’s population, farmers, agricultural output and total GDP. They also account for more than 85 percent of farm production and employment in each of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the transition economies of Europe and Central Asia as well as all OECD countries. More than 70 products are included (an average of 11 per country), which represents around...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural price and trade policies; Nominal rates of assistance; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; F59; H20; N50; O13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50307
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Feeling the heat: Financial crises and their impact on global climate change AgEcon
Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas; Girdenas, Sarunas; Rovas, Adomas.
This interdisciplinary paper uses world-systems analysis as a theoretical framework to argue that both the 1870s, 1930’s economic depressions reduced mean global temperatures. As global consumer demand fell, factories worldwide began producing less commodities and, as a result, emitted less greenhouse gasses. We find that in both instances there is evidence to support the hypothesis that financial crises lead to cooler temperatures.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Kondratiev waves; Schumpeter; World-systems analysis; Environmental economics; Global climate change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Financial Economics; N22; N50; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94609
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Geography and Economic Transition: Global Spatial Analysis at the Grid Cell Level AgEcon
Motamed, Mesbah J.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M.; Masters, William J..
This paper addresses the timing of historical transition from rural to urban activity. In our model, rural production has constant returns and meets subsistence needs, while urban production has scale economies and meets the demands of higher-income consumers. Urbanization occurs sooner when rural or urban productivity is higher or transport costs are lower. We test the model on worldwide data that divides the earth's surface at half-degree intervals into over 60,000 cells. From an independent estimate of each cell's rural and urban population history, we identify the date at which each cell achieves various thresholds of urbanization. Controlling for country fixed effects and neighbors' urbanization using spatial techniques, we find that the date at which...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Economic geography; Urbanization; Agriculture; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C21; N50; O11; O18; R1.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49589
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Greenhouse emissions and economic recessions: Did industrial economies “Stay Cool” during the 1930s economic crisis? AgEcon
Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas; Girdenas, Sarunas; Rovas, Adomas.
In this historical economic interdisciplinary research we investigate the impact of the 1930s economic crisis and their relationship to global warming. We investigate two consecutive hegemonic powers: the United Kingdom and the United States. Our assumption was that a reduction in demand would lead to a decrease in mean global temperatures during depressions. We find that in fact reduced carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from lowered production does not result in cooling temperatures.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Historical economic sociology; Kondratiev wave theory; World-systems analysis; Economic crises; Global climate change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Financial Economics; International Development; B23; B52; N50; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95939
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Implications of Macroeconomic Instability for Agriculture Income and Land Values AgEcon
Morehart, Mitchell J..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Finance; Land Economics/Use; Q12; Q14; N50; E60.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94698
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Income distribution, standard of living and capabilities: a cross-sectoral analysis. AgEcon
Croci Angelini, Elisabetta; Sorana, Silvia.
The aim of the paper is to investigate how agricultural relative incomes have changed in recent years, since the CAP has switched its emphasis from price support to rural development. The distributional implications of agricultural and rural policies are indirectly evaluated looking at the dynamics of earnings and wages in agriculture, as well as at the rural household incomes described through monetary and non monetary variables, so to proxy their living standards. Our concern is not particularly on the agricultural policy tools, as much as on the evaluation of their end results. A comparison spanning through time and across countries is performed on the basis of the information provided by the ECHP and EU-SILC surveys. The paper seeks to unravel the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Income distribution; Standard of living Earnings in agriculture.; Agricultural and Food Policy; D31; E24; J31; N50.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99587
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Investigating the Sources of Agricultural Growth in Africa: Factor Accumulation, Total Factor Productivity, and Technology Absorption AgEcon
Nkamleu, Guy Blaise.
This paper investigates sources and determinants of agricultural growth in Africa, concentrating on the growth path during the last three decades. The analysis employs the broader framework provided by empirical growth literature and recent developments in Total Factor Productivity (TFP) measurement to search for fundamental determinants of growth in African agriculture. One main contribution and new findings in this analysis is the quantification of the contribution of the productivity growth and the contribution of different inputs such as land, labor, tractor and fertilizer in the agricultural growth. Growth accounting computation highlights the fact that factor accumulation rather than TFP accounts for a large share of agricultural output growth and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Growth accounting; TFP; Factor accumulation; Capital absorption; Africa; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Demand and Price Analysis; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; N50; O47; D24.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52108
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Political Economy of Agricultural Distortions in Transition Countries of Asia and Europe AgEcon
Rozelle, Scott; Swinnen, Johan F.M..
The paper analyzes the political and institutional factors which are behind the dramatic changes in distortions to agricultural incentives in the transition countries in East Asia (China and Vietnam), Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, etc), the rest of the former Soviet Union, and in Central and Eastern Europe. The paper explains why these changes have occurred and why there are large differences among transition countries in the extent and the nature of the remaining distortions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Political economy; Agricultural distortions; Transition economies; China; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; N50; O13; O21; P22; P26.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50298
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Political Economy of Agricultural Distortions: The Literature to Date AgEcon
Swinnen, Johan F.M..
The 1980s and first half of the 1990s were a very active period in the field of political economy of agricultural protection. While the past decade has witnessed a slowdown in this area, there have been very important developments on political economy in other parts of the economics profession. This paper reviews key new insights and developments in the general political economy literature and draws implications for the study of the political economy of distortions to agricultural incentives.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Political economy; Agricultural distortions; High-income countries; Developing countries; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; N50; O13; P16; P26.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50308
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Political Economy of Distortions to Agricultural Incentives: Introduction and Summary AgEcon
Anderson, Kym.
During the 1960s and 1970s most developing countries imposed anti-agricultural policies, while many high-income countries restricted agricultural imports and subsidized their farmers. Both sets of policies inhibited economic growth and poverty alleviation in developing countries, while doing little to assist small farmers in high-income countries. Since the 1980s, however, many developing countries began to reduce the anti-agricultural bias of sectoral policies, and from the early 1990s the European Union began to move away from price supports to more-direct forms of farm income payments. This paper summarizes a forthcoming book that seeks to explain this evolving pattern of distortions to incentives conceptually and econometrically by making use of new...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Political economy; Agricultural price and trade policies; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; F59; H20; N50; O13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50306
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Scarcity and Growth in the New Millennium: Summary AgEcon
Simpson, R. David; Toman, Michael; Ayres, Robert U..
In their 1963 classic Scarcity and Growth Howard Barnett and Chandler Morse argued that resource scarcity did not threaten economic growth. A second investigation in the late 1970s, Scarcity and Growth Reconsidered, reached largely the same conclusion. The 25 years since that work was published have witnessed many developments. The message of Scarcity and Growth that depletion of market resources was not a problem has given way to a concern that "new scarcities" of environmental quality, global climate, and biological diversity are emerging. Resources for the Future recently assembled a distinguished group of international scholars to again address scarcity and growth. This paper describes their charge and summarizes their findings. Technological progress...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: History of economic thought; Technological change; Renewable resources and economy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; B12; B20; N50; O13; O14; O33; O47; Q20; Q32.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10835
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Special Interests versus the Public Interest in Policy Determination AgEcon
Rausser, Gordon C.; Roland, Gerard.
This paper focuses on recent theoretical developments in political economy and what role they might play in explaining and reforming individual country and global distortions in food and agricultural markets. Four groups of forces are isolated: political governance structures emphasizing the role of democratic mechanisms; the design of polycentric structures for assigned governmental authority for setting policy instruments; market structure and other socioeconomic characteristics; and the role of sector mobility and asset diversification. Each of these forces are distilled and data sources are reviewed that will allow econometric specifications that have both explanatory and policy reform implications.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political economy; Agricultural distortions; Public interest; Vested interests; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; H23; N50; Q18; O13; P16; P26.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50294
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The Economic Costs and Benefits of Investments in Municipal Water and Sanitation Infrastructure: A Global Perspective AgEcon
Whittington, Dale; Hanemann, W. Michael.
This paper presents illustrative estimates of the costs and benefits of investments in municipal water and sanitation systems in developing countries. Four sources of information on the economic benefits households receive from improved municipal water and sanitation services are reviewed: (1) prices charged for vended water, (2) avertive expenditures, (3) avoided costs of illness, and (4) stated preference studies. There is little evidence to suggest that the current monthly benefits of improved water and sanitation services exceed the monthly costs. The most important limitation of such comparisons of annual costs and benefits is that benefits per household may well grow over the life of the investments, but this possibility does not ensure that such...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sustainable Development; Renewable Resources; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; Q25; H40; N50.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7159
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