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Registros recuperados: 22
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Agricultural and Food Security Policy Analysis in Central America: Assessing Local Institutional Capacity, Data Availability, and Outcomes AgEcon
Tschirley, David L.; Flores, Luis; Mather, David.
Performance of the agricultural sector in developing countries is fundamental to ensuring robust and equitable economic growth and broad-based food security. Yet donor support to agricultural development in developing countries has declined continuously for 30 years. This same period saw dramatic deterioration in developing countries’ institutional capacity to provide services to their agricultural sectors. These trends may now be changing, due in part to the global food price crisis of 2007 and 2008 and concerns that it unleashed about the world’s ability to feed its poorest inhabitants. This paper reports on the results of a two week trip to Guatemala and Nicaragua made by Michigan State University’s Food Security Group. The purpose of the trip was to...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Security; Guatemala; Nicaragua; Food policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Q12; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90991
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Capturas del murciélago nariz de sable de Tomes, Lonchorhina aurita (Chiroptera, Phyllosto­midae), en la isla de Ometepe, Nicaragua, e implicaciones para la distribución de esta especie. Mastozool. neotrop.
Jordan,Phillip N; Moore,Patrick R; Pannkuk,Evan L; Risch,Thomas S.
Lonchorhina aurita (murciélago nariz de sable de Tomes) es una especie rara de murciélagos, restringida a localidades y distribuida desde el norte de Veracuz, en México, hasta Brasil y Perú. Antes de nuestro estudio en la Isla Ometepe de Nicaragua, esta especie solo había sido reportada en 1 localidad de Nicaragua (Matiguás, Matagalpa). Entre 2010 y 2013, se capturaron 9 L. aurita en bosques tropicales del interior y en estratos altos y medios de bosques agrícolas con vegetación densa. Los L. aurita fueron capturados en varios lugares de la Isla Ometepe, e incluyeron adultos en etapa reproductiva e individuos juveniles. Nuestros datos sugieren que una población persistente de L. aurita se ha establecido en la Isla Ometepe.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/report Palavras-chave: América Central; Isla de Ometepe; Maderas; Murciélagos; Nicaragua.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0327-93832014000200014
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Certification as an upgrading strategy for small-scale farmers and their cooperatives : a value chain analysis for Nicaraguan coffee AgEcon
Kiemen, Anna; Beuchelt, Tina.
For many small producers in developing countries coffee is a major income source. However, the coffee market is characterized by high price volatility and increased power concentration among buyers in consuming countries. Due to the very low international coffee prices during the recent coffee crisis and an increased demand among consumers for healthy and ethical products as well as for high quality, interest in standards and certification has increased substantially in coffee producing and consuming countries. Responding to the demand for differentiated products and accessing these new and potentially more profitable markets is especially challenging for poor small-scale farmers in developing countries. Although certification schemes and standards are...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Small-scale producers; Nicaragua; Organic and fairtrade coffee; Value chain analysis; Marketing; Production Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122652
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Coping with the “Coffee Crisis” in Central America: The Role of the Nicaraguan Red de Protección Social AgEcon
Maluccio, John A..
The international and local Nicaraguan media have widely reported on the “coffee crisis” in Latin America and there is substantial evidence that there has been a downturn and that this has been more severe in the coffee-growing regions. Using household panel data from a randomized community-based intervention carried out in both coffee- and noncoffee-growing areas, I examine the role of a conditional cash transfer program, the Red de Protección Social (RPS), during this downturn. While not designed as a traditional safety net program in the sense of reacting or adjusting to crises or shocks, RPS has performed like one, with larger estimated program effects for those who were more severely affected by the downturn. For example, it protected households...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Conditional cash transfer program; Coffee crisis; Social safety net; Nicaragua; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59589
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Do Pesticide Hazards to Human Health and Beneficial Insects Cause or Result from IPM Adoption? Mixed Messages from Farmer Field Schools in Nicaragua AgEcon
Labarta, Ricardo A.; Swinton, Scott M..
This paper analyzes the interaction between farmer training in pest management and effects on acute pesticide poisoning and populations of beneficial insects in Nicaragua. Using farm level data from Nicaraguan bean growers, including graduates of Farmer Field Schools (FFS), other integrated pest management (IPM) outreach methods, and farmers without exposure to IPM, we found that small farmers are influenced by pesticide-related acute illness experiences when adopting IPM practices and making decisions about pesticide use. However, exposure to IPM extension programs failed to reduce the use of highly toxic pesticides and increased the number of self-reported acute illness symptoms during the most recent bean crop season. IPM training did result in...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ecosystem service; Integrated pest management; Agricultural extension; Nicaragua; Farm Management; Q16.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19305
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Do Supervisors Affect the Valuation of Public Goods? AgEcon
Franceschi, Dina; Vásquez, William F..
Systematic supervision procedures have been proposed to improve contingent valuation surveying, particularly in developing countries. Surprisingly, the CV literature does not say much about the potential effects of supervision even though there is evidence of interviewer effects and social desirability issues that can bias results. This paper investigates the effects of interview supervision on the valuation of public services, using split-sample treatments to include a test of scope of a nested good and to assess the effect of interview supervision on reported WTP. Results suggest that supervisors can be used to improve quality with no effect on WTP estimates.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Contingent valuation; Drinking water; Nicaragua; Social desirability; Supervision effects; Willingness to pay; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117771
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Envisioning Adaptive Strategies to Change: Participatory Scenarios for Agropastoral Semiarid Systems in Nicaragua Ecology and Society
Simelton, Elisabeth; Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds; E.S.Simelton@leeds.ac.uk.
Historically, the semiarid social–ecological systems of the dry Central American corridor have proven resilient to pressures. However, in the last century, these systems have experienced huge environmental and socioeconomic changes that have increased the vulnerability of local livelihoods to shocks. New approaches are needed to capture complex, uncertain, cross-scale and nonlinear relationships among drivers of change and vulnerability. Therefore, to tackle this challenge, we have applied a participatory and interdisciplinary methodological framework of vulnerability assessment to a case study in northern Nicaragua. We triangulated a range of information and data from participatory and scientific research to explore historical and current...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Agropastoral system; Conceptual model; Dry tropical system; Nicaragua; Participatory scenario analysis; Vulnerability assessment.
Ano: 2011
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Fruticultura orgánica en el trópico: Situación y ejemplos de Mesoamérica JARTS
Pohlan, H. Alfred Jürgen; Gamboa Moya, William G.; Salazar Centeno, Dennis J.; Marroquín Agreda, Francisco; Janssens, Marc J. J.; Leyva Galán, Ángel; Guzman, Elena; Toledo Toledo, Ernesto; Gómez Àlvarez,, Regino.
La situación en la fruticultura orgánica de Mesoamérica no es fácil a cualificar y cuantificar. Indudablemente existen áreas certificadas sin embargo faltan datos exactos. En otra manera muchos campesinos cultivan frutas y vegetales sin el uso de fertilizantes inorgánicos y sin aplicaciones de pesticidazas por falta de insumos propios. Este estudio esta basado en ejemplos y practicas conocidas y trata a reflejar filosofías practicas del campesinado y las fortalezas y debilidades correspondientes. De lo mas énfasis se ha dedicado al chayote en Costa Rica y México, a la pitahaya en Nicaragua, a la papaya en el Estado Tabasco y al mango, rambutan y caña de azúcar en el estado Chiapas, México, y a las huertas familiares en Cuba. Resultados de una encuesta...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Horticulture; Organic Agriculture fruticultura orgánica; Mesoamérica; Chayote; Pitahaya; Papaya; Mango; Rambutan; Caña de azúcar; Huertas familiares; Costa Rica; México; Nicaragua; Cuba.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.jarts.info/index.php/jarts/article/view/118
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Hermann Alfred Jürgen Pohlan & Dennis José Salazar Centeno (2012): Manual - Diagnóstico, monitoreo y auditoría de las buenas prácticas agrícolas en cafetales a través del sistema de semáforo JARTS
Borgman, Jörg; Institut für tropische Landwirtschaft Leipzig e.V..
Die Anwendung guter fachlicher (agronomischer) Praxis ist ein Muss zur Sicherung der Qualität eines erzeugten Produkts. Viel differenzierter ist allerdings die richtige Benennung dieser Praktiken. Pohlan & Salazar setzen auf ihre lange Erfahrung und wählen in ihrem Handbuch für die Kaffeeerzeugung in Nicaragua 50 Kriterien oder Kontrollpunkte aus, die sie zu 13 Rubriken gruppieren. Um den richtigen Umgang mit dem Kriterien zu verdeutlichen, wird von den Autoren eine Symbolik auf Basis der Ampel benutzt.Die 13 Rubriken leiten sich aus den verschiedenen Abschnitten des Kaffeeanbaus ab. Einbezogen sind dabei auch der Einfluss der natürlichen Umweltbedingungen und die Einbindung in das soziale Umfeld. Erklärtes Ziel ist es, eine Standort bezogene, mit...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Handbuch; Kaffee; Nicaragua.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.jarts.info/index.php/jarts/article/view/1679
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Impact Evaluation of a Conditional Cash Transfer Program: The Nicaraguan Red de Proteccion Social AgEcon
Maluccio, John A.; Flores, Rafael.
In the 1990s Mexico launched a new social program—PROGRESA (now known as Oportunidades). As a conditional cash transfer program, PROGRESA integrated investment in human capital with access to a social safety net. From 1998 to 2000, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) assisted in evaluating the program. Much of the ensuing research is summarized in IFPRI Research Report 139 by Emmanuel Skoufias. Since the inception of PROGRESA, several countries, particularly in Latin America, have implemented similar programs. One reason for the growing popularity of these programs is that, by encompassing various dimensions of human capital, including nutritional status, health, and education, they are able to influence many of the key indicators...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Red de Protección Social (Nicaragua); Evaluation; Economic assistance; Domestic; Nicaragua; Public welfare; Child welfare; Poverty; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37889
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Justified hopes or utopian thinking? The suitability of coffee certification schemes as a business model for small-scale producers AgEcon
Beuchelt, Tina; Zeller, Manfred; Oberthur, Thomas.
The marketing of coffee through group-based, certified market channels is often promoted by governments and donors as a viable business model for poor small-scale farmers. Organic and fairtrade coffees have become very popular among socially, environmentally and health conscious consumers in recent years. While coffee certification programs have been in place for over fifteen years, there are few studies on the welfare impacts of certification schemes. Therefore, this research seeks to analyse the impacts of certification on poverty alleviation and to identify the critical factors which explain success or failure of certification schemes. We use a combination of qualitative and quantitative research, comparing small-scale coffee producers in northern...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Certification; Coffee; Cooperatives; Impact; Nicaragua; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Marketing; Q12; Q13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51717
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Mammals of the Cosigüina Peninsula of Nicaragua Mastozool. neotrop.
Genoways,Hugh H.; Timm,Robert M..
Nicaragua's Cosigüina Peninsula, located at the northwestern tip of the country, is one of the most poorly studied biotic regions in Central America. The peninsula has been occupied for millennia because the climate of the region supported human habitation and because of its strategic position along the rich Pacific coast. The combination of long-term occupancy by humans and the cataclysmic eruptions of Volcán Cosigüina have produced a heavily impacted landscape. During the 1960s, the University of Kansas conducted multiyear field surveys of the terrestrial mammals on the peninsula and the adjacent mainland to quantify species diversity, relationships, abundances, habitat use, and reproduction. The mammalian fauna of the peninsula contains at least 39...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biogeography; Coefficients of similarity; Dry forest; Mammalia; Neotropics; Nicaragua.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0327-93832005000200004
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NATURAL HAZARDS AND RISK AVERSION: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FROM LATIN AMERICA AgEcon
van den Berg, Marrit; Fort, Ricardo; Burger, Kees.
We use experimental and survey data from two natural-hazard prone countries in Latin America to test the hypothesis that natural hazards affect risk aversion. We use two methods to measure risk aversion: simple questions on the willingness to pay for a hypothetical lottery and more complicated experiments involving real pay-offs. We find that whereas the experiments provide reasonable estimates of risk aversion, the hypothetical questions result in unrealistic distributions of preferences. The experimental results strongly support the hypothesis that experiencing natural shocks makes people more risk averse, not only in the short run but also in the medium and long run.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Latin America; Nicaragua; Peru; Risk aversion; Natural hazards; Experiments; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51394
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Nuevos reportes sobre los murciélagos (mammalia: chiroptera) de Nicaragua, América Central, con la adición de siete nuevos registros de especies Mastozool. neotrop.
Medina-Fitoria,Arnulfo; Saldaña,Octavio; Martínez,José G; Aguirre,Yuri; Silva,Walquiria; Chávez,Marlon; Salazar,Milton; Carballo,Nohemí; Jarquín,Orlando; González,Roberto A; Díaz,Luis; Chambers,Carol; Reid,Fiona; Mies,Rob; Williams,Kimberly; Zolotoff,José M; Molina,Cynthia; Pérez,Tamara; Rodríguez,Juan; Gutiérrez,Luis; Fernández,Maynor; Mendieta,Roger; Pérez,Josué.
Recientes trabajos han resultado en la documentación de la presencia de siete nuevos registros de especies de murciélagos para la fauna de Nicaragua: Mimon cozumelae, Natalus lanatus, Nyctinomops laticaudatus, Perimyotis subflavus, Lasiurus cinereus, Lasiurus intermedius y Eptesicus brasiliensis. En este trabajo, se formaliza la presencia de otras cuatro especies: Mormoops megalophylla, Phylloderma stenops, Thyroptera tricolor y Furipterus horrens, que, aunque fueron incluidas en el más reciente listado de mamíferos del país (Medina-Fitoria y Saldaña, 2012), no estaban apoyadas por ninguna publicación científica. Nuestro trabajo también confirma la presencia en el país de Cyttarops alecto, Lasiurus ega, Eptesicus fuscus y Antrozous dubiaquercus, especies...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Distribución; Murciélagos; Nicaragua; Nuevos registros; Registros históricos.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0327-93832015000100005
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Obstacle Government. Education and Ecology - too important as to leave them with politicians Organic Eprints
Rivera, Elba; Schnepel, Gerd.
With Nicaragua as an example it will be shown, how GOVERNMENT is an obstacle to organic agriculture, environmental protection and to quality education as a condition for natures protection, food security and climate mitigation. Extension to allied governments, who foster the wrong and irresponsible course of the country's governments are mentioned. Vivid examples show how civil society initiatives pick up the reins, and just start to do the revolutionary changes.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Nicaragua.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/24121/3/24121.pdf
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Policy for implementation of Index Based Weather Insurance revisited: the case of Nicaragua AgEcon
Banerjee, Chirantan; Berg, Ernst.
International development organisations, through partnerships with local insurance companies, have been promoting weather index based insurance (WIBI) in developing countries. Due to lower operational costs, they expect shorter pay-off period, often overlooking high initial design costs. Experiences however show high post-pilot mortality of these programmes. Literatures report lack of insurance participation. We propose lack of push from insurance providers as an additional factor. To verify, cash flows of a Nicaraguan groundnut based WIBI and a comparable but hypothetical named peril insurance are simulated against 80 scenarios. Additionally, a test of stochastic dominance of their estimated Net Present Values show that WIBI take comparatively longer to...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Index based rainfall insurance; Weather derivative; Operational cost; Nicaragua; International Development; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122448
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Small Farmers and Big Retail: trade-offs of supplying supermarkets in Nicaragua AgEcon
Michelson, Hope; Reardon, Thomas; Perez, Francisco Jose.
In Nicaragua and elsewhere in Central America, small-scale farmers are weighing the risks of entering into contracts with supermarket chains. We use unique data on negotiated prices from Nicaraguan farm cooperatives supplying supermarkets to study the impact of supply agreements on producers’ mean output prices and price stability. We find that prices paid by the domestic retail chain approximate the traditional market in mean and variance. In contrast, we find that mean prices paid by Wal-mart are significantly lower than the traditional market but that Wal-Mart systematically reduces price volatility compared with the traditional market. We find some evidence, however, that farmers may be paying too much for this contractual insurance against price...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Nicaragua; Supermarkets; Wal-Mart; Modern Retail; Market Risk; Contracts; Supply Chains; Agribusiness; International Development.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/62124
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Specklinia lugduno-batavae (Pleurothallidinae: Orchidaceae), a new species in the S. digitalis group Naturalis
Karremans, A.P.; Bogarín, D.; Gravendeel, B..
Specklinia lugduno-batavae from the Caribbean lowlands of Nicaragua and Costa Rica is formally described and illustrated. The new species belongs to the Specklinia digitalis group and can be recognised by the creeping habit, purple spotted abaxial surface of the leaf and the almost immaculate whitish cream flowers, which are produced in succession on a very short, flexuous inflorescence. The name honours Leiden University and the Hortus botanicus Leiden. The novelty is compared with its closest relatives, Specklinia digitalis, S. pisinna and S. succulenta.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Costa Rica; Nicaragua; Specklinia digitalis; Specklinia lugduno-batavae; Specklinia pisinna; Specklinia succulenta.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/578357
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Supermarkets, Farm Assets, and Technology Choices: a Duration Analysis of Horticultural Growers in Nicaragua AgEcon
Hernandez, Ricardo; Reardon, Thomas; Perez, Francisco Jose; Wiegel, Jennifer.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Supermarkets; Nicaragua; Horticulture; Small Farmers; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103883
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Susceptibilidad del suelo a la degradación en parcelas con manejo agroforestal Quesungual en Nicaragua Acta Agron. (Palmira)
Pavón T,Jellín del Carmen; Madero M,Edgar; Amézquita C,Edgar.
Durante tres años se establecieron en un Andisol del municipio de Somotillo (Nicaragua) los sistemas de usos de tierra: tradicional del productor (tala, quema, fertilización y siembra de maíz + fríjol); agroforestal Quesungual (SAQ) (no quema, árboles nativos en regeneración natural y siembra de maíz + fríjol); residuos de cultivos (manejo de cobertura con residuos de cultivos); y testigo bosque secundario (tacotal) de aproximadamente cinco años de edad no cultivado. Se hicieron muestreos de suelos a profundidades de 0-5, 5-10 y 10-20 cm para caracterización física y de fertilidad y estimación de la erosión hídrica por simulación. Los sistemas Quesungal y Residuos de Cultivo, mantuvieron la susceptibilidad del suelo a la erosión en niveles tan bajos como...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Agroforestería; Utilización de la tierra; Erosión por el agua; Sistemas de uso de suelo; Sistema Quesungual; Nicaragua.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0120-28122010000100006
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