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Registros recuperados: 35
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Agricultural Impacts of Biofuels Production AgEcon
Walsh, Marie E.; Torre Ugarte, Daniel de la; English, Burton C.; Jensen, Kimberly L.; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; Menard, R. Jamey; Nelson, Richard G..
Analysis of the potential to supply 25% of projected 2025 U.S. transportation fuels indicates sufficient biomass resources are available to meet increased demand while simultaneously meeting food, feed, and export needs. Corn and soybeans continue to be important feedstocks for ethanol and biodiesel production, but cellulose feedstocks (agricultural crop residues, energy crops such as switchgrass, and forestry residues) will play a major role. Farm income increases, mostly because of higher crop prices. Increased crop prices increase the cost of producing biofuels.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biodiesel; Biofuels; Biomass; Cellulose feedstocks; Crop residues; Ethanol; Forest residues; Switchgrass; Agribusiness; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O11; Q11; Q41.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6514
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Arthur Lewis' Contribution to Development Thinking and Policy AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
Arthur Lewis’ seminal 1954 paper and its emphasis on dualism appeared at a time when neither the work of Keynes or Harrod-Domar nor the later neoclassical production function of Solow seemed relevant for developing countries. As a consequence, his model, rooted in the classical tradition, plus its many extensions, generated an extensive literature at the center of development theory. The approach also encountered increasingly strong criticism, some of the “red herring” variety, but some, spearheaded by neoclassical microeconomists like Rosenzweig, also raised serious challenges, focused especially on its labor market assumptions. This paper reviews this landscape and asks what theoretical or policy relevance the Lewis model retains for today’s developing...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Development theory; Dualism; Labor markets; International Development; O11.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28410
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BAYES' ESTIMATES OF THE DOUBLE HURDLE MODEL IN THE PRESENCE OF FIXED COSTS AgEcon
Holloway, Garth J.; Barrett, Christopher B.; Ehui, Simeon K..
We present a model of market adoption (participation) where the presence of non-negligible fixed costs leads to non-zero censoring of the traditional double-hurdle regression. Fixed costs arise due to household resources that must be devoted a priori to the decision to participate in the market. These costs-usually a cost of time-motivate two-step decision-making and focus attentions on the minimum-efficient scale of operations (the minimum amount of milk sales) at which market entry becomes viable. This focus, in turn, motivates a non-zero-censored Tobit regression estimated through routine application of Markov chain Monte Carlo Methods.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Market participation; Fixed costs; Double-hurdle model; Censored regression.; Financial Economics; O1; O11; C34; O13; Q16; D1.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14741
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BLUNT TO SHARPENED RAZOR: INCREMENTAL REFORM AND DISTORTIONS IN THE PRODUCT AND CAPITAL MARKETS IN CHINA AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo; Tan, Kong-Yam.
A key objective of China's reform program was to reduce distortions in the economic system and enhance growth. However, when implemented in incremental and partial ways, local governments or individuals have chance to capture rents inherent in the reform process. Young (2000) warned that the rent-seeking behavior might lead to increasing market fragmentation. Empirical studies have since shown that this did not happen in the product markets. In this paper we argue that as rents from the product markets were squeezed out during the reform process, rent-seeking behavior shifted to the factor markets, especially the capital and land markets. The reform process now needs to be deepened to ensure that the factor markets also become more integrated and efficient.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Reform; China; Rent Seeking; Factor and Product Market; Transition; International Development; D33; D61; D63; O11; O53; P23.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60183
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Cultural Diversity and Economic Performance: Evidence from European Regions AgEcon
Bellini, Elena; Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P.; Pinelli, Dino; Prarolo, Giovanni.
We investigate the relationship between diversity and productivity in Europe using an original dataset covering the NUTS 3 regions of 12 countries of the EU15 (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, former Western Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). In so doing, we follow the empirical methodology developed by Ottaviano and Peri (2006a) in the case of US cities. The main idea is that, as cultural diversity may affect both production and consumption through positive or negative externalities, the joint estimation of price and income equations is needed to identify the dominant effect. Based on this methodology, we find that diversity is positively correlated with productivity. Moreover, we find evidence...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cultural Diversity; Economic Performance; Productivity; Europe; Community/Rural/Urban Development; O5; O11; O57; R5; R58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54171
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Demographic Determinants of Savings: Estimating and Interpreting the Aggregate Association in Asia AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
Life cycle savings is proposed as one explanation for much of the increase in savings and economic growth in Asia. The association between the age composition of a nation’s population and its savings rate, observed within 16 Asian countries from 1952 to 1992, is reestimated here to be less than a quarter the size reported in a seminal study, which assumed lagged savings is exogenous. Specification tests as well as common sense imply, moreover, that lagged savings is likely to be endogenous, and when estimated accordingly there remains no significant dependence of savings on the age composition, measured in several ways. Research should consider lifetime savings as a substitute for children, and model the causes for the decline in fertility which changes...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Life cycle savings; Aging; Asian growth; Demographic transition; Financial Economics; D91; J11; O11; O53.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28409
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Diversity of Communities and Economic Development: An Overview AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
This paper reviews the literature on the impact of ethnic diversity on economic development. Ethnically polarized societies are less likely to agree on the provision of public goods and more likely to engage in rent seeking activities providing lower levels of social capital. Initial conditions are important determinants of adverse development outcomes. The role of decentralization, democracy and markets as potential remedies are discussed. The paper then presents a number of preliminary hypotheses on the relationship between diversity and instability in order to stimulate future research.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Africa; Diversity; Economic Growth; Instability; International Development; O11; O40; O43; O55.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54531
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Diversity of Communities and Economic Development: An Overview AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
This paper reviews the literature on the impact of ethnic diversity on economic development. Ethnically polarized societies are less likely to agree on the provision of public goods and more likely to engage in rent seeking activities providing lower levels of social capital. Initial conditions are important determinants of adverse development outcomes. The role of decentralization, democracy and markets as potential remedies are discussed. The paper then presents a number of preliminary hypotheses on the relationship between diversity and instability in order to stimulate future research.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Africa; Diversity; Economic Growth; Instability; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Political Economy; O11; O40; O43; O55.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115713
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Does Agriculture Really Matter for Economic Growth in Developing Countries? AgEcon
Awokuse, Titus O..
In recent decades, the potential contribution of agriculture to economic growth has been a subject of much controversy among development economists. While some contend that agricultural development is a precondition to industrialization, others strongly disagree and argue for a different path. Taking advantage of recent developments in time series econometric methods, this paper re-examines the question of whether agriculture could serve as an engine of growth. Results from the empirical analysis provide strong evidence indicating that agriculture is an engine of economic growth. Furthermore, we find that trade openness has a positive effect on GDP growth.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Economic growth; ARDL; Developing countries; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; C23; O11; 041.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49762
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Energy, Environment and the Sustainability of Economic Development in China AgEcon
Fang, Xingming; Hu, Xiaoping; Wang, H. Holly.
Whether the high economic growth of China is sustainable is the matter of interest to the public, government and academic circle of China and meanwhile it catches the attention of the world because the development of China has been exerting increasing impact on the world economy. Since the high economic growth of China has been promoted by heavy and chemical industry (HCI) to a great extent, which resulted in high consumption of energy resource, high consumption of mineral resources and high emission of pollutants (the “triple highness”), the sustainability of high economic growth of China depends on a sustainable growth road for China’s HCI and effective control on the “triple highness”. We find that the contributing factors of the “triple highness” are...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Energy; Resource; Pollution; International Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O10; O11.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6274
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Export Instability, Investment and Economic Growth in Asian Countries: A Time Series Analysis AgEcon
Sinha, Dipendra.
In this study, we look at the relationship between export stability, investment and economic growth in nine Asian countries using time series data. The few previous time series studies in this area have not paid any attention to stationarity and cointegration issues. We find that in most cases, the variables are non-stationary in their levels and not cointegrated. These results raise serious doubts about the results of these studies. The results are not uniform across countries casting doubts about the validity of the numerous cross-section studies. For Japan, Malaysia, Philippines and Sri Lanka, we find a negative relationship between export instability and economic growth. For (South) Korea, Myanmar, Pakistan and Thailand, we find a positive relationship...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Export instability; Growth; Stationarity; Cointegration; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; C22; F49; O11.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28466
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Geography and Economic Transition: Global Spatial Analysis at the Grid Cell Level AgEcon
Motamed, Mesbah J.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M.; Masters, William J..
This paper addresses the timing of historical transition from rural to urban activity. In our model, rural production has constant returns and meets subsistence needs, while urban production has scale economies and meets the demands of higher-income consumers. Urbanization occurs sooner when rural or urban productivity is higher or transport costs are lower. We test the model on worldwide data that divides the earth's surface at half-degree intervals into over 60,000 cells. From an independent estimate of each cell's rural and urban population history, we identify the date at which each cell achieves various thresholds of urbanization. Controlling for country fixed effects and neighbors' urbanization using spatial techniques, we find that the date at which...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Economic geography; Urbanization; Agriculture; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C21; N50; O11; O18; R1.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49589
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Growth Diagnostics and a Multisector Ramsey Model: The Case of Brazil AgEcon
Vinyes, Cristina; Roe, Terry L..
Disenchantment with the Washington Consensus has led to an emphasis on growth diagnostics. In the case of Brazil, the literature suggests three main factors impeding growth: low domestic savings, a shortage of skilled workers, and lack of investment in the country’s transportation infrastructure. The unique contribution of this study is to show the inter-temporal implications of relaxing these constraints. We fit a multi-sector Ramsey model to Brazilian data, validate its fit to times data, and provide empirical insights into the economy’s structural transformation to long-run equilibrium. Then, the sensitivity of these results to relaxing each of these three constraints is investigated in a manner that yields the same long-run level of well- being....
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Ramsey; Growth diagnostics; International Development; O11; O41; O54; D58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56502
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Human Development and Economic Growth AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
Recent literature has contrasted Human Development, described as the ultimate goal of the development process, with economic growth, described as an imperfect proxy for more general welfare, or as a means toward enhanced human development. This debate has broadened the definitions and goals of development but still needs to define the important interrelations between human development (HD) and economic growth (EG). To the extent that greater freedom and capabilities improve economic performance, human development will have an important effect on growth. Similarly, to the extent that increased incomes will increase the range of choices and capabilities enjoyed by households and governments, economic growth will enhance human development. This paper analyzes...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Human development; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; O15; O11.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28375
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Impact of the EU Milk Quota on Structural Change in the Dairy Sectors of Germany and The Netherlands AgEcon
Huettel, Silke; Jongeneel, Roelof A..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Markov Chain; Milk Quota Scheme; Structural Change; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; O11; C11.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50943
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Impeded Industrial Restructuring: The Growth Penalty AgEcon
Audretsch, David B.; Carree, M.A.; van Stel, A.J.; Thurik, A.R..
This paper documents that a process of industrial restructuring has been transforming the developed economies, where large corporations are accounting for less economic activity and small firms are accounting for a greater share of economic activity. Not all countries, however, are experiencing the same shift in their industrial structures. Very little is known about the cost of resisting this restructuring process. The goal of this paper is to identify whether there is a cost, measured in terms of forgone growth, of an impeded restructuring process. The cost is measured by linking growth rates of OECD countries to deviations from the optimal industrial structure. The empirical evidence suggests that countries impeding the restructuring process pay a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Industry structure; Firm size distribution; Entrepreneurship; Economic growth; Industrial Organization; O11; L11.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26254
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Institutions and Development: A View from Below AgEcon
Pande, Rohini; Udry, Christopher R..
In this paper we argue the case for greater exploitation of synergies between research on specific institutions based on micro-data and the big questions posed by the institutions and growth literature. To date, the macroeconomic literature on institutions and growth has largely relied on cross-country regression evidence. This has provided compelling evidence for a causal link between a cluster of ‘good’ institutions and more rapid long run growth. However, an inability to disentangle the effects of specific institutional channels on growth or to understand the impact of institutional change on growth will limit further progress using a cross-country empirical strategy. We suggest two research programs based on micro-data that have significant potential....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Institutions; Growth; Cross-country regressions; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; O11; O12; O17; P51.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28468
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Investments and Financial Flows Induced by Climate Mitigation Policies AgEcon
Bastianin, Andrea; Favero, Alice; Massetti, Emanuele.
In this paper we use the hybrid integrated model WITCH to quantify and analyze the investments and financial flows stimulated by a climate policy to stabilize Greenhouse Gases concentrations at 550ppm CO2-eq at the end of the century. We focus on investments to decarbonize the power sector and on investments in knowledge creation. We examine the financial flows associated with the carbon market and the implications for the international trade of oil. Criticalities in investment requirements will emerge when coal power plants with carbon capture and sequestration and nuclear power plants are deployed around 2020-2040, both in high and low income regions. Investments in energy related R&D increase sharply and might cause stress in the short term....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Mitigation; Carbon Finance; Emission Trading; Energy Investments; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q01; Q43; Q54; O32; O11.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59418
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Local Communities in front of Big External Investors: An Opportunity or a Risk? AgEcon
Antoci, Angelo; Russu, Paolo; Ticci, Elisa.
In the current age of trade and financial openness, local economies in developing countries are becoming increasingly exposed to external investments. The objective of the proposed two-sector model with environmental externalities is to provide an insight into the interaction between external investors and local communities with a focus upon the different strategies and income sources available to each category. In this context, analysis suggests that environmental regulations and incentives offered in order to attract external capital investment (whether foreign or national) may have an un-uniform impact on the two typologies of actors.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Foreign Direct Investments; Environmental Negative Externalities; Structural Changes; Poverty Alleviation; International Development; F21; F43; D62; O11; O13; O15; O41; Q20.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98093
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Microeconomic Approaches to Development: Schooling, Learning, and Growth AgEcon
Rosenzweig, Mark R..
I illustrate the variety of approaches to development issues microeconomists employ, focusing on studies that illuminate and quantify the major mechanisms posited by growth theorists who highlight the role of education in fostering growth. I begin with a basic issue: what are the returns to schooling? I discuss microeconomic studies that estimate schooling returns using alternative approaches to estimating wage equations, which require assumptions that are unlikely to be met in low-income countries, looking at inferences based on how education interacts with policy and technological changes in the labor and marriage markets. I then review research addressing whether schooling facilitates learning, or merely imparts knowledge, and whether there is social...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Schooling; Development; Growth; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; O11; O15; O33; J24.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59442
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