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Registros recuperados: 40
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A Financial Contracting Approach to the Role of Supermarkets in Farmers' Credit Access AgEcon
Marcoul, Philippe; Veyssiere, Luc.
Replaced with revised version of paper 10/17/08.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Financial Contracting; Development; Financial Intermediation; Food Standards; Organization of Production; Supermarket; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; O17; O33; O50; Q12; Q13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6366
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A Personal Touch: Text Messaging for Loan Repayment AgEcon
Morten, Melanie; Karlan, Dean S.; Zinman, Jonathan.
We worked with two microlenders to test impacts of randomly assigned reminders for loan repayments in the “text messaging capital of the world”. We do not find strong evidence that loss versus gain framing or messaging timing matter. Messages only robustly improve repayment when they include the loan officer’s name. This effect holds for clients serviced by the loan officer previously but not for first-time borrowers. Taken together, the results highlight the potential and limits of communications technology for mitigating moral hazard, and suggest that personal obligation/reciprocity between borrowers and bank employees can be harnessed to help overcome market failures.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Microcredit; Microfinance; Randomized evaluation; Development finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Financial Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; D21; D92; G21; O16; O17.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121867
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Community Pressure and Clean Technology in the Informal Sector: An Econometric Analysis of the Adoption of Propane by Traditional Mexican Brickmakers AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Bannister, Geoffrey J..
In many developing countries the informal sector, comprised of low-technology unlicensed micro-enterprises, is a major source of pollution. Environmental management in this sector is exceptionally challenging. Though clean technologies offer a means of mitigating the problem, to our knowledge there has been no rigorous empirical research on why informal (or even small-scale) firms do and do not adopt them. As a first step towards filling this gap, this paper presents the results of an econometric analysis of the diffusion of propane among informal 'traditional' brickmakers in Cd. Juárez, Mexico--a leading source of air pollution owing to their reliance on cheap, highly polluting fuels such as used tires and scrap wood. The two key policy implications of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environment; Community pressure; Clean technology; Informal sector; Technology adoption; Brickmaking; Mexico; Environmental Economics and Policy; O17; O22; O33; Q25; C25; L61.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10529
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Compliance with international food safety standards as an outcome of a Nash bargaining process: a case study on Kenyan small scale green beans farms AgEcon
Nimenya, Nicodeme; Frahan, Bruno Henry de; Ndimira, Pascal-Firmin.
This study provides a stylized model on “Exit, voice and loyalty” as alternative strategic responses taken by Kenyan green beans farmers in the context of new and more stringent international food safety standards. On the analytical side, we use the Nash bargaining theory where the exporter and a representative grower bargain over the product quality level and the premium producer price. The comparative statics analysis shows that the producer bargaining power unlike the compliance costs has, ceteris paribus, a positive effect on the equilibrium quality level while these exogenous variables have ambiguous effects on producer price at equilibrium. Empirical results from logit model estimation with survey data at farm-level in Kenya show that households with...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bargaining; Small-scale farm; Voice; Agribusiness; Consumer/Household Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; D18; O17; O33; Q13; Q17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53004
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Concepts, applications, and extensions of value chain analysis to livestock systems in developing countries AgEcon
Rich, Karl M.; Baker, Derek; Negassa, Asfaw; Ross, R. Brent.
The analysis of value chains has augmented our knowledge on the complexities, inter-linkages, distributional benefits, and institutional arrangements of production and marketing channels in developing countries. However, the analysis remains relatively qualitative and case-specific, with limited ability to rank or assess the impact of alternative interventions or to analyze sufficiently the complex market dynamics and feedbacks present in livestock systems. This paper offers insights on ways to improve the analytical rigor of the value chain methodology that combines both qualitative and quantitative approaches.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Value chain; Livestock; Developing countries; Livestock Production/Industries; I32; O13; O17; O21; Q13; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51922
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CREATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKET IN UKRAINE: CURRENT STATE OF DEVELOPMENT AgEcon
Melnychuk, Volodymyr; Parkhomenko, Sergiy; Lissitsa, Alexej.
Land reform started in Ukraine 14 years ago became one of the most important issues in transformation of large state agricultural enterprises into market oriented agricultural enterprises. Significant changes in land use and land ownership has happened as a result of land reform implementation in Ukraine. Namely, state monopoly on land was eliminated, agricultural land was privatized, citizens of Ukraine received land plots in possession, first land transactions have happened at agricultural land market etc. Actual data regarding Ukrainian land relations reformation is systematized in this Discussion paper with especial focus on establishing the prerequisites of further formation and perspective development of the agricultural land market in Ukraine....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land market reform; Transition; Ukraine; Land Economics/Use; O13; O17; P26; P32; P48; Q15; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14928
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Cross-Border Environmental Management and the Informal Sector: The Ciudad Juarez Brickmakers' Project AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Bannister, Geoffrey J..
The considerable difficulties associated with cross-border environmental management are compounded when polluters are unlicensed micro-enterprises such as auto repair shops and traditional brick kilns; such "informal sector" firms are virtually impossible to regulate in the conventional manner. This paper describes an example of an innovative and promising approach to the problem: the Cd. Juarez Brickmakers' Project, a private-sector-led, binational initiative aimed at abating highly polluting emissions from Cd. Juarez's approximately 350 informal brick kilns. We draw three lessons from the Project's history. First, private-sector-led cross-border initiatives can work -- indeed they may be more effective than public sector initiatives -- but they require...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: US-Mexican border; Informal sector; Environment; Brickmaking; Environmental Economics and Policy; O17; O54; L61; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10600
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Determinants of the Informal Economy: The Importance of Regional Factors AgEcon
Krakowski, Michael.
This paper analyses the determinants of the size of the informal economy using cross-country regressions. Two sets of global data using indirect estimation techniques and the perception of business leaders for 109 countries as well as a regional set for Latin America based on direct data are used to estimate the size of the informal economies. Indirect estimation techniques arrive at higher estimates of the size of the informal economy than the perceptions of business leaders because they include not only the (fundamentally legal) activities of the informal sector, but also those activities which are illegal per se. Both kinds of estimate show strong regional differences in the size of the informal economies. Regressions on a set of indicators covering the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Informal sector; Tax evasion; Business regulation; Political Economy; O17; H26.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26313
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Does Community Involvement Matter? How Collective Choice Affects Forests in Mexico AgEcon
Antinori, Camille; Rausser, Gordon C..
Current natural resource policy emphasizes devolved control to local levels of government and stakeholder groups. Effective strategies are as yet unclear, given mixed results in devolutionary efforts and few empirical analyses. Using original community-level survey data from Oaxaca, Mexico, a region with 90% common property forestland, the study describes how existing community governance structures accommodate an increasing local role in managing forest land. Multidimensional performance indicators for forest condition and group rule conformance are constructed and regressed on measures of democratic involvement and attendance rate at general meetings within the community setting. Empirical results show that community officials and foresters working...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O17; Q23.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25076
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Group Behavior and Development: A Comparison of Farmers' Organisations in South Korea and Taiwan AgEcon
Burmeister, Larry; Ranis, Gustav; Wang, Michael.
This study presents a comparative analysis of farmers’ organisations in Korea and Taiwan during 1950-80 in order to help us understand the role of group behavior in affecting development outcomes. It highlights the linkages between group behavior, parastatal organisational structures and economic performance. The paper examines the historical and political economy contexts that led to the creation of both countries’ farmers’ organisations and highlights the institutional characteristics that impacted their operational effectiveness. The study discusses elements in internal and external policies that affected group motivation and traces the implications of such differences in group behavior for bottom line performance. Though there existed many similarities...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farmers’ organizations; Korea; Taiwan; Group behavior; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; O17.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28464
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Group versus Individual Liability: Long Term Evidence from Philippine Microcredit Lending Groups AgEcon
Gine, Xavier; Karlan, Dean S..
Group liability in microcredit purports to improve repayment rates through peer screening, monitoring, and enforcement. However, it may create excessive pressure, and discourage reliable clients from borrowing. Two randomized trials tested the overall effect, as well as specific mechanisms. The first removed group liability from pre-existing groups and the second randomly assigned villages to either group or individual liability loans. In both, groups still held weekly meetings. We find no increase in default and larger groups after three years in pre-existing areas, and no change in default but fewer groups created after two years in the expansion areas.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Group lending; Group liability; Joint liability; Social capital; Microenterprises; Informal economies; Access to finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Financial Economics; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; C93; D71; D82; D91; G21; O12; O16; O17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50951
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Group versus Individual Liability: Long Term Evidence from Philippine Microcredit Lending Groups AgEcon
Gine, Xavier; Karlan, Dean.
Group liability in microcredit purports to improve repayment rates through peer screening, monitoring, and enforcement. However, it may create excessive pressure, and discourage reliable clients from borrowing. Two randomized trials tested the overall effect, as well as specific mechanisms. The first removed group liability from pre-existing groups and the second randomly assigned villages to either group or individual liability loans. In both, groups still held weekly meetings. We find no increase in default and larger groups after three years in pre-existing areas, and no change in default but fewer groups created after two years in the expansion areas.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Group lending; Group liability; Joint liability; Social capital; Micro-enterprises; Informal economies; Access to finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Financial Economics; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; C93; D71; D82; D91; G21; O12; O16; O17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/229136
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Identifying the Factors that Influence Small-scale Farmers’ Transaction Costs in Relation to Seed Acquisition - An ethnographic case study of maize growing smallholders in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico AgEcon
Badstue, Lone B..
Using an ethnographic approach, this study explores small-scale farmers’ perceived transaction costs in relation to maize seed acquisition in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca. These farmers have different needs and require seed of diverse maize types with multiple traits in particular combinations. Formal seed distribution has yet to develop in this region and farmers depend mostly on informal seed sources. Issues of information about maize seed, seed transaction negotiation and enforcement are examined from a small-scale farmer perspective through the use of qualitative data. Results show that farmers’ perceived transaction costs are low to negligible in most cases where seed transactions take place locally, and trust is indicated as a factor which serves to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Small-scale farmers; Transaction costs; Seed acquisitions; Maize (Zea mays L.); Informal seed sector; Oaxaca; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; D23; O17; Q12; Z13.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23800
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Improving the Quality of Women’s Gold in Mali, West Africa: The Case of Shea AgEcon
Perakis, Sonja Melissa.
The collection, primary processing, and subsequent sale of shea-based products make an important contribution to rural women’s cash income in many of Mali’s shea producing areas. Internationally, shea has recently become popular in high-valued cosmetics thanks to its therapeutic properties— a deviation away from its historic use as a cheap cocoa-butter substitute. For these reasons, international development actors have targeted the Malian shea value chain as part of their private-sector-development and rural-poverty-alleviation programs and strategies. Information asymmetry in the production and marketing of shea has led to a “Market for Lemons” scenario much like that described by Akerlof (1970), thereby compromising the subsector’s potential to serve as...
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation Palavras-chave: Information asymmetry; Karité; Mali; Rural development; Shea; Women’s income; Agribusiness; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Marketing; Q13; Q23; L15; L24; 013; O17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51703
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Informal Finance: A Theory of Moneylenders AgEcon
Madestam, Andreas.
I study the coexistence of formal and informal finance in underdeveloped credit markets. While weak institutions constrain formal banks, shallow pockets hamper informal lenders. In such economies, informal finance has two effects. By increasing the investment return it decreases borrowers’ relative payoff following default, inducing banks to lend more liberally (disciplinary effect). By channeling bank capital it reduces banks’ agency costs from lending directly to borrowers, limiting banks’ extension of borrower credit (rent-extraction effect). Among other things, the model shows that informal interest rates are higher, borrower welfare lower, and informal finance more prevalent when the rent-extraction effect prevails, consistent with stylized facts in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Credit Markets; Financial Development; Institutions; Market Structure; Financial Economics; O12; O16; O17; D40.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54288
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Informality, Size, and Regulation: Theory and an Application to Egypt AgEcon
Giugale, Marcelo M.; El-Diwany, Sherif.
The paper shows how, when the enforceability of regulations is size-sensitive, price competition can lock firms into informality and, thus, smallness, depending on the form of the production function. In that context, exogenours "help"packages targeted to informal firms "promote" micro and small enterprises (i.e., increase their numbers) but do not "develop" them (i.e., foster their growth). The "help" only generates a short-term span of abnormal profits for existing informal firms, and a long-term income transfer toward informal-market consumers. The model is tested in the context of Egypt's micro and small enterprise sector.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Informality; Size Regulation; Egypt; Hide-Outs; Agricultural and Food Policy; O17; L11; L51.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18542
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Institutions and Development: A View from Below AgEcon
Pande, Rohini; Udry, Christopher R..
In this paper we argue the case for greater exploitation of synergies between research on specific institutions based on micro-data and the big questions posed by the institutions and growth literature. To date, the macroeconomic literature on institutions and growth has largely relied on cross-country regression evidence. This has provided compelling evidence for a causal link between a cluster of ‘good’ institutions and more rapid long run growth. However, an inability to disentangle the effects of specific institutional channels on growth or to understand the impact of institutional change on growth will limit further progress using a cross-country empirical strategy. We suggest two research programs based on micro-data that have significant potential....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Institutions; Growth; Cross-country regressions; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; O11; O12; O17; P51.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28468
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Labor Surplus Economies AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
The labor surplus economy model has as its basic premise the inability of unskilled agricultural labor markets to clear in countries with high man/land ratios. In such situations, the marginal product of labor is likely to fall below a bargaining wage, related to the average rather than the marginal product. The reallocation of such disguisedly unemployed workers by means of “balanced” intersectoral growth ultimately permits the entire economy to operate on neo-classical principles. Finally, the paper introduces open economy dimensions, indicates the existence of other labor surplus sub-sectors and briefly responds to neo-classical critiques on both theoretical and empirical grounds.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Development theory; Labor markets; Labor and Human Capital; O10; O12; O17.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28480
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Market and Coordination Failures in Poor Rural Economies: Policy Implications for Agricultural and Rural Development AgEcon
Dorward, Andrew; Kydd, Jonathan; Poulton, Colin.
This paper argues that the disappointing outcomes of adjustment policies in poor rural economies, principally in sub-Saharan Africa, can be partly attributed to weaknesses in the neo-classical theory which underlies these polices and from associated failures to recognise structural changes (or transitions) in growing agricultural economies. After a brief description of agricultural policy changes in sub Saharan Africa, the mixed achievements of market liberalisation policies are explained using new institutional economic arguments regarding inherent difficulties in economic coordination in poor economies, difficulties which markets themselves cannot overcome. A novel framework is put forward for understanding coordination failure and integrating it with...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Development; Coordination; Markets; Institutions; Marketing; O12; O17; Q12.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9535
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Market Information Systems in Sub-Sahara Africa: Challenges and Opportunities AgEcon
Tollens, Eric.
The paper deals with the emergence and rise of market information systems in sub-Sahara Africa as a result of economic liberalization. There has already been an evolution is such systems and no particular system dominates. Various types of market information systems exist today, public or private, all or not linked to a commodity exchange. The rationale of a commodity exchange is discussed, linked to a market information system. They all struggle with problems of sustainable financing. Very few if any good impact studies exist on such systems, demonstrating their effects on market transparency, information asymmetry, the bargaining power of poor farmers and their market access. Dissemination of the information, using traditional (radio) or modern (ICT)...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Marketing; Q13; Q18; O13; O17; H41.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25590
Registros recuperados: 40
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