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Registros recuperados: 55
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A Unified Approach to the Estimation of Demand for Improved Seed in Developing Agriculture AgEcon
Langyintuo, Augustine S.; Hamazakaza, Petan; Nawale, Edah; Mekuria, Mulugetta.
This paper proposes a new approach for estimating the demand for seed within a developing country context where only improved seeds are sold but adoption rates for improved varieties low. A farmer views an improved seed firstly as a derived input embodying production attributes and secondly, as a technology embodying consumption characteristics. He therefore jointly decides on its adoption and the quantity of seed required to plant a predetermined area. Drawing on the theory of demand for consumption goods characteristics and production input attributes, this paper specified and estimated non-separable household demand and consumption models using data collected from 300 farm households in Zambia during the 2003/04 crop season. The estimated results...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural household model; Consumer goods characteristics; Production inputs; Technology attributes; Non-separability; Censored equations; Zambia; Crop Production/Industries; C21; D1; O3; Q12; Q16.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25332
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AGGREGATION ISSUES IN THE ESTIMATION OF MALMQUIST PRODUCTIVITY MEASURES AgEcon
Shaik, Saleem.
The paper contributes by demonstrating the sensitivity of nonparametric programming productivity measures to the choice of model –time series versus panel models of Malmquist productivity, and to various levels of commodity aggregation compared to the traditional Tornqvist-Theil index approach employing U.S. state-level data from 1960-96. To illustrate the sensitive of nonparametric programming productivity measures, we compare the implicit shadow shares recovered from the dual values of the Malmquist productivity and total factor productivity methods to the observed shares of the Tornqvist-Theil index for U.S level data from 1948-1994.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Tornqvist-Theil Index; Time series; And Panel models; Malmquist productivity and Malmquist total factor productivity programming; Share-weights.; Productivity Analysis; O3; C6; Q1.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46553
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Agricultural Change and Population Growth: District-Level Evidence From India AgEcon
Witcover, Julie; Vosti, Stephen A.; Lipton, Michael.
Green Revolution technologies were developed and promoted in the 1960s in response to alarm about impending famine in Asia. By boosting food supplies and fostering development, the technologies were expected to create "breathing space" for completing demographic transitions there. This paper uses District-level data from rural India on agricultural transformation (from 1961 to 1981) and on changes in human fertility (from 1971 to 1981) to examine whether they did so. In a reduced form model, female literacy and marriage rates emerged as strong fertility change determinants; effects varied by age cohort. Growth in real wages in rural areas, in part brought about by HYV technologies, accelerated fertility declines. With real wage growth effects of Green...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Development; Q16; J1; Q18; D1; O3.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25443
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Brazilian Agricultural Productivity and Policy AgEcon
Rada, Nicholas E.; Buccola, Steven T..
Replaced with revised version of poster 07/29/11.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Brazilian agriculture; Embrapa; Input distance function; Stochastic frontier; Total factor productivity; Technical change; Efficiency; International Development; Productivity Analysis; O2; O3.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103326
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Commodity Exchange and Institutional Changes: Case of Iranian Agricultural Commodity Exchange AgEcon
Soltanpour, Yazdan.
In this study, an attempt is to figure out the institutional changes that initiate the agricultural commodity exchange (ACE). To assess the affecting factors, new institutional economics approach has been chosen. The framework consisting of four levels of social analysis introduced by Oliver E. Williamson is used to analyze the social environment, institutional rules, institutional arrangements and finally the agency level economics (Neo-classical economics). Regarding this framework, the institutional changes that have initiated the Iranian ACE is analyzed and its constraints to further improvement are discussed.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural Commodity Exchange; Institutional economics; Iran; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; G1; O3; L1.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90825
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Competition Issues in the Seed Industry and the Role of Intellectual Property AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; L1; L4; O3; Q1.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94757
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Cotton Production in Uganda: Would GM technologies be the Solution? AgEcon
Horna, J. Daniela; Kyotalimye, Miriam; Falck-Zepeda, Jose Benjamin.
The government of Uganda is currently testing the performance of genetically modified (GM) cotton varieties. Cotton is cultivated in Uganda for two main reasons: 1) agro-ecological conditions favor cotton cultivation, and 2) there is a long tradition of cotton cultivation in the country. Two main research questions are addressed in this study: a) would the adoption of genetically modified (GM) cotton benefit Ugandan farmers? b) Would the use of GM seed be more profitable than the low input traditional system or than the organic production system? Stochastic budget analysis is used to address these questions. The results show that estimated values of cotton profitability do not seem to justify the investment in a complex technology. The question then is how...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Stochastic budget analysis; GM cotton; Organic cotton; Agricultural and Food Policy; Production Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; O3; O31; O55.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51823
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Delivering Seeds of 'Orphan' Crops: The Case Studies of Potato and Groundnut in India AgEcon
Pal, Suresh; Singh, Harbir; Mathur, Prasoon.
This paper examines the performance of the Indian seed system in the context of high volume, low value seed, using the case studies of potato and groundnut. In theory, public sector should be able to address seed needs of farmers growing these crops. However, the ability of the public sector is constrained by a number of institutional and technical factors, and farmers largely depend upon traditional sources of seed. The traditional sources meet more than two-thirds of the total seed demand , and the rest is met by the formal seed system, mainly public seed agencies. Most of the farmers buy fresh seed for quality reasons, and only 12-15 percent farmers purchase seed to change variety. In potato, technological innovation provided options to enhance...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Seed system; Seed sources; Seed saving; Seed quality; Supply chain; India; Crop Production/Industries; O3; Q13; Q16.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25444
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Dispersão atmosférica na cidade de Bragança com recurso à detecção remota IPB - Escola Superior Agrária
Castro, João Paulo; Feliciano, Manuel; Martins, Luís.
Este trabalho insere-se no projecto de investigação Greenurbe, que tem por objectivo avaliar os impactes dos espaços verdes da cidade de Bragança, na qualidade do ambiente urbano (qualidade do ar, níveis de ruído e condições microclimáticas), em estreita relação com o bem-estar social, de modo a formular recomendações relativas ao desenho dos espaços verdes, enquanto vertente do planeamento urbano. Neste estudo pretende-se avaliar os efeitos da vegetação na qualidade do ar, fazendo a sua relação do "haze" atmosférico, com recurso à fotografia aérea e fotografia panorâmica. O método envolveu a aquisição e tratamento numérico de fotografia aérea de pequeno formato e fotografia panorâmica, com a medição simultânea de alguns parâmetros da qualidade do ar em...
Tipo: ConferenceObject Palavras-chave: Detecção remota; PM10; O3; Fotografia panorâmica; Regressão linear.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10198/4701
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Double Transplanting: Economic Assessment of an Indigenous Technology for Submergence Avoidance in the Flood-Prone Rice Environment in Bangladesh AgEcon
Azad, Md Abdus Samad; Hossain, Mahabub.
In the northern part of Bangladesh a large proportion of land is medium and low-lying which are subjected to the risk of flooding from heavy rains during the month of August and September. Consecutive days of heavy rains after the crop establishment causes flash floods leading to death of seedlings and additional costs for re-transplanting. In response to this environmental problem, farmers practice a system of double transplanting of rice, locally known as Bolon to avoid crop failure from submergence. One-month old seedlings are transferred to another field with dense transplanting, and then re-transplanted to the main after the risk of flash flood is over. Scientists argue that the system would have lower yield and higher costs, thereby lower profits...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop establishment method; Productivity; Profitability; Technical efficiency; Crop Production/Industries; O3; Q16; Q18; Q19; Q55.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25448
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Drivers and Modifiers of Lowland Use in West Africa AgEcon
Erenstein, Olaf.
Lowland development efforts in West Africa have a mixed record. The paper posits that this is due to the neglect of: (1) market opportunity as driving force for lowland use; and (2) the wider context within which lowlands are used as important modifier. The paper applies a regression-based decomposition framework to analyze the factors driving and modifying lowland use in West Africa. It uses community-level data from 1014 geo-referenced lowland units around four urban centers along an agro-ecological gradient in Cote d'Ivoire and Mali. Tobit models are used to explain the extent of lowland non-use (seasonal fallow), its diversity (in terms of rice and other crop cultivation) and its land use intensity (double cropping). Results highlight that proximity to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Urban - rural linkages; Market access; Agro-ecological gradient; West Africa; Lowland use; Peri-urban agriculture; O18; O3; Q15; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25288
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Dynamic Changes in Dairy Technologies Uptake in the Kenya Highlands AgEcon
Baltenweck, Isabelle; Yamano, Takashi; Staal, Steven J..
A number of African countries experienced since the mid 1980s a process of market liberalization that was expected to increase smallholders' access to inputs and outputs markets through the entry of private players. The effect on production, through uptake of improved technologies is however unclear. This paper aims at better understanding the dynamics of dairy technology uptake using a rich dataset of 874 households surveyed at two points of time. Using panel data enables to show the importance of differentiating 'permanent adopters' and 'temporary adopters'. Farmers with large land holdings are those who are able to have improved cattle at the two points of time, while those with smaller land size may not be able to maintain their animals on farm, either...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Livestock Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C21; D1; O3; Q12.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25571
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Economics of Biofortification AgEcon
Qaim, Matin; Stein, Alexander J.; Meenakshi, J.V..
Micronutrient malnutrition affects billions of people world-wide, causing serious health problems. Different micronutrient interventions are currently being used, but their overall coverage is relatively limited. Biofortification – that is, breeding staple food crops for higher micronutrient contents – has been proposed as a new agriculture-based approach. Yet, as biofortified crops are still under development, relatively little is known about their economic impacts and wider ramifications. In this article, the main factors that will influence their future success are discussed, and a methodology for economic impact assessment is presented, combining agricultural, nutrition, and health aspects. Ex ante studies from India and other developing countries...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Micronutrient malnutrition; Public health; Biofortification; Agricultural technology; Impact analysis; Developing countries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; I1; I3; O1; O3; Q1.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25584
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GM food technology abroad and its implications for Australia and New Zealand AgEcon
Anderson, Kym; Jackson, Lee Ann.
The potential economic benefits from agricultural biotechnology adoption by ANZ need to be weighed against any likely loss of market access abroad for crops that may contain genetically modified (GM) organisms. This paper uses the global GTAP model to estimate effects of other countries' GM policies without and with ANZ farmers adopting GM varieties of various grains and oilseeds. The benefits to ANZ from adopting GM crops under a variety of scenarios are positive even in the presence of the ban on imports from GM-adopting countries by the EU (but not if East Asia also applied such a ban).
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; GMOs; Regulation; Trade policy; Computable general equilibrium; Crop Production/Industries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; C68; D58; F13; O3; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58365
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GROWTH THEORY AND ACCOUNTING FOR GROWTH OF THE TAIWANESE ECONOMY AgEcon
Lin, Pei-Chien; Roe, Terry L..
A growth accounting and an econometric exercise are used to provide insights into the evolution of the Taiwanese economy over the period 1966-96. The approach links the GDP function of a multiple sector neoclassical growth model to growth accounting and, subsequently to the estimation of the parameters of this function. The growth accounting results show that the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP) to growth in GDP averaged about 32 percent over the period, and this contribution increased as the economy approached its long-run equilibrium during the decade of the 1980s, with evidence of some departure during 1991-96. Growth in TFP increased output growth in industry and services while growth in skilled labor benefited all sectors. Growth in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Productivity; Technological change; International Development; Productivity Analysis; O3; O4; O5.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12968
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Immigrant Workers and Technological Change in U.S. Agriculture: A Profit Maximization Approach of Induced Innovation AgEcon
Napasintuwong, Orachos; Emerson, Robert D..
This paper analyzes changes in U.S. agricultural technology during 1960-1999, emphasizing the role of immigrant workers on farm mechanization. The rates and directions of biased technological change based on the induced innovation theory are compared before and after the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 which was intended to reduce employment of unauthorized workers. Unlike previous studies of induced innovation, this paper develops a new theoretical and empirical model of induced innovation using a profit maximization approach. The contribution of the profit maximization approach is that it allows changes in output combinations as a result of technological change. We found that the technology was biased against hired and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Immigrant workers; Farm mechanization; Technological change; Induced innovation; Profit function model; Labor and Human Capital; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; J43; J6; O3; Q55.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25505
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Impact of local public goods on agricultural productivity growth in the U.S. AgEcon
Sun, Ling; Ball, V. Eldon; Fulginiti, Lilyan E.; Plastina, Alejandro S..
In this paper we revisit the issue on the impact of public R&D expenditure on US agricultural productivity growth. We estimate a dual cost function using a state-by-year panel data set. We construct the potential R&D “spillins” based on both geographical location and production mix. We also examine the role of the extension service, transportation network, and human capital in the process of technology dissemination. The results indicate that higher levels of local public goods, R&D spillins, extension activities, and an intensive transportation network decrease costs. The contributions to agricultural productivity from all series of R&D spillins are positive even though the social rate of return may differ.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Productivity; Public R&D expenditure; Cost function; Extension services; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O3; O4.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49333
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Impact of Research Investment on Technology Development and Total Factor Productivity in Major Field Crops of Peninsular India AgEcon
Ananth, G.S.; Chengappa, P.G.; Janaiah, Aldas.
Increase in agricultural productivity is induced by public investment in research. Several studies have analyzed the impact of research investment at the national level but such analyses at the state or regional level are a few. The present study is an attempt to analyze the pattern and quantify the returns to research investment made over a period of 25 years on major field crops such as rice, jowar, finger millet (ragi), red gram, groundnut, sunflower, cotton and sugarcane in a predominantly agrarian state of Karnataka in peninsular India. The impact of research investment was assessed in terms of technology developed and growth in total factor productivity. The agricultural research investment had profound effect on the development of technologies...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research investment; TFP; Technology development; India; Field crops; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O3.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25740
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INCORPORATING RISK IN EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS AgEcon
Shaik, Saleem; Helmers, Glenn A..
Using a non-parametric linear programming approach, our contribution is (1) to examine the impact of incorporating risk in efficiency analysis and (2) to compare the efficiency measures with and without risk for continuous and rotation cropping systems. The model uses Nebraska cropping system data for the period, 1986-2000. Results indicate lower efficiency gains are realized with the incorporation of risk. The t-test at the 5% level of significance examining if efficiency measures are significantly different from one is also reported.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risk; Efficiency; Non-parametric; Cropping Systems; Risk and Uncertainty; O3; C6; Q1.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/35063
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Information and Firms’ Search Behavior AgEcon
Aker, Jenny; Tack, Jesse B..
Information and communications technologies (ICTs) have spread rapidly over the past decade. There has been considerable interest in the effect of such technology on search costs, search behavior and welfare outcomes, particularly in developing countries. This paper investigates the impact of a new search technology, mobile phones, on traders’ search and marketing behavior in Niger. We construct a novel theoretical model of sequential search, in which traders engage in optimal search for the maximum sales price, net transport costs. The model predicts that the introduction of a new search technology, such as mobile telephones, will increase traders’ reservation sales prices and the number of markets over which they search. To test the predictions of the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Africa; Information; Information Technology; Search Costs; Niger; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Marketing; O1; O3; Q13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103404
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