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A Herculean Task? Economics, Politics, and Realigning Government in the Case of U.S. Polar-Orbiting Weather Satellites AgEcon
MacAuley, Molly K..
In 1994 one of the most radical institutional restructurings in the U.S. government's provision of critical weather information took place after eight unsuccessful attempts. A presidential decision directive merged weather data collection by satellites operated by the Department of Defense for military operations and satellites operated by the Department of Commerce for civilian weather forecasting. Such radical restructuring involving government agencies with different objectives, economic constraints, and operating cultures is rare. This paper reviews the decision that led to "convergence," discusses economic arguments advanced for the merger, and finds that the problem of an incomplete contract, from the perspective of contract theory, is the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Weather economics; Space economics; Value of information; Government policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; O32; Q00.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10539
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A Quality-Adjusted Cost Index for Estimating Future Consumer Surplus from Innovation AgEcon
Austin, David H.; MacAuley, Molly K..
This paper describes a model for estimating, in a probabilistic framework, expected future consumer surplus from planned new product innovations. The model has been applied to estimations of taxpayer benefits from NASA's New Millenium Program (NMP), which develops new technologies for space science, and to the digital data storage technologies being supported by the Department of Commerce's Advanced Technology Program (ATP). The model uses cost index methods based on consumers' estimated marginal valuation for quality improvements in the technology. Probabilistic values for performance increases are taken from the innovators' own expectations. The analysis reveals the sensitivity of welfare increases to these values, which are assumed to be biased upward....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Quality-adjusted cost index; Consumer surplus; Innovation; Environmental Economics and Policy; O32; H43; D60.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10655
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Agricultural Technology Adoption and Rural Poverty: Application of an Endogenous Switching Regression for Selected East African Countries AgEcon
Asfaw, Solomon; Shiferaw, Bekele A..
Achieving agricultural growth and development and thereby improving rural household welfare will require increased efforts to provide yield enhancing and natural resources conserving technologies. Agricultural research and technological improvements are therefore crucial to increase agricultural productivity and thereby reduce poverty. However evaluation of the impact of these technologies on rural household welfare have been very limited by lack of appropriate methods and most of previous research has therefore failed to move beyond estimating economic surplus and return to research investment. This paper evaluates the potential impact of adoption of modern agricultural technologies on rural household welfare measured by crop income and consumption...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural household welfare; Technology adoption; Propensity score matching; Endogenous switching; Ethiopia; Tanzania; Food Security and Poverty; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C13; C15; O32; O38.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97049
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An analysis of the challenges of the maize seed industry in eastern and southern Africa AgEcon
Langyintuo, Augustine S.; Mwangi, Wilfred; Diallo, Alpha O.; MacRobert, John F.; Dixon, John; Banziger, Marianne.
The liberalization and restructuring of the seed sector in eastern and southern Africa (ESA) during the past two decades have witnessed a proliferation of private seed companies in the maize seed industry (Hassan et al., 2001; Lemonius, 2005). Although the total number of registered maize seed companies increased from 8 and 11, respectively, in 1997 to 40 each, the quantities of seed marketed barely doubled, increasing from 23,000 and 27,000 tons to 53,000 and 51,000 tons, respectively; an indication that the reforms are insufficient in ensuring efficient functioning of the sector in the two regions. A study involving 117 seed providers, representing 92 percent of all registered maize seed companies in ESA in 2007 identified bottlenecks that have...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Keywords: Maize seed industry; Seed policies; Eastern and southern Africa; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Marketing; D21; M31; O32.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51713
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An Economic Assessment of Space Solar Power as a Source of Electricity for Space-Based Activities AgEcon
MacAuley, Molly K.; Davis, James F..
We develop a conceptual model of the economic value of space solar power (SSP) as a source of power to in-space activities, such as spacecraft and space stations. We offer several estimates of the value based on interviews and published data, discuss technological innovations that may compete with or be complementary to SSP, and consider alternative institutional arrangements for government and the private sector to provide SSP.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Innovation; Government policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; O33; O32; L98.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10794
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Biotechnology and Planted Forests: Assessment of Potential and Possibilities AgEcon
Sedjo, Roger A..
This paper addresses the potential impact of the introduction and development of biotechnology on planted forests. It includes a description of some recent innovations in forestry including the use of traditional breeding, and also more recent innovations involving biotechnology, including the development of clonal propagation and the use of modern molecular biology techniques. In addition to describing these innovations, the paper undertakes an assessment of their probable impact on future production of the forest industry, on the global timber supply, and on future markets for timber and wood products. The paper offers a description of recent innovations in tree breeding and biotechnology, including a discussion of innovations in agriculture that have...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Plantation forests; Genetic modification; Genetic research; Economic benefits; Transgenic; GMO; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q21; Q23; Q16; O32; L73.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10862
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Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry: Economic Perspectives AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Economists are rarely brought into the interdisciplinary research until the biophysical scientists have developed their models, made their measurements or completed their research task. The research economist is then brought in to do what amounts to a consulting task – provide some numbers that indicate impacts on the economy and employment. In this paper, I begin by illustrating cases from forestry where this leads to erroneous and costly policy outcomes. However, the main objective of this paper is to examine the role of genetic engineering in forestry and agriculture. In forestry, planting of genetically-modified (GM) tree species is nearly non-existent, with the exception of hybrid poplar that is used to produce pulp or fuel. However, as explored here,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Precautionary principle; Economics of genetically-modified organisms; Agriculture and forestry; Mountain pine beetle; Agricultural and Food Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; O32; Q11; Q18; Q23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107480
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Biotechnology's Potential Contribution to Global Wood Supply and Forest Conservation AgEcon
Sedjo, Roger A..
Over the past 30 years, industrial plantation forests have become a major supplier of industrial wood. There are several reasons for this, including the improved economics of planted forests due to biotechnological innovations, the increases in natural forest wood costs due to increasing inaccessibility, and rising wood costs from natural forests due to new environmental restrictions related to logging. Forestry today is on the threshold of the widespread introduction of biotechnology into its operational practices. In many cases, the biotechnology likely to be introduced is simply an extension of that being utilized in agriculture, such as herbicide-tolerant genes. However, biotechnology in forestry also is developing applications unique to forestry,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Breeding; Forestry; Tree plantations; Timber; Fiber; Genes; GMOs; Industrial wood; Economics; Benefits; Costs; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q21; Q23; Q16; O32; L73.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10708
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BUSINESS FUNCTIONS APPROACH TO INNOVATIVE AND NON-INNOVATIVE BUSINESS COMPARISON IN LATVIA AgEcon
Hilkevics, Sergejs; Stefenberga, Dace.
State system of innovative business support was created in Latvia during last years and the first conclusions about the efficiency of this system can be made at present time. To evaluate the efficiency of innovative business support system it is necessary to compare in some way innovative and non-innovative companies. The main task of this article is to provide the frame for innovative and non-innovative business comparison and describe on the base of this frame the main differences between innovative and non-innovative companies in Latvia at present time. The main result of investigation is the conclusion that at present time innovative business has certain advantages for development in Latvia, especially in regions, because the main weak point of...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Innovative business; Business functions; Regional economic development; Public Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O31; O32; R58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92339
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CO-EXISTENCE COSTS UNDER GERMAN REGULATION - CASE STUDIES OF BT MAIZE AgEcon
Reitmeier, Daniela; Menrad, Klaus.
Paper prepared for presentation at the 10th ICABR International Conference on Agricultural Biotechnology: Facts, Analysis and Policies Ravello (Italy), June 29th to July 2nd, 2006
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Co-existence measure; GMO; Bt maize; GIS; Germany; Agricultural and Food Policy; L51; O32.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91329
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COSTS OF CO-EXISTENCE AND TRACEABILITY SYSTEMS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY IN GERMANY AND DENMARK AgEcon
Menrad, Klaus; Gabriel, Andreas; Gylling, Morten.
Paper prepared for presentation at the Fourth International Conference on Coexistence between Genetically Modified (GM) and non-GM based Agricultural Supply Chains (GMCC) Melbourne (Australia), 10th to 12th November 2009
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Genetic engineering; GMO; Food industry; Co-existence; Agricultural and Food Policy; L51; O32.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91301
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Creating an innovative environment in total quality management system within companies AgEcon
Mitreva, Elizabeta; Prodanovska, Vesna.
The decision for development of the quality providing system could go in line with the company’s expansion and with the concept of the total quality management (TQM). The most diligent-untouchable assets within the companies are referring to the relation with the customers/consumers, employee’s skills and their knowledge and building an organizational culture tending towards innovations, problem solving and total working promotion. The paper discusses attitude of companies in Macedonia to promoting employees’ motivations to knowledge sharing and innovations.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Qualities; Innovations; Organizational culture; Buyers; Quality providing systems; Total quality management.; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; M10; M12; O32.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94588
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Crisis as a catalyst: the role of Schumpeterian innovation in the Lithuanian economy AgEcon
Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas; Rasteniene, Ausra.
What circumstances allow businesses to flourish in a stagnant world economy? We ask that question in our discussion of the uniquely favorable circumstances of the biotechnology sector in Lithuania. The purpose of this paper is to analyze Lithuania’s ability to expand its economy during a time of crisis, focusing on its unique ability to innovate in such sectors as biotechnology.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Schumpeter; Innovation; Kondratiev wave; Biotechnology; Business cluster theory; Financial Economics; International Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O31; O32.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94527
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ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF CO-EXISTENCE MEASURES IN MAIZE CROP AND SEED PRODUCTION - A CASE STUDY OF FRANCE AgEcon
Reitmeier, Daniela; Menrad, Klaus; Gomez-Barbero, Manuel; Angevin, F.; Messean, A.; Rodriguez-Cerezo, Emilio.
Paper prepared for presentation at the Second International Conference on Coexistence between Genetically Modified (GM) and non-GM based Agricultural Supply Chains (GMCC) Montpellier (France), 14th and 15th November 2005
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Genetic engineering; GMO; Maize; Co-existence; Agricultural and Food Policy; L51; O32.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91124
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Effects of Bt Cotton in India During the First Five Years of Adoption AgEcon
Sadashivappa, Prakash; Qaim, Matin.
While previous research has analyzed the impacts of Bt cotton in India, most available studies are based on one or two years of data only. We analyze the technology’s performance over the first five years of adoption, using panel data with three rounds of observations. On average, Bt adopting farmers realize pesticide reductions of about 40%, and yield advantages of 30-40%. Profit gains are in a magnitude of US $60 per acre. These benefits have been sustainable over time. Farmers’ satisfaction is reflected in a high willingness to pay for Bt seeds. Nonetheless, in 2006 Indian state governments decided to establish price caps at levels much lower than what companies had charged before. This intervention has further increased farmers’ profits, but the impact...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Bt cotton; Genetically modified crops; Farm survey; India; Seed markets; Technology adoption; Willingness to pay (WTP); Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O32; O33; Q16; Q55; Q58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49947
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EFFECTS OF FIRM-SPECIFIC FACTORS ON R&D EXPENDITURES OF AGRIBUSINESS COMPANIES AgEcon
Roucan-Kane, Maud; Ubilava, David; Xu, Pei.
The objective of this paper is to determine how the firm's infrastructure, the financial characteristics of a company (net income, sales), and the organizational structure (number of acquisitions, age of establishment of the firm) affect R&D investments in the agricultural sector. We use data for companies under the SIC codes for agricultural chemicals, and crop planning and protection. The results based on analysis of 69 observations of 12 firms revealed that firm's financial and organizational infrastructure does affect its R&D expenditures. Older and larger firms tend to spend more on R&D. During the last 17 years the R&D expenditures with respect to the sales of the company have been reduced. Finally, contrary to the expectations,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: R&D; Agriculture; Chemicals; Crop planning; Crop protection; Agribusiness; Agribusiness; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; A10; O32; Q16.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7332
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Environmentally-Oriented Innovative Strategies and Firm Performances in Services. Micro-Evidence from Italy AgEcon
Cainelli, Giulio; Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Zoboli, Roberto.
This paper aims at analysing the role of the environment in innovative strategies based on firm economic performance indicators such as employment, turnover, and labour productivity growth. We exploit a unique dataset of 773 Italian service firms with 20 or more employees comprising 1993-1995 CIS II data on firm innovation strategic motivations and 1995-1998 data on employment, turnover, and labour productivity from the System of the Enterprise Account (SEA). We specify a Gibrat-like empirical model in which the covariates include firm strategies (innovation and environmental), and a set of other explanatory variables and controls. Our econometric findings show a negative link between environmental motivations and growth in employment and turnover and a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Services; Firm Environmental Strategies; Firm Growth; CIS Survey; Innovation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; C23; D21; O32; Q55.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6922
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Estimating Future Consumer Welfare Gains from Innovation: The Case of Digital Data Storage AgEcon
Austin, David H.; MacAuley, Molly K..
We develop a quality-adjusted cost index to estimate expected returns to investments in new technologies. The index addresses the problem of measuring social benefits from innovations in service sector inputs, where real output is not directly observable. We forecast welfare gains from two U.S. Advanced Technology Program innovations equaling 25%-50% of expected price, and aggregate consumer benefits of $1-$2 billion, relative to trends in existing technologies. Our model's probabilistic parameters reflect uncertainty about prospective outcomes and in our hedonic estimates of shadow values for selected product attributes. The index can be readily adopted by research and development (R&D) managers in industry and government.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Quality-adjusted cost index; Consumer surplus; Innovation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O32; H43; D60.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10814
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Evaluation of innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses in Slovak Republic AgEcon
Sopkova, Eva; Kostiviarova, Silvia.
The aim of the presented paper is to contribute to the discussion on innovation activities of small and medium-sized businesses of the Slovak Republic and the European Union. It is based on the results of research carried out by the National Agency for the Development of Small and Medium Enterprises (NADSME), where the focus was on the innovation capacity of small and medium firms in Slovakia. And it was complemented by the results of an analysis of firms’ innovation activities in the Banská Bystrica region carried out within the project “Regional Innovation Strategy of the Banska Bystrica Region”.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Innovation; Innovation activities; Small and medium-sized businesses.; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O31; O32.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94565
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Globalization of innovation activity by transnational corporations: and its importance in the present economic crisis AgEcon
Zorska, Anna.
The research aims to investigate the process of globalizing innovation activity conducted by transnational corporations (TNCs), in a wider context of economic changes outside and inside companies. The process has been triggered by decentralization and internationalization of R&D, “creative transition” of foreign subsidiaries as well as implementing research networks and the open innovation model of TNCs’ innovation activity. Under the present economic crisis some slowdown and reorientation of innovation programs are implemented in order to reduce their costs and increase effectiveness. The globalization of corporate innovation activity can contribute to reaching some of TNCs’ goals both under the present crisis and the future revival of the world...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Globalization; Innovations; Economic crisis; TNC.; International Development; D21; F23; L22; O32.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94610
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