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Registros recuperados: 33
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A Tale of Two Market Failures: Technology and Environmental Policy AgEcon
Jaffe, Adam B.; Newell, Richard G.; Stavins, Robert N..
Market failures associated with environmental pollution interact with market failures associated with the innovation and diffusion of new technologies. These combined market failures provide a strong rationale for a portfolio of public policies that foster emissions reduction as well as the development and adoption of environmentally beneficial technology. Both theory and empirical evidence suggest that the rate and direction of technological advance is influenced by market and regulatory incentives, and can be cost-effectively harnessed through the use of economicincentive based policy. In the presence of weak or nonexistent environmental policies, investments in the development and diffusion of new environmentally beneficial technologies are very likely...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Technology; Research and development; Environment; Externality; Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; O38; Q28; H23.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10815
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Agricultural Technology Adoption and Rural Poverty: Application of an Endogenous Switching Regression for Selected East African Countries AgEcon
Asfaw, Solomon; Shiferaw, Bekele A..
Achieving agricultural growth and development and thereby improving rural household welfare will require increased efforts to provide yield enhancing and natural resources conserving technologies. Agricultural research and technological improvements are therefore crucial to increase agricultural productivity and thereby reduce poverty. However evaluation of the impact of these technologies on rural household welfare have been very limited by lack of appropriate methods and most of previous research has therefore failed to move beyond estimating economic surplus and return to research investment. This paper evaluates the potential impact of adoption of modern agricultural technologies on rural household welfare measured by crop income and consumption...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural household welfare; Technology adoption; Propensity score matching; Endogenous switching; Ethiopia; Tanzania; Food Security and Poverty; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C13; C15; O32; O38.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97049
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Competition, Regulation and Privatisation of Electricity Generation in Developing Countries: Does the Sequencing of the Reforms Matter? AgEcon
Zhang, Yingang; Parker, David; Kirkpatrick, Colin.
Recent years have seen countries introducing reform of their utility industries with a view to promoting private ownership and competition. This paper studies the effect of the sequencing of privatisation, competition and regulation reforms in electricity generation using data from 25 developing countries for the period 1985 to 2001. A fixed effects panel data model is used. The study finds that establishing an independent regulatory authority and introducing competition before privatisation is correlated with higher electricity generation, higher generation capacity and, in the case of the sequence of competition before privatisation, improved capital utilisation.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Privatisation; Competition; Regulation; Developing economies; Economic performance.; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; L33; L43; L44; L50; 012; O38; O50.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30599
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Creating the Conditions for International Business Expansion: The Impact of Regulation on Economic Growth in Developing Countries - A Cross-Country Analysis AgEcon
Jililian, Hossein; Kirkpatrick, Colin; Parker, David.
The role of an effective regulatory regime in promoting economic growth and development and therefore international business has generated considerable interest among researchers and practitioners in recent years. In particular, building effective regulatory structures in developing countries is not simply an issue of the technical design of the most appropriate regulatory instruments, it is also concerned with the quality of supporting regulatory institutions and capacity. Many of the institutions that support markets are publicly provided and the effectiveness of these regulatory institutions can be expected to be an important determinant of how well markets function. This paper explores the role of regulation in affecting economic outcomes using an...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Regulation; Governance; Institutions; Economic performance; International Development; C23; I18; L33; L51; L98; O38; O50.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30554
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Does the Provision of Free Technical Information Really Influence Firm Behavior? AgEcon
Morgenstern, Richard D..
Significant environmental benefits are often associated with the rapid diffusion of new energy-saving technologies. Over the past decade, the federal government, as well as electric and gas utilities, have begun to provide free technical information to potential buyers to stimulate private investment in certain technologies, particularly for retrofitting existing buildings. Yet it has not been demonstrated that this provision of technical information can truly accelerate the rate of technology diffusion. This study develops a model of firm behavior that incorporates multiple factors in the decision to retrofit high efficiency lighting technologies. Technology retrofit and the acceptance of technical information are modeled as jointly determined dichotomous...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Technology diffusion; Energy conservation; Policy instruments; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; H59; Q48; O38.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10750
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Earth Science Remote Sensing Data: Contributions to Natural Resources Policymaking AgEcon
MacAuley, Molly K.; Vukovich, Fred M..
This paper traces the evolution of space-derived remote sensing data and data products from their initial dissemination to their impact on public policy related to climate change. We focus on the examples of renewable energy, public health, and ecosystem assessment. Our approach differs from previous studies that have characterized the value of data in terms of the fundamental scientific phenomena they describe. In our research we have sought to identify contributions of space-derived earth science in "making a difference" beyond scientific understanding, thereby providing at least a partial answer to questions about the utility of research posed by Congress, the Office of Management and Budget, managers at the National Aeronautics and Space...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Natural resources; Climate change; Space; Data; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q2; O38.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10446
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Efficiency, Productivity and Environmental Policy: A Case Study of Power Generation in the EU AgEcon
Jaraite, Jurate; Di Maria, Corrado.
This study uses the EU public power generating sector as a case study to investigate the environmental efficiency and productivity enhancing performance of the European Union’s CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) in its pilot phase. Using Data Envelopment Analysis methods, we measure the environmental efficiency and the productivity growth registered in public power generation across the EU over the 1996-2007 period. In the second stage of our analysis we attempt to explain changes in productivity and efficiency over time using state-of-the-art econometric techniques. Our analysis suggests two conclusions: on the one hand carbon pricing led to an increase in environmental efficiency and to a shift outwards of the technological frontier; on the other...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions Trading; EU ETS; Environmental Efficiency; Productivity Growth; Data Envelopment Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; O38; Q48; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101297
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Emissions Pricing, Spillovers, and Public Investment in Environmentally Friendly Technologies AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn.
In a second-best world of below-optimal pollution pricing, the public return to R&D may be greater than under Pigouvian pricing, due to excess benefits of increasing abatement, or it may be lower, since private actors lack the incentives to take full advantage of the new, cleaner technologies. This paper uses a simple model to demonstrate the interaction between environmental policies, R&D externalities, and the social return to innovation. The results indicate that strong public support for innovation is only justified if at least a moderate emissions policy is in place and spillover effects are significant. Furthermore, in most cases, policy constraints that limit regulatory burdens tend to further limit the scope for public support, even when...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions price; Technological innovation; Spillovers; R&D policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; O38; H23.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10648
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Entrepreneurship as a factor of innovative development for national economy AgEcon
Tursunov, Imamnazar; Akhmedov, Farkhad.
Entrepreneurship plays important role in provision the innovative mode to national economy development. Particularly, small and medium companies demonstrates significant innovation potential. The task of innovation transformation in national economy should be implemented through using entrepreneurship, based both on state and private property, as factor driving innovations. The author indicates on policy directions that would contribute to innovative entrepreneurial development in Uzbekistan. Particularly, policy measures to stimulate innovative entrepreneurship in Kashkadarya region.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Innovative development; Small business; Stimulation of innovative entrepreneurship; International Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O38.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94533
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Environmental and Technology Policies for Climate Change and Renewable Energy AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn; Newell, Richard G..
We assess different policies for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and promoting the innovation and diffusion of CO2-reducing power technologies: (1) emissions price, (2) tax on fossil power, (3) tradable emissions performance standard, (4) market share requirement for renewables, (5) renewables production subsidy, and (6) R&D subsidy for renewables. We evaluate the relative performance of the policies according to incentives they provide along different avenues for emissions reduction, their efficiency, and other salient outcomes. We also assess how the nature of technological progress-whether it occurs by learning by doing or R&D investment and the degree of knowledge spillovers -affects the desirability of different policies. In a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environment; Technology; Policy instruments; Climate change; Renewable energy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q21; Q28; Q48; O38.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10789
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Environmental Regulations, Market Structure and Technological Progress in Renewable Energy Technology — A Panel Data Study on Wind Turbines AgEcon
Rubbelke, Dirk T.G.; Weiss, Pia.
We study the impact of environmental regulations on the patent activities for wind turbines between 1980 and 2008. We explicitly control for energy market liberalisation and take a potential interaction between liberalisation and policy instruments into account. We find a strong and highly significant effect of environmental tax revenues, which we regard as a proxy for the extent to which energy prices changed in favour of renewable energies, as well as foreign demand for wind turbines on innovation activities. In addition, we find that price-based policy instruments are more effective in fostering innovations in the wind turbine technology when energy markets are fully open to competition. In contrast, non-price-based policy instruments such as grants or...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Policy; Renewable Energy; Market Structure; Wind Turbines; Innovation; Patents; Technological Change; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q55; Q58; O34; O38.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102569
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India's Reform of External Sector Policies and Future Multilateral Trade Negotiations AgEcon
Srinivasan, T.N..
I evaluate India's transition from an inward-oriented development strategy to greater participation in the world economy. While tariff rates have decreased significantly over the past decade, India is still one of the more autarkic countries. Despite improvement over the past in export performance, India continues to lag behind its South- and East Asian neighbors. Second, official debt flows have been largely replaced by foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment in the 1990s. India's ability to attract FDI would be greatly enhanced by further reforms. I argue that India's participation in a future round of multilateral trade negotiations would benefit India. I outline the further reforms most needed: reform of labour and bankruptcy laws,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: India; Antidumping; Developing countries; Economic reform; Export performance; Foreign direct investment; Intellectual property rights; Multilateral trade negotiations; Quantitative restrictions; Real exchange rate; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; F15; F21; F35; H54; K31; O34; O38; O53; P11.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28428
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Inducing Low-Carbon Investment in the Electric Power Industry through a Price Floor for Emissions Trading AgEcon
Brauneis, Alexander; Loretz, Michael; Roland, Mestel; Palan, Stefan.
Uncertainty about long-term climate policy is a major driving force in the evolution of the carbon market price. Since this price enters the investment decision process of regulated firms, this uncertainty increases the cost of capital for investors and might deter invest-ments into new technologies at the company level. We apply a real options-based approach to assess the impact of climate change policy in the form of a constant or growing price floor on investment decisions of a single firm in a competitive environment. This firm has the opportunity to switch from a high-carbon “dirty” technology to a low-carbon “clean” technology. Using Monte Carlo simulation and dynamic programming techniques for real market data, we determine the optimal CO2 price...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon price; Price floor; Technological change; Investment decision; Real option approach; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D81; O38; Q55.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119096
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Industrial innovation and economic policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan AgEcon
Titkov, Alexey; Ernazarov, Tahir.
The author outlines the ways how to activate industrial innovation policies of governmental institutions, such as Development Bank of Kazakhstan, Investment Fund of Kazakhstan and National Innovation Fund.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Industrial innovation and economic policy; Resource-based economy; Modernization; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O38.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94530
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Information Programs for Technology Adoption: The Case of Energy-Efficiency Audits AgEcon
Anderson, Soren T.; Newell, Richard G..
We analyze technology adoption decisions of manufacturers in response to energy audits provided by Department of Energy Industrial Assessment Centers. Using fixed effects logit estimation to control for unobserved plant characteristics, we find that plants respond as expected to financial costs and benefits, though there are unmeasured project-related factors that also influence investment decisions. Revealed behavior of plants suggests that most require a payback of 15 months or less as their investment threshold, corresponding to an 80% or greater hurdle rate. This is consistent with survey results for stated investment thresholds, suggesting that these programs do not lower hurdle rates, as some suggest. Plants reject about half of recommended projects;...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Energy efficiency; Information; Technology adoption; Energy audits; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q41; Q48; O33; O38.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10916
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Innovative development as the anti-crisis factor in economy of Uzbekistan AgEcon
Zufarova, Nargiza.
The article observes policies outlined in government anti-crisis program in Uzbekistan and directed on innovative development of some sectors, including oil and gas sector. The author believes that national economic model demonstrates firm capacity to resist and overcome negative effects of the global financial crisis.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: World financial crisis; Economic development; Innovative development; Education; International Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O38; Q40.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94532
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Instrument Choice for Environmental Protection When Technological Innovation Is Endogenous AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn; Parry, Ian W.H.; Pizer, William A..
This paper presents an analytical and numerical comparison of the welfare impacts of alternative instruments for environmental protection in the presence of endogenous technological innovation. We analyze emissions taxes and both auctioned and free (grandfathered) emissions permits. We find that under different sets of circumstances each of the three policies may induce a significantly higher welfare gain than the other two policies. In particular, the relative ranking of policy instruments can crucially depend on the ability of adopting firms to imitate the innovation, the costs of innovation, the slope and level of the marginal environmental benefit function, and the number of firms producing emissions. Moreover, although in theory the welfare impacts of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Technological innovation; Externalities; Environmental policies; Welfare impacts; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; O38; H23.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10812
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KNOWLEDGE SPILLOVER, LEARNING INCENTIVES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH AgEcon
Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos.
Knowledge spillover implies that the social value of knowledge is higher than its private value and leads to insufficient private investment in human capital. This paper examines implications for economic growth and offers a remedy. An incentive mechanism that implements the socially optimal outcome is offered based on learning subsidy and flat income or consumption taxes (each levied at a different phase of the growth process). The scheme is self-financed in that the tax proceeds cover exactly the subsidy payments at each point of time.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Endogenous growth; Human capital; Knowledge spillover; Learning incentives; Linear taxes; International Development; C61; H21; O33; O38; O41.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14991
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Measurement and Explanation of Technical Efficiency Performance in Ukrainian Agriculture, 1991-1996 AgEcon
Murova, Olga I.; Trueblood, Michael A.; Coble, Keith H..
The present study examines technical efficiency patterns in Ukraine’s crop sector for 1991-1996. The economic and policy environment in Ukraine has changed since reform began in 1991. Many policy changes have exerted offsetting economic pressures on efficiency. Enterprise privatization and the liberalization of prices and trade put upward pressure on technical efficiency, whereas start-stop land privatization efforts, unpredictable government intervention, and slow developments in the credit and labor markets put downward pressure on efficiency. We found that technical efficiency appears to have improved slightly over the 1991-1996 period, suggesting that the positive forces had more impact.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Data envelopment analysis; Enterprise privatization; Inefficiency; Price liberalization; Productivity; Stochastic frontier analysis; Technical efficiency; D29; E23; E66; O38; P32.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43430
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Methodological and practical solutions for the evaluation of the economic impact of RDP in Latvia AgEcon
Veveris, Armands.
The paper analyses methodological and practical solutions that have been introduced to assess the impact of the Rural Development Programme 2007-2013 in Latvia. The work on the development of the evaluation of the impact of rural support is only in progress, the range of data sources is not large either. Therefore the author offers a solution how the evaluation of the RDP is organized in Latvia, with the resources and the amount of information available, and what activities are planned in the future. Special attention is devoted to the development of the methodology for calculating the direct economic effect, including the principles of the formation of the group of the affected farms and the control group, as well as the choice of the range of indicators...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Evaluation; Methods; Impact; Data.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q14; C18; O38; O47..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99360
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