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Registros recuperados: 15
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Agricultural Credit Interest Rate Equalization Policy: A Growth Subsidy? AgEcon
Castro, Eduardo Rodrigues de; Teixeira, Erly Cardoso.
The Brazilian Interest Rate Equalization System (IRES) subsidizes farmers by providing them with credit at lower than market interest rates. The objective of this research is to evaluate the IRES by comparing its monetary cost with its benefits as measured by Brazilian GDP growth. Estimates are carried out using input-output matrix. The results suggest that each Brazilian real spent by IRES to assist Brazilian family farms increases Brazilian GDP by R$ 1.75 and that each real spent to assist commercial farms increases GDP by R$ 3.57. The IRES is a subsidy that generates economic growth greater than its cost to society.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: IRES subsidy; Growth; Input-output matrix; Agricultural Finance; Q18; C67; O40; H81.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25358
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Brazilian Agricultural Credit Interest Rate Equalization Policy: A Growth Subsidy? AgEcon
Castro, Eduardo Rodrigues de; Teixeira, Erly Cardoso.
The Brazilian Interest Rate Equalization System (IRES) subsidizes farmers by providing them with credit at lower than market interest rates. The objective of this research is to evaluate the IRES by comparing its monetary cost with its benefits as measured by Brazilian GDP growth. Estimates are carried out using input-output matrix. The results suggest that each Brazilian real spent by IRES to assist Brazilian family farms increases Brazilian GDP by R$ 1.75 and that each real spent to assist commercial farms increases GDP by R$ 3.57. The IRES is a subsidy that generates economic growth greater than its cost to society.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: IRES subsidy; Growth; Input-output; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q18; C67; O40; H81.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24694
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Chinese Manufacturing Performance in Comparative Perspective, 1980-2002 AgEcon
Szirmai, Adam; Ren, Ruoen; Bai, Manyin.
This paper uses the detailed information in the 1995 Census of Industrial Production as a benchmark for analysing the coverage, concepts and consistency of published statistical series. On the basis of the analysis, the paper proposes a series of adjustments which result in more consistent long-run series of labour productivity for 21 manufacturing sectors from 1980-2002. For purposes of international comparisons with the USA, the paper subsequently presents industry of origin unit value ratios for the benchmark year 1995. These are used to convert Chinese value added into US dollars. In 2002, value added for the statistically well-covered sectors of Chinese manufacturing was 43 per cent of US value added, against 12 per cent in 1980. The comparative...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: China; Manufacturing; Productivity growth; Catch up; Unit value ratios; International comparisons; Industrial Organization; O14; O40; O47.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28525
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Climate change policy in a growing economy under catastrophic risks AgEcon
Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos.
Under risk of catastrophic climate change, the occurrence hazard is added to the social discount rate. As a result, the social discount rate (i) increases and (ii) turns endogenous to the global warming policy. The second effect bears profound policy implications that are magnifed by economic growth. In particular, it implies that green- house gases (GHG) emission should gradually be brought to a halt. Due to the public bad nature of the catastrophic risk, the second effect is ignored in a competitive allocation and unregulated economic growth will give rise to excessive emissions. We find that the GHG emission paths under the optimal and competitive growth regimes lie at the extreme ends of the range of feasible emissions. We derive the Pigouvian hazard...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Abrupt climate change; Environmental catastrophes; Economic growth; Emission policy; Hazard rate; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; H41; O13; O40; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7132
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Diversity of Communities and Economic Development: An Overview AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
This paper reviews the literature on the impact of ethnic diversity on economic development. Ethnically polarized societies are less likely to agree on the provision of public goods and more likely to engage in rent seeking activities providing lower levels of social capital. Initial conditions are important determinants of adverse development outcomes. The role of decentralization, democracy and markets as potential remedies are discussed. The paper then presents a number of preliminary hypotheses on the relationship between diversity and instability in order to stimulate future research.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Africa; Diversity; Economic Growth; Instability; International Development; O11; O40; O43; O55.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54531
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Diversity of Communities and Economic Development: An Overview AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
This paper reviews the literature on the impact of ethnic diversity on economic development. Ethnically polarized societies are less likely to agree on the provision of public goods and more likely to engage in rent seeking activities providing lower levels of social capital. Initial conditions are important determinants of adverse development outcomes. The role of decentralization, democracy and markets as potential remedies are discussed. The paper then presents a number of preliminary hypotheses on the relationship between diversity and instability in order to stimulate future research.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Africa; Diversity; Economic Growth; Instability; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Political Economy; O11; O40; O43; O55.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115713
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Dynamics of Structural Transformation: An Empirical Characterization in the Case of China, Malaysia, and Ghana AgEcon
Badibanga, Thaddee Mutumba; Diao, Xinshen; Roe, Terry L.; Somwaru, Agapi.
The paper develops a metric of structural transformation that can account for the production of new varieties of goods embodying advancements in technological know-how and design. Our measure captures the dynamics of an economy’s transformation and can be viewed as an extension of Hausmann and Klinger’s static measure. We apply our measure to four-digit-level SITC trade data of China, Malaysia, and Ghana over the period 1962–2000. The results show that two important factors characterize the rapid transformation of the Chinese economy: the high proximity of its export basket to three main industrial clusters—capital goods, consumer durable goods, and intermediate inputs—and the increase in the values of the new goods belonging to those three clusters....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Structural transformation; Discovery; Technological change; International Development; F19; O14; O33; O40.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50004
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Dynamics of Structural Transformation: Understanding the Key Factors That Drive Innovative Activities in Selected Asian and African Countries AgEcon
Badibanga, Thaddee Mutumba; Diao, Xinshen; Roe, Terry L.; Somwaru, Agapi.
This paper develops a metric of structural transformation that can account for the production of new varieties of goods embodying advancements in technological know-how and design. Our measure captures the dynamics of an economy’s transformation and can be viewed as an extension of the static measure developed by Hausmann and Klinger (2006). We apply this measure to four digit level sitc trade data of China, Malaysia and Ghana over the period 1962-2000. The results show the rapid transformation of the Chinese economy is characterized by two important factors: the high proximity of its export basket to the three main industrial clusters – capital goods, consumer durable goods, and intermediate inputs, and the increase in the values of the new goods...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Structural Transformation; Discovery; Technological Change; International Development; F19; O14; O33; O40.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43890
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Effects on growth of environmental policy in a small open economy AgEcon
Adu, George.
This paper examines the effect of environmental policy on economic growth in a small open economy in a neoclassical framework with pollution as an input. We show that environmental policy imposes a drag on long run growth in both the open and closed economy cases. The effect of environmental policy on growth is stronger in the open economy case relative to the closed economy model if the country has strong aversion to pollution and thus serves as a net exporter of capital in the international capital market. On the other hand, if the agents in the economy have low aversion to pollution and thus import capital, the effect of environmental care on growth is stronger in the closed economy relative to the open economy. Thus, from our set-up, environmental...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Pollution tax; Capital-output ratio; Open economy; Capital flight; Environmental Economics and Policy; O40; O41; Q56.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118225
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Endogenous Discounting and Climate Policy AgEcon
Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos.
Under risk of abrupt climate change, the occurrence hazard is added to the social discount rate. As a result, the social discount rate (i) increases and (ii) turns endogenous to the global warming policy. The second effect bears profound policy implications that are magnified by economic growth. In particular, we find that greenhouse gases (GHG) emission should be terminated at a finite time so that the ensuing occurrence risk will vanish in the long run. Due to the public bad nature of the catastrophic risk, the second effect is ignored in a competitive allocation and unregulated economic growth will give rise to excessive emissions. In fact, the GHG emission paths under the optimal and competitive growth regimes lie at the extreme ends of the range of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Abrupt climate change; Hazard rate; Discounting; Economic growth; Emission policy; H23; H41; O13; O40; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37944
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New Evidence on Long-Run Output Convergence Among Latin American Countries AgEcon
Holmes, Mark J..
This study assesses long-run real per capita output convergence among selected Latin American countries. The empirical investigation, however, is based on an alternative approach. Strong convergence is determined on the basis of the first largest principal component, based on income differences with respect to a chosen base country, being stationary. The qualitative outcome of the test is invariant to the choice of base country and, compared to alternative multivariate tests for long-run convergence, this methodology places less demands on limited data sets. Using annual data for the period 1960-2000, strong convergence is confirmed for the Central American Common Market. However, an amended version of the test confirms weaker long-run convergence in the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Output convergence; Latin America; Common trends; F15; O19; O40; O54.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37134
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Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence? AgEcon
Aldy, Joseph E..
Understanding and considering the distribution of per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is important in designing international climate change proposals and incentives for participation. I evaluate historic international emissions distributions and forecast future distributions to assess whether per capita emissions have been converging or will converge. I find evidence of convergence among 23 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), whereas emissions appear to be diverging for an 88-country global sample over 1960-–2000. Forecasts based on a Markov chain transition matrix provide little evidence of future emissions convergence and indicate that emissions may diverge in the near term. I also review the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions distributions; Environmental Kuznets curve; Markov chain transition matrix; Environmental Economics and Policy; O40; Q54; Q56.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10773
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THE MYSTERY OF MONOGAMY AgEcon
Gould, Eric D.; Moav, Omer; Simhon, Avi.
This paper examines why developed countries are monogamous while rich men throughout history have tended to practice polygyny (multiple wives). Wealth inequality naturally produces multiple wives for rich men in a standard model of the marriage market. This paper argues that the sources of inequality, not just the level of inequality, determine the equilibrium degree of monogamy or polygamy. In particular, when inequality is determined more by disparities in human capital versus non-labor income (such as land, capital, corruption), the outcome is more monogamous. This explains why developed countries, where human capital is the main source of income and inequality, are monogamous while less-developed economies tend to be polygynous. The results are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Marriage; Monogamy; Polygyny; Human Capital; Inequality; J12; J24; O10; O40; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14992
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The Sophistication and Diversification of the African Agricultural Sector: A Product Space Approach AgEcon
Badibanga, Thaddee Mutumba; Ulimwengu, John M..
We use the concept of the product space to analyze the key features of the transformation process in Africa with a focus on the agricultural sector. Between 1962 and 2008, we find that both specialization and diversification occur for the overall economy and across sectors. Our findings also confirm that the transformation of the African economy is driven primarily by the increasing specialization of nonagricultural exports. However, the transformation process is still moving more slowly than that of an emerging economy such as Brazil. The index of specialization of agricultural exports grew at a modest annual rate of 2.1 percent between 1962 and 2008, compared to 5.0 percent for nonagricultural exports and 4.1 percent for the overall economy. Although...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Structural transformation; Diversification; Sophistication; Growth; Export; Africa; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; F19; O14; O33; O40.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124498
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Threshold Effects and Regional Economic Growth - Evidence from West Germany AgEcon
Funke, Michael; Niebuhr, Annekatrin.
We study an overlapping generations model of human capital accumulation with threshold effects using regional data for West Germany. Our basic goal is to shed light on the growth of West German regions. The paper finds that the relative income distribution appears to be stratifying into a trimodal distribution. Thus, application of the threshold model to a real world case, here West Germany, shows that the model might help to explain regional growth patterns. Ausgangspunkt der Analyse ist ein Modell überlappender Generationen der Humankapitalakkumulation mit Schwellenwert-Effekten. Die empirische Überprüfung des Modells basiert auf einem regionalen Datensatz für Westdeutschland. Das zentrale Ziel der Untersuchung ist es, Erkenntnisse zum Wachstum...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regional Economic Growth; Human Capital; Germany; Labor and Human Capital; J24; O40; R11; C31.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26141
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