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Registros recuperados: 22
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A Dynamic Bioeconomic Model of Ivory Trade: Details and Extended Results AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Trade in ivory is banned under CITES in an effort to protect the African elephant. The trade ban is supported by some range states, most notably Kenya, because they see the ban as an effective means for protecting a ‘flagship’ species, one that attracts tourists and foreign aid. It is opposed by some states, mainly in southern Africa, because their elephant populations are exceeding the capacity of local ecosystems with culling and other sources have resulted in the accumulation of large stocks of ivory. They argue that ivory trade will benefit elephant populations. The question of whether an ivory trade ban will protect elephant populations is addressed in this paper using a dynamic partial-equilibrium model that consists of four ivory exporting regions...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economics of elephant conservation; Economics of ivory trade; Trade bans; Cartels and quota; International Relations/Trade; F10; O55; Q26; Q27.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37030
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African hunt for investment: any chance for success? AgEcon
Dyakov, Ignaty.
During recent two decades the world has witnessed a drastic increase in global FDI inflows. Gradually more and more investment has been directed to the developing countries in the attempt to diversify portfolios and use finance in the most efficient way. Not all developing regions of the world perfectly succeeded in attracting FDI. Large by labor force and territory, abundant in natural resources Sub-Saharan Africa could perform much better in this aspect. This paper once again reviews the opportunities for FDI in Africa and suggests possible ways for authorities of African states to overcome the existing situation.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: FDI; Africa; Determinants; Policy recommendations; Financial Economics; International Development; F21; O55.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94546
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Agricultural Productivity, Drought, and Economic Growth in Sahel AgEcon
Boubacar, Inoussa.
A standardized precipitation index is used in a regression analysis to quantify the impact of climate change on agricultural productivity in Sahel. I first estimate a Malmquist productivity index and its efficiency and technical change components. I further assess the statistical significance of the indices by estimating some confidence intervals via a bootstrap method. In the second stage of the analysis, I use a Probit model to estimate the extent to which climate variables affect agricultural productivity. It appears that agricultural performance has been disastrous in many Sahelian countries from 1970 to 2000. Using a comparable cross-country measure of drought, I provide evidence that precipitation variability is constraining not only Sahel’s...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Productivity; Agriculture; Sahel; International Development; Production Economics; O13; O55; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56321
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Are poor, remote areas left behind in agricultural development: the case of Tanzania AgEcon
Minot, Nicholas.
In Tanzania, as in many other developing countries, the conventional wisdom is that economic reforms may have stimulated economic growth, but that the benefits of this growth have been uneven, favoring urban households and farmers with good market access. This idea, although quite plausible, has rarely been tested empirically. In this paper, we develop a new approach to measuring trends in poverty and apply it to Tanzania in order to explore the distributional aspects of economic growth and the relationship between rural poverty and market access. We find that, between 1991 and 2003, a period of extensive economic reforms, the overall rate of poverty fell about 9 percentage points. The degree of poverty reduction was similar between rural and urban areas,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Tanzania; Poverty; Market access; Agricultural development; Rural areas; Economic reform; Measurement; Rural poverty; International Development; I32; O18; O55; Q13; R11.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59829
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Assessing the Impact of ACP/EU Economic Partnership Agreement on West African Countries AgEcon
Busse, Matthias; Grossmann, Harald.
The European Union is currently negotiating free trade agreements, called Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), with African countries as part of the Cotonou Agreement between the European Union and African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. The paper empirically assesses the impact of the EPAs on trade flows and government revenue for 14 West African countries. The results indicate that the decline in import duties due to the preferential tariff elimination might be of some cause for concern and that complementary fiscal and economic policies have to be implemented before or at the time the EPAs come into force.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic Partnership Agreements; EU; ECOWAS; Africa; International Relations/Trade; F15; O24; O55.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26198
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COPPER CRISIS AND AGRICULTURAL RENAISSANCE IN ZAMBIA: AN ECONOMY-WIDE ANALYSIS AgEcon
Lofgren, Hans; Robinson, Sherman; Thurlow, James.
Zambia's strong dependence on copper exports has suppressed other tradables sectors, indicative of a Dutch disease phenomenon. The current copper crisis will have strong economic effects, possibly reversing such Dutch disease effects. We use a computable general equilibrium model built around a 1995 social accounting matrix to simulate the short- and long-run effects of two scenarios that reflect the current crisis, a 20 percent reduction in world copper prices and a complete collapse of copper mining. Compared to the short run, the long run is characterized by more flexibility in production technology and capital allocation. Both scenarios require a significant reduction in the "non-copper" trade deficit, absorption, and household consumption. The...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Zambia; Copper; Structural adjustment; Agriculture; General equilibrium; International Development; C68; O55; Q17; Q32.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25805
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Cotton Production in Uganda: Would GM technologies be the Solution? AgEcon
Horna, J. Daniela; Kyotalimye, Miriam; Falck-Zepeda, Jose Benjamin.
The government of Uganda is currently testing the performance of genetically modified (GM) cotton varieties. Cotton is cultivated in Uganda for two main reasons: 1) agro-ecological conditions favor cotton cultivation, and 2) there is a long tradition of cotton cultivation in the country. Two main research questions are addressed in this study: a) would the adoption of genetically modified (GM) cotton benefit Ugandan farmers? b) Would the use of GM seed be more profitable than the low input traditional system or than the organic production system? Stochastic budget analysis is used to address these questions. The results show that estimated values of cotton profitability do not seem to justify the investment in a complex technology. The question then is how...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Stochastic budget analysis; GM cotton; Organic cotton; Agricultural and Food Policy; Production Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; O3; O31; O55.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51823
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Diversity of Communities and Economic Development: An Overview AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
This paper reviews the literature on the impact of ethnic diversity on economic development. Ethnically polarized societies are less likely to agree on the provision of public goods and more likely to engage in rent seeking activities providing lower levels of social capital. Initial conditions are important determinants of adverse development outcomes. The role of decentralization, democracy and markets as potential remedies are discussed. The paper then presents a number of preliminary hypotheses on the relationship between diversity and instability in order to stimulate future research.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Africa; Diversity; Economic Growth; Instability; International Development; O11; O40; O43; O55.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54531
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Diversity of Communities and Economic Development: An Overview AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
This paper reviews the literature on the impact of ethnic diversity on economic development. Ethnically polarized societies are less likely to agree on the provision of public goods and more likely to engage in rent seeking activities providing lower levels of social capital. Initial conditions are important determinants of adverse development outcomes. The role of decentralization, democracy and markets as potential remedies are discussed. The paper then presents a number of preliminary hypotheses on the relationship between diversity and instability in order to stimulate future research.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Africa; Diversity; Economic Growth; Instability; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Political Economy; O11; O40; O43; O55.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115713
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Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: Evidence from COMESA Countries AgEcon
Chali, Nondo; Mulugeta, Kahsai.
This study applies panel data techniques to investigate the long-run relationship between energy consumption and GDP for a panel of 19 African countries (COMESA) based on annual data for the period 1980-2005. In the first step, we examine the degree of integration between GDP and energy consumption by employing three panel unit root tests and find that the variables are integrated of order one. In the second step, we investigate the long-run relationship between energy consumption and GDP. Results overwhelming show that GDP and energy consumption move together in the long-run. In the third step, we estimate the long-run relationship and test for causality using panel-based error correction models. The results indicate that long-run and short-run causality...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Energy consumption; GDP; Panel Causality tests; International Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; O55.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46450
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Land Degradation in Ethiopia: What do Stoves Have to Do with it? AgEcon
Gebreegziabher, Zenebe; van Kooten, G. Cornelis; van Soest, Daan P..
Land degradation is a particularly vexing problem in developing countries; as forests are depleted, crop residues and dung are used for fuel, which degrades cropland. In Ethiopia, the government encourages tree planting and adoption of energy efficient stove technologies to mitigate land degradation. We use data from 200 households in Tigrai, Ethiopia to examine the adoption of new stove technologies. Adoption is an economic decision, related to savings in time spent collecting fuel and cooking, and cattle required for everyday purposes. Results indicate adopters of efficient stoves reduce respective wood and dung use by 68 and 316 kg per month.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land degradation; Technology adoption; Africa; Ethiopia; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O55; Q24; Q55.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37026
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Local diversification of income sources versus migration: Complements or Substitutes? Evidence from rural families of the Senegalese Groundnut Basin AgEcon
Sakho-Jimbira, Maam Suwadu; Bignebat, Celine.
Much has been written to show the importance of diversification for rural African households because of the considerable share of non-farm revenues in total income (Reardon, 1997; Reardon et al., 1998). The literature points out push and pull factors explaining that risk and adverse shocks which characterize farm activities urge rural population to diversify into more profitable non-farm activities. But less attention has been paid to the distinction between two diversification patterns, namely local diversification and migration, and their relationship. Drawing on the theoretical and empirical literature, we identify the advantages and drawbacks of local diversification versus migration decision in terms of expected pay-offs for the family and the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Migration; Diversification; Mutual insurance; Groundnut basin; Senegal; Consumer/Household Economics; O15; O55; D70; Q12.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7918
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Modelling the Fiscal Effects of Aid: An Impulse Response Approach for Ghana AgEcon
Morrissey, Oliver; Osei, Robert; Lloyd, Tim A..
An important feature of aid to developing countries is that it is given to the government. As a result aid has the potential to affect budgetary behaviour. Although the (albeit limited) aid-growth literature has addressed the effect of aid on policy, it has tended to neglect the effect of aid on the fiscal behaviour of governments. While fiscal response models have been developed to examine the effects of aid on fiscal aggregates - taxation, expenditure and borrowing - the underlying theory is ad hoc and empirical methods used are subject to severe limitations. This paper applies techniques developed in the "macroeconometrics" literature to estimate the dynamic structural relationship between aid and fiscal aggregates. Using vector autoregressive methods,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Aid; Fiscal Response; Ghana; International Development; International Relations/Trade; F35; O23; O11; O55.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26226
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Modes of Land Access and Welfare Impacts in Uganda AgEcon
Tatwangire, Alex; Holden, Stein T..
This article estimates the poverty reducing impact of land access in rural Uganda. Using balanced panel data for 309 households in 2001, 2003, and 2005, models that control for unobserved household heterogeneity and endogeneity of land acquisition and disposition are employed to measure the poverty-reduction effect of land on household income and expenditure per adult equivalent. Significant poverty reduction effects of increased land access in form of owned, operated and market-accessed land were found. The poverty reduction effect for land accessed through the market was significantly larger than the poverty reduction effect of land accessed through inheritance.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Endogeneity of land access; Unobserved heterogeneity; Poverty impacts.; Land Economics/Use; O55; Q15; O12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51635
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Potential Impacts of a Green Revolution in Africa – the Case of Ghana AgEcon
Breisinger, Clemens; Diao, Xinshen; Thurlow, James; Al-Hassan, Ramatu M..
Agricultural growth in Africa has accelerated, yet most of this growth has been driven by land expansion. Land expansion potential is reaching its limits, urging governments to shift towards a green revolution type of productivity-led growth. Given the huge public investments required, this paper aims to assess the potential impacts of a green revolution. Results from a CGE model for Ghana show that green revolution type growth is strongly pro-poor and provides substantial transfers to the rest of the economy, thus providing a powerful argument to raise public expenditure on agriculture to make a green revolution happen in Africa.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Green Revolution; Growth; Poverty; Africa; Ghana; CGE; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; D58; O13; O55.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51086
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Receiving incorrect information is costly: Diffusion and accuracy of market information among farmers in northern Ghana AgEcon
Zanello, Giacomo; Shankar, Bhavani; Srinivasan, Chittur S..
The recent adoption of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs, namely mobile phones and radios) in rural areas of Sub- Saharan Africa has brought new evidence that an updated and reliable flow of information can have direct benefits for farmers' welfare. However, if correct market information can benefit the users, incorrect information can be costly. In this study we explore the diffusion (quantity) and the accuracy (quality) of price information among farmers in northern Ghana, with a focus on the role of ICTs.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Market behaviour; Transaction costs; Information technologies; Consumer/Household Economics; International Development; Marketing; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; D82; D83; D84; O12; O55.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123967
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The differentiated effects of food price spikes on poverty in Uganda AgEcon
Boysen, Ole; Matthews, Alan.
This paper applies an integrated CGE-microsimulation model to analyse the impact of the 2006-08 increase in commodity prices on Uganda. Previous impact analysis studies suggested that the food price shock increased poverty in Uganda as there are more net food buyer than net food seller households. We show that the agriculture commodity price shocks were poverty-reducing, but the simultaneous increases in energy and fertiliser prices were poverty-increasing. Overall, poverty decreased in Uganda as a result of external price shocks in the 2006-08 period.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Food price shock; Uganda; Microsimulation; Poverty; International Development; Risk and Uncertainty; O55; Q18..
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122445
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The Drive to Economic Integration in Africa AgEcon
Shams, Rasul.
In Africa there has been an immense effort in the past, continuing into the present, to unite politically and to build numerous economic integration areas. In this paper we discuss the reasons for the existence of this phenomenon in Africa which we call the drive to political and economic integration. Some conventional explanations are discussed. Our own explanation is based on the theory of bureaucracy and the imbalances emerging in the process of development. If Africa is ready for regional economic integration, it has to follow another path to this end: The path of centric integration.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic Integration; Union; Bureaucracy; Centric Integration; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; F15; P16; O18; O55.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26199
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The Effects of Drought on Crop Yields and Yield Variability in Sahel AgEcon
Boubacar, Inoussa.
Drought is widespread in Sahel, and its persistent occurrence has caused substantial damages to the agricultural sector. The severity of drought and the related damages to the agricultural sector are expected to increase due to global warming. In this paper, I examine the economic impacts of drought on Sahel agriculture. The maximum likelihood estimators of the Just-Pope stochastic production function indicate that the direction of the effects of climate variables is similar across crops, but their magnitudes differ. Specifically, drought as measured by a 6-month standardized precipitation index, poor rainfall spread, and degree-days have adverse effects on crop yields. The results are robust to alternative estimation methods.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop yields; Drought; Stochastic production model; Sahel; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development; O13; O55; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56322
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THE IMPACT OF HEALTH INSURANCE ON THE ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE AND FINANCIAL PROTECTION IN RURAL AREAS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: CASE STUDY SENEGAL AgEcon
Jutting, Johannes Paul.
Access to public and private health insurance in rural areas of low income countries is severely constrained by high unit cost of transaction per contract due to information asymmetries between insurance sellers and buyers. This leads to a situation in which the majority of the poor have to rely on out-of-pocket expenditures when they are ill, resulting in a high vulnerability for health shocks which negatively affect the overall risk management of the household, investment and resource allocation decisions. Recently, however, in various parts of the world community based health insurance schemes have emerged and are becoming increasingly recognized as an instrument to finance health care in poor developing countries. These mutual insurance schemes often...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural development; Health insurance; Impact analysis; Social protection; Senegal; Health Economics and Policy; O17; I19; O55.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19641
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