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An Analysis of Food Safety Events on Consumers’ Confidence and Consumers Attitude towards Preparedness of U.S. Food System AgEcon
Hill, Jessica I.; Bharad, Abhishek Bhagwat; Harrison, R. Wes; Kinsey, Jean D.; Degeneffe, Dennis J..
Every year hundreds of food recalls are made due to contamination. The main focus of this paper is to examine the effects of specific food events on consumers’ confidence in food safety as well as their preparedness regarding the United States food system. The food events studied in this are major food-borne illnesses outbreaks and recalls that have occurred since May 2008. The three events chosen included: the salmonella outbreak in jalapeno and Serrano peppers occurring in 2008, the salmonella outbreak in peanut butter occurring in 2009, and the E.coli outbreak in Nestle cookie dough occurring in 2009. An ordered probit model was used to measure the effects that these specific foodborne illnesses had on consumers’ confidence. The results revealed that...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Food safety; Food system; Food recalls; Ordered probit; Consumer confidence; Consumer attitudes; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123174
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An Ordered Probit Model Analysis of Transaction costs and Market Participation by Sweet Potato Farmers in South Eastern Nigeria. AgEcon
Ohajianya, D.O.; Ugochukwu, Albert I..
This study determined the factors (related to fixed and variable transaction costs) influencing the decision to participate in sweet potato markets by a random sample of 320 small holder farmers in south eastern Nigeria. Data were collected with structured and validated questionnaire, and analyzed using the ordered probit analysis procedure. Participation decisions revealed that marketing experience, farm size, membership of cooperatives/social organizations, extension contact, farming experience and road conditions to the nearest town had positive relationship with decision to be autarkic other than buyer and to be seller other than autarkic, and were significant at 1% level of probability. The coefficient of age, household size, and output were also...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ordered probit; Transaction costs; Market participation; Potato; Autarkic; Agricultural Finance; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108936
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Analysis of Cardinal and Ordinal Assumptions in Conjoint Analysis AgEcon
Harrison, R. Wes; Gillespie, Jeffrey M.; Fields, Deacue.
Of twenty-three agricultural economics conjoint analyses conducted between 1990 and 2001, seventeen used interval-rating scales, with estimation procedures varying widely. This study tests cardinality assumptions in conjoint analysis when interval-rating scales are used, and tests whether the ordered probit or two-limit tobit model is the most valid. Results indicate that cardinality assumptions are invalid, but estimates of the underlying utility scale for the two models do not differ. Thus, while the ordered probit model is theoretically more appealing, the two-limit tobit model may be more useful in practice, especially in cases with limited degrees of freedom, such as with individual-level conjoint models.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Ordered probit; Two-limit probit; Conjoint analysis; Cardinality; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10238
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Analysis of Media Agenda-Setting Effects on Consumer Confidence in the Safety of the U.S. Food System AgEcon
Bharad, Abhishek Bhagwat; Harrison, R. Wes; Kinsey, Jean D.; Degeneffe, Dennis J.; Ferreira, Gustavo F.C..
Results from continuous tracking of consumer confidence and media coverage of food safety events over a 67 week period between May 2008 and August 2009 are reported. An ordered probit model is used to test the hypothesis that media coverage of food safety events affects consumer confidence in the safety of the U.S. food system. The results show that media coverage significantly and negatively affected consumer confidence in the safety of nation’s food supply during the sample period. Socioeconomic and demographic factors such as geographic region, use of media source, household size, age, ethnicity, education, and gender also had significant affects on consumer confidence in the safety of United States food supply.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Safety; Consumer Confidence; Mass media; Ordered probit; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56423
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Analysis of poverty and its covariates among smallholder farmers in the eastern Hararghe highlands of Ethiopia AgEcon
Bogale, Ayalneh; Korf, Benedikt.
This paper analyses the extent and determinants of rural household poverty in the eastern highlands of Ethiopia. We study 216 households using a household consumption expenditure approach. We are particularly interested in the effects of location-specific and institutional factors (networks) in determining the probability of being poor. Our findings suggest that poverty is location-specific, depends on access to irrigated land (not land per se) and access to non-farm income. Results also indicate that household wellbeing is negatively affected by household size, and positively affected by age of household head. Involvement in governance, social and production related networks is also found to be strongly associated with the probability of a household be...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural poverty; Ordered probit; Institutional factors; Eastern Hararghe; Ethiopia; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51469
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Are Changing Demographics Fostering a New Role for Farmers? AgEcon
Oliver, Jason; Valentin, Luc; Erickson, Bruce; Boehlje, Michael.
Full survey available upon request
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Skill sets; Profitability; Management skills; Ordered probit; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42476
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Beef Producer Preferences and Purchase Decisions for Livestock Price Insurance AgEcon
Fields, Deacue; Gillespie, Jeffrey M..
Personal interviews were conducted with beef cattle producers in Louisiana to determine their preferences and purchase decisions for livestock price insurance. Conjoint analysis was utilized to determine the importance of selected attributes of insurance policies for these producers. The characteristics of producers who prefer given attributes were also identified. Producers rated products given four economic situations to evaluate. A two-limit tobit model was used to estimate the part worth utility values for each attribute. Univariate probit models were estimated to evaluate the influence of producer characteristics on purchase decisions.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Conjoint; Livestock price insurance; Ordered probit; Two-limit tobit; Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47259
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Cow-Calf Producer Risk Preference Impacts on Retained Ownership Strategies AgEcon
Pope, Kelsey Frasier; Schroeder, Ted C.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Herbel, Kevin L..
Considerable efforts have been made to provide cow-calf producers with information to help them make informed decisions about adding value to calves. Despite demonstrated market incentives to retain calves, many producers still sell right after weaning. We postulate this observed behavior is related to producer risk aversion. Our study concludes risk aversion is an important factor affecting calf retention as the most risk-averse producers have more than a 60% probability of selling calves at weaning and the most risk tolerant have less than a 20% probability of selling at weaning.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Cow-calf producers; Ordered probit; Retained ownership; Risk aversion; Farm Management; Marketing; Q13; C25; D18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117953
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Estimating Willingness to Pay Using a Polychotomous Choice Function: An Application to Pork Products with Environmental Attributes AgEcon
Hurley, Sean P.; Miller, Douglas J.; Kliebenstein, James B..
Bid data from a Vickrey auction for pork chops with embedded environmental attributes were analyzed. It was found that approximately 62% of the participants had a positive WTP for the most "environmentally friendly" package of pork. Thirty percent of the participants had no WTP, and 8% had a negative WTP. A polychotomous choice model was used to accommodate data having an anchoring point within the distribution of the data. Standard variables found in the WTP literature coupled with this model were used to predict participants who were premium payers and non-premium payers using an estimated ordered probit equation.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Anchoring points; Environmental attributes; Ordered probit; Polychotomous choice functions; Pork; Vickrey auction; Willingness to pay; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8618
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If You Can't Trust the Farmer, Who Can You Trust? The Effect of Certification Types on Purchases of Organic Produce AgEcon
Ward, Ruby A.; Hunnicutt, Lynn; Keith, John E..
An information asymmetry exists in the market for organic produce since consumers cannot determine whether produce is organically or conventionally grown. Various methods may solve this problem including signaling, reputation, and certification. Signaling and reputation may not work well, because signals are noisy, and reputation may be difficult for a producer to establish. Certification of the farm and its growing methods shows the most promise. A survey instrument testing the efficacy of certification is presented along with empirical analysis suggesting that no notable difference existed between independent certification methods, although independent certification had significantly different effects than self-certification.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Asymmetric information; Certification; Ordered probit; Organic produce; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8145
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Innovative capacity and productivity: an empirical analysis of Australian grain growers AgEcon
Nossal, Katarina.
Slowing productivity growth in the Australian grains industry has led to calls for increasing investment in rural R&D to advance agricultural technology. However, recent research also suggests there is strong potential to increase productivity by enhancing uptake of existing innovations. The productivity gains from innovation adoption are likely to depend on the capacity of farmers to effectively select, adapt and integrate innovations into existing farming systems. In this paper, the innovative capacity of grain growers is characterised by variables related to the farm, the farmer and their operating environment. The influence of these factors on on-­‐farm innovation adoption is tested using an ordered probit model. The relationship between innovative...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Innovation; Grain growers; Ordered probit; Productivity; Crop Production/Industries; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124353
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Maximum likelihood and two-step estimation of an ordered-probit selection model AgEcon
Chiburis, Richard; Lokshin, Michael.
We discuss the estimation of a regression model with an ordered-probit selection rule. We have written a Stata command, oheckman, that computes two-step and full-information maximum-likelihood estimates of this model. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compare the performances of these estimators under various conditions.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Oheckman; Selection bias; Ordered probit; Maximum likelihood; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119266
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Measuring the Impact of Externalities on College of Agriculture Teaching Evaluations AgEcon
Fleming, Ronald A.; Bazen, Ernest F.; Wetzstein, Michael E..
Student evaluation of teaching (SET) is employed as an aid in improving instruction and determining faculty teaching effectiveness. However, economic theory indicates the existence of externalities in SET scores that directly influence their interpretation. As a test of this existence, a multinomial-choice, ordered data estimation procedure is employed to identify course externalities influencing SET. These externalities include student class standing, required courses, class size, days a class meets, class meeting time, classroom location, and classroom design. Results indicate that externalities have a significant impact on teaching evaluations. Thus, failure to internalize these externalities will lead to biases in SET and questionable use of SET...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Externalities; Ordered probit; SET; Teaching evaluation; A20; A22; I21.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43486
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Quality and Competition: An Empirical Analysis across Industries AgEcon
Crespi, John M.; Marette, Stephan.
This paper empirically explores the link between quality and concentration in a cross-section of manufactured goods. Using concentration data and product quality indicators, an ordered probit estimation explores the impact of concentration on quality that is defined as an index of quality characteristics. The results demonstrate that market concentration and quality are positively correlated across different industries. When industry concentration increases, the likelihood of the product being higher quality increases and the likelihood of observing a lower quality decreases.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Concentration; Market structure; Ordered probit; Product differentiation; Product quality; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18426
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Semi-nonparametric estimation of extended ordered probit models AgEcon
Stewart, Mark B..
This paper presents a semi-nonparametric estimator for a series of generalized models that nest the ordered probit model and thereby relax the distributional assumption in that model. It describes a new Stata command for fitting such models and presents an illustration of the approach.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Ordered response models; Ordered probit; Semi-nonparametric estimation; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116207
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Students' Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness: What Surveys Tell and What They Do Not Tell AgEcon
Alauddin, Mohammad; Tisdell, Clement A..
Employing student evaluation of teaching (SET) data on a range of undergraduate and postgraduate economics courses, this paper uses ordered probit analysis to (i) investigate how student’s perceptions of ‘teaching quality’ (TEVAL) are influenced by their perceptions of their instructor’s attributes relating including presentation and explanation of lecture material, and organization of the instruction process; (ii) identify differences in the sensitivity of perceived teaching quality scores to variations in the independent variables; (iii) investigate whether systematic differences in TEVAL scores occur for different levels of courses; and (iv) examine whether the SET data can provide a useful measure of teaching quality. It reveals that student’s...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Teaching effectiveness; Instructor attributes; Ordered probit; Sensitivity analysis; Underdetermination; Pseudoscience; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; A2; I2.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90546
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The Influence of Local Selling Decisions on Organic Farm Incomes AgEcon
Park, Timothy A.; Lohr, Luanne.
Abstract: This paper examines the factors that influence earned income of organic farmers given their decisions to engage in local selling. The model explicitly accounts for the sorting of producers across different levels of commitment to local sales on the basis of both observable and unobservable heterogeneity. The significant selectivity coefficients confirm that when producers choose to market organic products primarily through local outlets, earnings are overestimated (biased upward) if the selectivity corrections are neglected. Positive selection effects are present for farmers most intensively involved in local sales, contributing to higher earnings on average for these producers.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Organic marketing; Local food; Selectivity bias; Ordered probit; Agribusiness; Marketing; L25; L81; J24.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61029
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The Role of Consumer Acceptance in the Food Innovation Process: Young Consumer Perception of Functional Food in Italy AgEcon
Del Giudice, Teresa; Pascucci, Stefano.
This paper analysed the factors influencing the acceptance of functional foods (FFs) of three distinct groups of young Italian consumers. We implemented an ordered probit model based on data collected in a field survey carried out in southern Italy in 2008. The results showed that different sources of information and knowledge (e.g. the internet, newspapers and universities), judgements and motivations (e.g. taste and health effects credibility) are key elements in the acceptance of FFs. This implies the need to identify highly differentiated communication and marketing strategies for both public agencies and private firms in order to promote FF consumption.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Functional foods; Consumer acceptance; Ordered probit; Italy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97228
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