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Registros recuperados: 8
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Air Pollution Control Policy Options for Metro Manila AgEcon
Krupnick, Alan J.; Morgenstern, Richard D.; Fischer, Carolyn; Rolfe, Kevin; Logarta, Jose; Rufo, Bing.
The Asian Development Bank has sponsored research on market-based instruments for managing pollution in Metro Manila, Philippines, where air quality is seriously degraded. This report offers three policy options for reducing particulate emissions and their precursors. For stationary sources, we recommend an emissions fee that creates efficient financial incentives to reduce emissions while raising revenues for monitoring and enforcement activities. For mobile sources, we propose a pilot diesel retrofit program using a low-cost technology that is effective at existing 2,000 ppm sulfur content. Second, we recommend a charge on the sulfur content of diesel fuel to encourage meeting and surpassing the 500 ppm standard to allow for more advanced particulate...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Emissions tax; Philippines; Particulates; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q01.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10612
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Ancillary Benefits of Reduced Air Pollution in the United States from Moderate Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Policies in the Electricity Sector AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan J.; Palmer, Karen L.; Paul, Anthony; Toman, Michael; Bloyd, Cary.
This paper considers how moderate actions to slow atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel use also could reduce conventional air pollutants in the United States. The benefits that result would be "ancillary" to greenhouse gas abatement. Moreover, the benefits would tend to accrue locally and in the near term, while benefits from reduced climate change mostly accrue globally and over a time frame of several decades or longer. The previous literature suggests that changes in nitrogen oxides (NOx) would be the most important consequence of moderate carbon policies. We calculate these changes in a detailed electricity model linked to an integrated assessment framework to value changes in human health. A tax of $25 per metric ton of carbon...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Greenhouse gas; Ancillary benefits; Air pollution; Co-control benefits; Nitrogen oxides; Sulfur dioxide; Carbon dioxide; Particulates; Health; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; I18; Q48.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10664
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Cost-Effective Reduction of NOx Emissions from Electricity Generation AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Paul, Anthony.
This paper analyzes the benefits and costs of policies to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from electricity generation in the United States. Because emissions of NOX contribute to the high concentration of atmospheric ozone in the eastern states that is associated with health hazards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has called on eastern states to formulate state implementation plans (SIPs) for reducing NOX emissions. Our analysis considers three NOX reduction scenarios: a summer seasonal cap in the eastern states covered by EPA's NOX SIP Call, an annual cap in the same SIP Call region, and a national annual cap. All scenarios allow for emissions trading. Although EPA's current policy is to implement a seasonal cap in the SIP Call...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Electricity; Particulates; Nitrogen oxides; NOx; Health benefits; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10677
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Efficient Emission Fees in the U.S. Electricity Sector AgEcon
Banzhaf, H. Spencer; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L..
This paper provides new estimates of efficient emission fees for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions in the U.S. electricity sector. The estimates are obtained by coupling a detailed simulation model of the U.S. electricity markets with an integrated assessment model that links changes in emissions with atmospheric transport, environmental endpoints, and valuation of impacts. Efficient fees are found by comparing incremental benefits with emission fee levels. National quantity caps that are equivalent to these fees also are computed, and found to approximate caps under consideration in the current multi-pollutant debate in the U.S. Congress and the recent proposals from the Bush administration for the electricity industry. We also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Emission fees; Air pollution; Cost-benefit analysis; Electricity; Particulates; Nitrogen oxides; NOx; Sulfur dioxide; SO2; Health benefits; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4; D61.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10505
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Restructuring and the Cost of Reducing NOx Emissions in Electricity Generation AgEcon
Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Paul, Anthony.
We look at the effects of restructuring on three issues: (a) economic surplus and environmental quality, (b) the cost of NOx control policies and who bears the costs, and (c) the cost-effectiveness of a seasonal and an annual NOx cap in the SIP Call region. We find that without the NOx cap, nationwide restructuring leads to higher NOx and carbon emissions from the electricity sector. Adding either a seasonal or an annual NOx cap-and-trade regime in the eastern United States mitigates the increase in NOx emissions but has a much smaller effect on carbon emissions. The out-of-pocket compliance cost associated with achieving a seasonal or an annual NOx cap is moderately higher with nationwide restructuring than without, but the changes in economic surplus are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity; Restructuring; Deregulation; Competition; Emissions trading; Particulates; Nitrogen oxides; NOx; Health benefits; Cost effectiveness; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10549
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The Evolution of NOx Control Policy for Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Evans, David A..
Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx ) contribute to formation of particulate matter and ozone, and also to acidification of the environment. The electricity sector is responsible for about 20% of NOx emissions in the United States, and the sector has been the target of both prescriptive (command-and-control) and flexible (cap-and-trade) approaches to regulation. We summarize the major NOx control policies affecting this sector, and provide some perspectives as to their effectiveness. While both prescriptive and flexible approaches continue to play an important role, significant new proposals have wholly embraced a cap-and-trade approach.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Cap and trade; Air pollution; Cost-benefit analysis; Electricity; Particulates; Ozone; Nitrogen oxides; Acid rain; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q4; D62; Q28.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10645
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The Paparazzi Take a Look at a Living Legend: The SO2 Cap-and-Trade Program for Power Plants in the United States AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L..
For years economists have urged policymakers to use market-based approaches such as cap-and-trade programs or emission taxes to control pollution. The SO2 allowance market created by Title IV of the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) presents the first real test of the wisdom of economists' advice. This paper provides an overview of the origins, design, and performance of the U.S. acid rain program, and an analysis of its specific features and its adaptability as a model for addressing other pollution problems, such as control of NOX or CO2 emissions. The program also has resulted in innovation through changes in organizational technology, in the organization of markets, and through experimentation at individual boilers, much of which arguably would...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emission trading; Cap and trade; Air pollution; Cost-benefit analysis; Electricity; Particulates; Sulfur dioxide; SO2; Health benefits; Acid rain; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q4; D62; Q28.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10665
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Uncertainty and the Cost-Effectiveness of Regional NOx Emissions Reductions from Electricity Generation AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; McGuinness, Meghan.
This paper analyzes uncertainties surrounding the benefits and costs of a policy to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from electricity generation in the eastern United States. Under each of 18 scenarios examined, we find an annual policy would yield net benefits that are at least as great as those expected under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) currently planned seasonal policy. Preferred (midpoint) assumptions yield additional benefits of $724 million per year under an annual policy compared to a seasonal one (1997 dollars). The subset of 11 northeastern states benefit the most from an annual policy relative to a seasonal one, but relative net benefits are also positive in the remaining states in the region. An annual policy...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Electricity; Particulates; Nitrogen oxides; NOX; Health benefits; Market structure; Restructuring; Deregulation; Value of statistical life; Uncertainty; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10846
Registros recuperados: 8
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