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A balança comercial do agronegócio brasileiro de 1989 a 2005 AgEcon
Barros, Geraldo Sant'Ana de Camargo; Silva, Simone Fioritti.
This study aims to analyze the agribusiness contribution to Brazil’s trade balance. A new classification of the agribusiness trade balance was proposed and used to analyze the aspects of the exported products –agricultural products, products of animal origin, industrialized foods and imported inputs – represented by fertilizers. Imports and exports vector autoregression models were used to explain the behavior of these variables. An increase of 1% in the attractiveness – product of the exchange rate by the international prices – boosts immediately the exports of non processed agricultural products by 1.71%, stabilizing at 2% after some trimesters. The attractiveness explains 60 to 74% of the forecast error variances of these exportats. It is noted that an...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness trade balance; Agricultural products; Animal products; Food industry; Fertilizers; Economic growth; Attractiveness; Exports; Imports; Productivity.; Political Economy; Q17; Q18..
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61191
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A Blueprint for Reform of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture AgEcon
Zahrnt, Valentin.
As the Doha negotiations are at a dead end, this paper takes a step back to address the future direction of WTO disciplines in agriculture. It puts members’ negotiating positions and the draft modalities with their ever growing list of exceptions aside to focus on three fundamental questions. First, which agricultural policy instruments should be permitted or prohibited by WTO disciplines so as to best account for the manifold effects of agriculture on societies’ welfare? Second, how should inefficient agricultural policies be treated as long as their removal is politically infeasible? And third, how can the WTO facilitate agricultural policy reform beyond establishing maximum thresholds for distorting policies? The paper argues for moving from the current...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47798
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A Breach of Tradition During Socialism - The Case of Water Syndicates in Bulgaria AgEcon
Theesfeld, Insa; Boevksy, Ivan.
During the post-socialist transition period, the Bulgarian irrigation facilities deteriorated to a large extent and no longer meet the needs of the new landowner and agricultural production structure. The Bulgarian government therefore enacted two new laws to encourage collective action and to establish water user associations in order to achieve sustainable water management. In this article, we will question the frequent argument that water user associations could easily be established in Bulgaria, because they are rooted in the water syndicates. Empirical findings from village case studies reveal that limited collective memory exists today about former water syndicates' rules-in-use and patterns of action. We will explain this breach of tradition by the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18899
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A CAP fit for the 21st Century AgEcon
Buckwell, Allan.
This paper first discusses the driving forces for further CAP reforms, it then outlines three approaches for the post-2013 CAP which have been spelled out by certain interest groups. The third section examines a little more closely the critical elements of reform which seem likely to form the core of the debate in the next few years. These considerations lead to the conclusion that, in contrast to the reform process of the 1992 – 2004 period when there emerged a broadly accepted vision of how the CAP had to evolve, there is, as yet, no such widely accepted vision for the next period. In this vacuum it seems possible that the reform debate may be dominated by three actions: to cut, redistribute and transform the Single Payments. Interest groups who...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61603
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A Computable Equilibrium Model for the Study of Political Economy AgEcon
Freeman, John R..
Despite much hard work in recent years, economics and political science remain largely separate disciplines. Few meaningful bridges have been build between them, and hence useful gains from intellectual trade between the two have not been realized. Some of the most recent efforts to construct such a bridge are critically evaluated. It is shown that this literature suffers from a lack of theoretical balance between economic and political theory; unrealistic, temporally aggregated conceptions of political-economic equilibrium; failure to incorporate theoretically meaningful stochastic elements of economic and political processes; and the absence of a coherent methodology for gauging the empirical power of political-economic models. In the spirit of the AJPS...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7484
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A Critical Assessment of Islamic Economics AgEcon
Shams, Rasul.
This paper presents a critical assessment of the widely discussed concept of Islamic Economics. The two different interpretations of Islamic economics as the study of the functioning of an interest-free economy and the validity of moral values in the economy are discussed. It is shown that none of these interpretations can help to create an acceptable foundation for an Islamic economics. Far away from laying the foundation for such an economics the question is raised how an Islamic economy would function, based on the Islamic principle of controlling the Nafs. Microeconomics and macroeconomics of such an economy are analysed and its special features are compared to an economy functioning on the basis of laws devised by the conventional economic analysis.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Household behaviour; Unemployment; Moral values; Islamic economy; Consumer/Household Economics; Political Economy; D10; E24; P50.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26295
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A CRITICAL REVIEW OF LISA HILL'S VIEW OF ADAM SMITH'S 'HIDDEN THEOLOGY' AgEcon
Alvey, James E..
Lisa Hill has recently provided a new assessment of Adam Smith which attempts to reveal the 'hidden' theology which underpins his providential or 'optimistic' system of thought. Her interpretation breaks with the mainstream view of Smith as a follower of the secular, or atheistic, David Hume. While Hill concedes that there are resemblances to modern theories of evolution and spontaneous order in Smith's writings, the latter's own views differ. Darwinian evolution and Hayekian spontaneous order theories are thoroughly secular. Smith's ideas, however, are located in, what Hill calls 'a transitional phase in the history of ideas' in which belief in teleology was still mainstream. Hence, while society may change very slowly over time, in something like an...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23711
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A CRITIQUE OF FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS AgEcon
Pasour, E.C., Jr..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 1980 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/29413
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A Dialectical Approach to Social Restructuring and Technical Change in Greek Agriculture AgEcon
Liodakis, George.
This paper investigates the dialectic between social restructuring and technical change within the transition to capitalism in Greek agriculture. Contrary to neo-populist interpretations, it is argued that capitalism has developed considerably, and that technical change has played a major role in the process of class differentiation and capitalist development. While the new capitalist strategy for agricultural restructuring has reinforced the process of concentration and capitalist development, with a devastating impact on small farmers, it is argued that the social conflicts involved and the recent agrarian mobilisations tend to form an alternative strategy for the semi-proletarianised 'working class', negating both neo-populism and capitalist...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26414
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A Estrutura e Tendência da Despesa Pública Agrícola em Moçambique AgEcon
Zavale, Helder; Mlay, Gilead; Boughton, Duncan; Chamusso, Adriano; Gemo, Helder; Chilonda, Pius.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Mozambique; Food policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; Political Economy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121862
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A expansão da União Européia em 2004 e seus impactos no agronegócio brasileiro AgEcon
Oliveira, Samuel Jose de Magalhaes; Ferreira Filho, Joaquim Bento de Souza.
International trade has acquired increasing importance for the Brazilian economy, especially for agribusiness. In this way, understanding other countries policies that affects international trade and its impacts in this country is equally important. The European Union (EU) is one of the most important Brazilian trade partners and it is known by strong interference on its agricultural sector. The recent European enlargement and the last Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Reform have been studied at different regions of the World but there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impacts of this on Brazilian rural sectors. This paper aims to assess the impacts of the 2004 EU enlargement on Brazilian agribusiness using the general equilibrium model Global Trade...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International economics; International trade; General equilibrium; Economic integration.; Political Economy; F11; F15; Q17..
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61192
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A földbirtok-politika választ igénylő kérdései AgEcon
Kapronczai, Istvan.
A kérdések széles területet ölelnek fel, ami folytatható a földvédelemmel, a kör-nyezetvédelemmel, a földadó kérdésével stb. A politikának – kompromisszumokkal és megegyezéssel – mielőbb lépnie kell, mert a rendezett birtokviszonyok növelik a földárat, élénkítik a termőföld iránti keresletet. Az emelkedő árak ugyanakkor bővítik a földkínálatot, végeredményben élénkül az egész földpiac. Ez a leghatékonyabb eszköz a termőfölddel kapcsolatos spekulációk visszaszorítására. Van-e azonban esély a megegyezésre? Politikai síkon aligha! Sőt az agrárközgazdász szakma is meglehetősen megosztott a birtok, a föld kérdésében, hisz körein¬ken belül is hatnak az érdekek, a megcsontosodott előítéletek. Mégis szükség van egy szakmai vitára, egy őszinte véleménycserére,...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Birtokpolitika; Földtulajdon; Földbérlet; Földhasználat; Örökösödés; Land ownership policy; Land ownership; Land lease; Land use; Inheritance; Agricultural and Food Policy; Land Economics/Use; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99087
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A globális pénzügyi és gazdasági válság, valamint a konszern számvitel összefüggései AgEcon
Simon, Szilvia.
Napjainkban a világgazdaság egyik legfontosabb megoldásra váró problémája, hogy hogyan előzhető meg újabb globális pénzügyi és gazdasági válságok kialakulása, illetve léteznek-e olyan módszerek, eszközök, amelyek segítségével a már kialakult válságok hatásai, következményei mérsékelhetők. A módszerek, eszközök részben már rendelkezésre állnak, melyek közül célszerű kiemelni a konszern számvitel módszertanát, mert segítségével elkészíthető konszolidált éves beszámolót. E konszolidált éves beszámoló ugyanis alkalmas arra, hogy a konszerntagok közötti belső kapcsolatokból adódó halmozódásokat kiszűrve előmozdítsa a vállalatcsoportok reális megítélését. Segítségével elkerülhetővé válhat a – válság kialakulásában nagymértékben szerepet játszó – jogi, pénzügyi...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Globális pénzügyi válság; Élelmiszer-gazdaság; Konszolidáció; Anyavállalatok; Global economic crisis; Food economy; Consolidation; Parent companies; Financial Economics; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99176
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A KÖRNYEZETVÉDELMI JELLEGŰ ADÓK VIZSGÁLATA A FENNTARTHATÓ GAZDÁLKODÁS VONATKOZÁSÁBAN AgEcon
Sipos, Nikoletta.
Centre of my paper is critical analyse of the economics-policy’s appliances of the environmental economics. Next important aspect is analyse of the necessary and methods of administrative regulation. During my research I looked for the answer if such kind of relations can be seen in Hungary at the moment between the introduced environment protection related fees means taxes and the single economic phenomenon. Furthermore if the dual profit of the environmental tax reforms exists or not. As part of my investigations I observed the effect of the environment protection product fee and the fee for environmental loads on the economic growth, on the number of employees and unemployed and on the behavior of the budget deficit in the time interval between 1996 and...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Környezetgazdaságtan; Adóreform; Összefüggés vizsgálatok; Environmental economics; Tax-reform; Correlation analyses; Environmental Economics and Policy; Financial Economics; Political Economy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43332
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A Közös Agrárpolitika reformja magyar (kutatói) szempontból AgEcon
Udovecz, Gabor.
Az EU Közös Agrárpolitikája az állandó kompromisszumok és a sorozatos reformok terméke. Most annyiban más a helyzet, hogy a döntéshozatali mechanizmusban a szokásosnál is nagyobb a társadalmi nyomás, emiatt pedig a pénzügyi determináltság. A jövő alakításában pedig mi magyarok is részt veszünk. Kivételes lehetőség tehát, hogy hazánk adottságai (erősségek, gyengeségek) alapján határozott agrárorintációt fejezzen ki, s ennek fő törekvéseire építse az ország KAP-álláspontját. Magyarország olyan KAP-ban érdekelt, amely – európai értékek mentén – minél több uniós forrást biztosít, de tágítja is a mozgásteret a nemzeti agrár- és vidékpolitikai célok megvalósításához. Összefoglalóan kiemelhető, hogy a KAP-reform döntési mechanizmusa bonyolult, Magyarország...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: EU Közös Agrárpolitika; Nemzeti agrárstratégia; Versenyképesség; Közjavak; EU Common Agricultural Policy; National agricultural strategy; Competitiveness; Public goods; Agricultural and Food Policy; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99189
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A magyar mezõgazdaság sikeressége a hatvanas hetvenes években AgEcon
Dimeny, Imre; Lakner, Zoltan.
Out of the attempts made at modernising the Hungarian society and economy in the era of socialism it was only the agricultural transition and development that has brought a long, internationally recognised success. The Hungarian agricultural model has become a point of reference for numerous developing countries, and was widely recognised even in the developed world. The aim of this article is to analyse the driving forces and socio-economic environment in the formation of the Hungarian agricultural model as well as its results, object lessons and experiences. The authors emphasise the specific aspects of the Hungarian agricultural development, contrasting it with that of Western- and Eastern-Europe. It was underlined, that the most important drivers of...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Economic history; System analysis; Agricultural and Food Policy; Political Economy; Production Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53969
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A MEZŐGAZDASÁG FEJLESZTÉSI LEHETŐSÉGEI MEGYEI VIZSGÁLATOK ALAPJÁN AgEcon
Kaposzta, Jozsef; Nagy, Henrietta.
A vidékfejlesztési politika célja az, hogy kihasználva az ország kedvező ter-mészeti adottságait, a belföldi és nemzetközi piacokon versenyképes mezőgazda-ság jöjjön létre, amely képes jó minőségű alapanyagokkal ellátni a feldolgozó-ipart, tisztességes és kiszámítható jövedelmet biztosít a gazdálkodóknak és foko-zódó mértékben figyelembe veszi a környezetvédelem, valamint az egészséges táplálkozás követelményeit. Vizsgálataink alapján megállapítható, hogy a hatékonysági követelményhez igazodni képes „versenyszféra” mellett létezik a mezőgazdaságban egy korláto-zottan versenyképes termelési rész is. Ebbe tartoznak részben olyan kisméretű gazdálkodó egységek, amelyek inkább a tulajdonreform keretében létrejött kényszervállalkozásnak tekintendők vagy...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Vidékfejlesztés; Kényszervállalkozások lehetőségei; Jövedelem különbség csökkentés - opportunities of forced enterprises; Rural development; Decrease of income differences; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Political Economy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54320
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A Microeconomic Model for Subsidies Allocation: the Case of Belarus AgEcon
Svetlov, Nikolai M.; Kazakevich, Iryna A..
The paper develops a microeconomic methodological framework that allows approaching subsidy allocation across the types of assets and impact of subsidies on agricultural outputs and profits. The methodology is based on a non-parametric production frontier estimation. The empirical application is made to 1084 Belarusian corporate farms. The results suggest targeting governmental support at grain and milk production. In this case, 4.14 trillion Belarusian roubles of subsidies increase the overall profit of the sample farms by 1.46 trillion. In the case of targeting, the farms with higher overall efficiency are more sensitive to the support and are able to absorb larger amount of subsidies. The opposite is true in the absence of targeting.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Microeconomic model; Data envelopment; Subsidies; Belarus; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; K18; C61.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90826
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A plot of one's own: gender relations and irrigated land allocation policies in Burkina Faso AgEcon
Zwarteveen, Margreet Z..
Discusses the potential opportunities and pitfalls of introducing market forces into the process of water allocation. Proposes several preconditions for beneficial privatization of water allocation and argues for a more sophisticated form of analysis than that generally allowed by proponents of basic needs or of free market approaches.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Women in development; Gender; Land use; Land management; Policy; Female labor; Households; Irrigated farming; Social impact; West Africa; Burkina Faso; Dakiri; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Land Economics/Use; Political Economy; Productivity Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61114
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A POLITICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE 1982 RECLAMATION ACT AgEcon
LeVeen, E. Phillip.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Political Economy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1983 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/32099
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