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A Review of Household Poultry Production as a Tool in Poverty Reduction with Focus on Bangladesh and India AgEcon
Dolberg, Frands.
This Working Paper for the South Asia regional hub of the Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative presents the case for using poultry, in very small units of 5-10 adult birds, as a means of alleviating the poverty of rural women in the region. Policies and procedures that affect the success of such initiatives are examined. The author draws on personal experience and an extensive literature review. The main focus of the paper is a review of what is known as the Bangladesh Model. Emphasising that this is not a static model, the author explains its evolution by Bangladesh’'s largest NGO, BRAC, working with the government department responsible for livestock services. The main feature of the model is that the supply of inputs and services are turned into income...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Pro-poor livestock policy; Livelihoods; Poultry; Poverty alleviation; Food Security and Poverty; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23762
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Agricultural Diversification and Rural Industrialization as a Strategy for Rural Income Growth and Poverty Reduction in Indochina and Myanmar AgEcon
Goletti, Francesco.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural diversification; Economic aspects; Indochina; Economic policy; Poverty alleviation; Myanmar; Meat industry and trade; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97385
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Community empowerment and scaling-up in urban areas: The evolution of push/prospect in Zambia AgEcon
Garrett, James L..
Includes bibliographical references. Urban Challenges to Food and Nutrition Security.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: CARE; Poverty alleviation; Community organizations; Urban poor; Peri-urban areas; Urban programming; Empowerment; Community-driven development (CDD); Food aid; Scaling up; Civil society; Government policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60395
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Effects of methodology and stakeholder disaggregation on ecosystem service valuation Ecology and Society
Brooks, Emma G. E.; University of Southampton; Global Species Programme, IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature); emma.brooks@soton.ac.uk; Smith, Kevin G.; Global Species Programme, IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature); kevin.smith@iucn.org; Holland, Robert A.; University of Southampton; R.A.Holland@soton.ac.uk; Poppy, Guy M.; University of Southampton; G.M.Poppy@soton.ac.uk; Eigenbrod, Felix; University of Southampton; F.Eigenbrod@soton.ac.uk.
Contingent valuation is one of the most commonly used methodologies utilized in ecosystem service valuation, thereby including a participatory approach to many such assessments. However, inclusion of nonmonetary stakeholder priorities is still uncommon in ecosystem service valuations and disaggregation of stakeholders is all but absent from practice. We look at four site-scale wetland ecosystem service valuations from Asia that used nonmonetary participatory stated preference techniques from a range of stakeholders, and compare these prioritizations to those obtained from the largest monetary assessments available globally, the Ecosystem Service Value Database (ESVD). Stakeholder assessment suggests very different priorities to those from monetary...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Ecosystem services; Participatory approach; Poverty alleviation; Stakeholders; Valuation; Wetlands.
Ano: 2014
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Elixir or opiate? An assessment of minor irrigation policies in North Bengal AgEcon
Shah, Tushaar.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Irrigation management; Agricultural development; Farmer managed irrigation systems; Social aspects; Organizations; Farmers’ associations; Subsidies; Policy; Participatory management; Governmental interrelations; Small scale systems; Performance evaluation; Economic aspects; Deep tube wells; Shallow tube wells; Lift irrigation; Rural development; Poverty alleviation; Pumps; Technology transfer; Cooperatives; Mechanization; Institutions; Leadership; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management; Food Security and Poverty; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Public Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92706
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Energy and Economic Development: An Assessment of the State of Knowledge AgEcon
Toman, Michael; Jemelkova, Barbora.
Energy development is an integral part of enhanced economic development. The fact that expanded provision and use of energy services is strongly associated with economic development leaves open how important energy is as a causal factor in economic development, however; and energy development competes with other opportunities for scarce capital and opportunities for policy and institutional reform. In this paper we first give a brief conceptual discussion that seeks to identify the channels through which increased availability of energy services might be a key to stimulating economic development along different stages of the development process. We then examine some empirical work to see what evidence it might provide regarding possible channels of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Energy; Economic development; Productivity; Poverty alleviation; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q41; Q43.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10685
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Evaluating the Cost of Poverty Alleviation Transfer Programs: An Illustration Based on PROGRESA in Mexico AgEcon
Coady, David P.; Perez, Raul; Vera-Illamas, Hadid.
One of the common criticisms of poverty alleviation programs is that the high share of administrative (nontransfer) costs substantially reduces the programs’ impact on poverty. But very little empirical evidence exists on program costs. For example, a recent extensive international review of targeted poverty alleviation programs in developing countries could find data on costs for only 32 out of the 111 program reviewed. Even then, the numbers available were not always comparable. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the cost structure of a program recently introduced in Mexico, called PROGRESA. Our analysis shows how cost data can be used as the basis for an evaluation of the cost efficiency of anti-poverty programs. It cautions, however, that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cost efficiency; Poverty alleviation; Human capital; Mexico; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59284
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Growth Options and Poverty Reduction in Ethiopia: A Spatial Economywide Model Analysis for 2004-15 AgEcon
Diao, Xinshen; Nin Pratt, Alejandro; Ghautam, Madhur; Keough, James; Chamberlin, Jordan; You, Liangzhi; Puetz, Detlev; Resnick, Danielle; Yu, Bingxin.
Also published as EDRI-ESSP Policy Working Paper No. 2: Xinshen Diao; Alejandro Nin Pratt; Madhur Ghautam; James Keough; Jordan Chamberlin; Liangszi You; Detlev Puetz; Danielle Resnick; Bingxin Yu. 2005. Growth options and poverty reduction in Ethiopia: a spatial, economywide model analysis for 2004-15.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty alleviation; Agricultural growth; Agricultural sector; Millennium Development Goals; Spatial analysis (Statistics); Disaggregation; Household surveys; Ethiopia; Africa; Food Security and Poverty; International Development.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58383
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Impacts of CGIAR Crop Improvement and Natural Resource Management Research: A Review of Evidence AgEcon
Pal, Suresh.
This paper has examined the trends in funding and impacts of CGIAR research with a focus on distribution of economic benefits and sustainability of natural resources. The evidence has clearly shown that the impacts in terms of agricultural growth, poverty reduction and environmental protection continue to be impressive. The success of varietal development programmes mainly stems from free exchange of plant genetic resources and partnerships with NARSs. However, the impact of natural resource and production system management research has been site-specific. Its spread has been restricted because of policy and institutional constraints on transfer of technology.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop improvement; CGIAR research; NRM research; Poverty alleviation; Environmental protection; Agricultural growth; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q56; Q58; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118226
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Labour Market Effects of Trade Liberalisation: The Case of Mauritius AgEcon
Ramessur, Taruna Shalini; Durbarry, Ramesh.
This article uses a partial equilibrium approach to measure the impact of trade liberalisation on the demand elasticity of labour in the apparel industry in Mauritius, a sector where, in general, those in the work force are poor. The findings reveal that there is no evidence that trade liberalisation has increased the overall labour demand elasticity with respect to wages, though it has increased the demand elasticity for female workers. We further examine the relationship between trade liberalisation measures and characteristics of poor households and find that the overall results are mixed and inconclusive, probably due to the high level of data aggregation. Keywords: trade liberalisation, poverty alleviation
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Trade liberalisation; Poverty alleviation; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Financial Economics; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54588
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POSSIBILITIES AND PERSPECTIVES OF INTEGRATING HOUSEHOLD ANALYSIS IN CGE MODELS: THE CASE OF MEXICO AgEcon
Mellado, Aida Gonzalez.
This paper offers a possibility of bringing household analysis into Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modelling. In this research, the CGE model developed by the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) is extended. The extended GTAP model splits private consumption into ten different household categories according to observed expenditure patterns for Mexico. The extended model is used to simulate possible effects on Mexican household categories which are carried out under three different trade liberalization scenarios.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade liberalization; Mexico; Poverty alleviation; Household analysis; GTAP; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14970
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SCALING UP COMMUNITY-DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT: A SYNTHESIS OF EXPERIENCE AgEcon
Gillespie, Stuart.
While many community-driven development (CDD) initiatives may be successful, their impact is often limited by their small scale. Building on past and ongoing work on CDD, this study addresses the fundamental question: how can CDD initiatives motivate and empower the greatest number of communities to take control of their own development? What are the key contextual factors, institutional arrangements, capacity elements, and processes related to successful scaling-up of CDD, and, conversely, what are the main constraints or limiting factors, in different contexts? Drawing upon recent literature and the findings from five case studies, key lessons on how best to stimulate, facilitate, and support the scaling-up of CDD in different situations, along with some...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Community-driven development (CDD); Capacity strengthening; Case studies; Scaling up; Access to information; Poverty alleviation; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60312
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Scaling up Kudumbashree--collective action for poverty alleviation and women's empowerment AgEcon
Kadiyala, Suneetha.
This paper discusses the factors that enabled and constrained the scaling up of a multisectoral poverty alleviation program called Kudumbashree, initiated by the government of Kerala (GOK), India, in 1998 to eradicate poverty by 2008. It also discusses some potential threats to and trade-offs of scaling up Kudumbashree. This report draws primarily upon the available literature and qualitative data collected during a five-day visit to Kudumbashree in March 2003. In 1991, the GOK, along with UNICEF, initiated the Community-Based Nutrition Program (CBNP) in Alleppey town to improve the health and nutritional status of children and women. CBNP facilitated collective action by forming and developing the capacity of three-tiered community development societies...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Scaling up; Collective action; Poverty alleviation; Women; Empowerment; Community-driven development (CDD); Government policy; Gender; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60400
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The Case of Smallholder Dairying in Eastern Africa AgEcon
Ngigi, Margaret.
Agriculture plays a crucial role in the economy of sub-Saharan Africa. A feature of particular significance about the region is that the majority of households are heavily dependent on agriculture as their major source of livelihood. Smallholder agriculture is the principal producer of staple foods and cash crops, accounting for very large shares of national production and marketed output. For the respective countries, therefore, the performance of smallholder agriculture has crucial implications for the overall economic development process including the alleviation of rural poverty. The demands created by steadily increasing populations, and the pressing need to increase agricultural productivity means that these countries must continuously adopt methods...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Dairying; East Africa; Uganda; Kenya; Livestock; Smallholders; Poverty alleviation; Population growth; Agricultural productivity; Small farmers; Rural poor; Livestock Production/Industries; Q1; Q15.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59246
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The dragon and the elephant: Agricultural and rural reforms in China and India AgEcon
Gulati, Ashok; Fan, Shenggen; Dalafi, Sara.
China's and India's rapid rise in the global arena has not only captured the attention of the world but has also set into motion a rethinking of the very paradigm of economic development. Today, China and India together account for 40 percent of the world's population. Both have implemented a series of economic reforms in the past two and half decades: China initiated this process at the end of the 1970s, while India began in the early 1990s. These reforms have led to rapid economic growth, with a growth rate of 8-9 percent per annum in China and 6-7 percent per annum in India. Despite similar trends in the reforms, the two countries have taken different reform paths; China started off with reforms in agriculture sector and in rural areas, while India...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty alleviation; Egypt; Economic reform; China; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59826
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THE ROAD TO PRO-POOR GROWTH IN ZAMBIA: PAST LESSONS AND FUTURE CHALLENGES AgEcon
Thurlow, James; Wobst, Peter.
Zambia is one of the poorest countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Almost three-quarters of the population were considered poor at the start of the 1990s, with a vast majority of these people concentrated in rural and remote areas. This extreme poverty arose in spite of Zambia’s seemingly promising prospects following independence. To better understand the failure of growth and poverty-reduction this paper first considers the relationship between the structure of growth and Zambia’s evolving political economy. A strong urban-bias has shaped the country’s growth path leading to a economy both artificially and unsustainably distorted in favor of manufacturing and mining at the expense of rural areas. For agriculture it was the maize-bias of public policies that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Copper mines and mining; Poverty alleviation; Africa; Zambia; Manufacturing industries; Spatial analysis; Household surveys; Agricultural growth; International Development.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60169
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The role of agriculture in development implications for Sub-Saharan Africa AgEcon
Diao, Xinshen; Hazell, Peter B.R.; Resnick, Danielle; Thurlow, James.
This paper provides a nuanced perspective on debates about the potential for Africa’s smallholder agriculture to stimulate growth and alleviate poverty in an increasingly integrated world. In particular, the paper synthesizes both the traditional theoretical literature on agriculture’s role in the development process and discusses more recent literature that remains skeptical about agriculture’s development potential for Africa. In order to examine in greater detail the relevance for Africa of both the “old” and “new” literatures on agriculture, the paper provides a typology of African countries based on their stage of development, agricultural conditions, natural resources, and geographic location… More broadly, the paper demonstrates that conventional...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Growth-poverty linkages; Smallholders; Poverty alleviation; Agricultural development; Africa; Economic aspects; Agricultural sector; Ethiopia; Ghana; Rwanda; Uganda; Zambia; International Development.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55405
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The Role of Livestock in Economic Development and Poverty Reduction AgEcon
Upton, Martin.
This paper reviews the diverse and changing roles of livestock as they relate to the process of economic development and poverty reduction, departing from the premise that livestock production plays an important role in contributing to the livelihoods of most of the world's poor and in meeting the fast growing demand for livestock products in the developing countries. It is argued that investment in livestock raises farm production by extending the area of land utilised, diversifying productive activity for crop cultivators or intensifying production, and that changes from grassland-based systems to mixed farming systems and thence to landless production systems represent stages of increasing intensity. The author draws on New Institutional Economics...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Pro-poor livestock policy; Livelihoods; Economic development; Poverty alleviation; Food Security and Poverty; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23783
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Trends and Future Potential of Payment for Ecosystem Services to Alleviate Rural Poverty in Developing Countries Ecology and Society
Milder, Jeffrey C; Cornell University; Ecoagriculture Partners; jcm85@cornell.edu; Scherr, Sara J; Ecoagriculture Partners; sscherr@ecoagriculture.org; Bracer, Carina; Climate Focus; C.Bracer@climatefocus.com.
Payment for ecosystem services (PES) is a market-based approach to environmental management that compensates land stewards for ecosystem conservation and restoration. Because low-income households and communities control much of the ecologically sensitive land in developing countries, they potentially stand to gain from PES, as environmentally responsible stewardship is assigned a value by various actors in society. To date, however, instances of PES benefiting the poor have been limited mainly to specific localities, small-scale projects, and a handful of broader government programs. We analyze the size, characteristics, and trends of PES to evaluate its future potential to benefit low-income land stewards in developing countries. We estimate that by the...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Biodiversity conservation; Carbon sequestration; Eco-certification; Market development; Market policy; Payment for ecosystem services; Payment for environmental services; Poverty alleviation; Rural development; Watershed protection.
Ano: 2010
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What Can the Poor Expect From Trade Liberalization? Opening the "Black Box" of Trade Modeling AgEcon
Bouet, Antoine.
Trade liberalization is expected to act positively on development and poverty alleviation, both of which have become a high priority of international community. This explains why numerous studies have focused on assessing the expected benefits of trade liberalization on poverty. The main empirical tool for these assessments has been the use of multi-country Computable General Equilibrium Models (CGEM). These models, however, have produced divergent results. As demonstrated by recent studies, the associated increase in world welfare from full trade liberalization ranges from 0.2% to 3.1% — results that differ by a factor of 15 to 1! The impact on poverty headcount is also very divergent as the number of people lifted out from poverty ranges from 72 million...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Trade modeling; Poverty alleviation; General equilibrium model; Assessment; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58575
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