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Registros recuperados: 331
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A COMPARISON OF FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS IN MEXICO AND THE UNITED STATES AgEcon
Gundersen, Craig; Yanez, Mara; Valdes, Constanza; Kuhn, Betsey A..
The social safety nets in Mexico and the United States rely heavily on food assistance programs to ensure food security and access to safe and nutritious foods. To achieve these general goals, both countries' programs are exclusively paid for out of internal funds and both target low-income households and/or individuals. Despite those similarities, economic, cultural, and demographic differences between the countries lead to differences in their abilities to ensure food security and access to safe and nutritious foods. Mexico uses geographic and household targeting to distribute benefits while the United States uses only household targeting. U.S. food assistance programs tend to be countercyclical (as the economy expands, food assistance expenditures...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food assistance programs; Social safety net; Targeting methods; Macroeconomy; Poverty; Progresa; DICONSA; FIDELIST; LICONSA; DIF; Food Stamp Program; WIC; The National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33859
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A global perspective on water scarcity and poverty: achievements and challenges for water resource management AgEcon
Barker, Randolph; van Koppen, Barbara; Shah, Tushaar.
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Water scarcity; Poverty; Water resources development; Groundwater management; Food security; Irrigated farming; Agricultural production; Tube well irrigation; Sustainability; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Crop Production/Industries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118302
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A Survey of Findings on the Poverty Impacts of Agricultural Trade Liberalization AgEcon
Hertel, Thomas W..
The purpose of this survey is to review the available empirical evidence on the impacts of agricultural trade liberalization on poverty – considering both the impact of domestic and international liberalization. Since trade liberalization is generally an economywide phenomenon, with tariff cuts occurring across a wide range of commodities, we do not restrict ourselves to episodes where only agricultural trade was liberalized, although emphasis in this survey is given to agricultural trade policies. Furthermore, given the difficulty of isolating the effects of trade policies alone, we will also consider the impact of other types of external shocks which have the effect of changing the relative prices of tradeable and non-tradeable goods. By examining the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Poverty; Rural development; Agriculture; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/110127
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A well of one's own: gender analysis of an irrigation program in Bangladesh AgEcon
Jordans, Eva H.; Zwarteveen, Margreet Z..
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Irrigation management; Groundwater irrigation; Gender; Women in development; Poverty; Households; Agricultural production; Privatization; Farm Management; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113611
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Adoption and impacts of microirrigation technologies: Empirical results from selected localities of Maharashtra and Gujarat states of India AgEcon
Namara, Regassa E.; Upadhyay, Bhawana; Nagar, Rashmi K..
This report analyzes the economics of alternative microirrigation technologies ranging from low-cost drip and sprinkler systems to the capital-intensive systems, the determinants of adoption of microirrigation technology, the poverty outreach of the different microirrigation systems, and the sustainability implications of microirrigation adoption.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Irrigation systems; Microirrigation; Models; Poverty; Rural women; Cropping systems; Food security; Economic aspects; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44543
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Agricultural Growth, Poverty, and Nutrition in Tanzania AgEcon
Pauw, Kalie; Thurlow, James.
Rapid economic growth has failed to significantly improve poverty and nutrition outcomes in Tanzania. This raises concerns over a decoupling of growth, poverty, and nutrition. We link recent production trends to household incomes and caloric availability using a dynamic computable general equilibrium and micro-level poverty and nutrition modules. Results indicate that the structure of economic growth—not the level—is currently constraining the rate of poverty reduction in Tanzania. Agricultural growth has been driven by larger-scale farmers that are less likely to be poor. Growth has further been concentrated in crops grown in only a few regions of the country. Slow expansion of food crops and livestock also explains the weak relationship between...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Poverty; Nutrition; Computable general equilibrium modeling; Tanzania; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95974
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AGRICULTURAL POLICIES IN VIETNAM: PRODUCER SUPPORT ESTIMATES, 1986-2002 AgEcon
Nguyen, Hoa; Ulrike, Grote.
Since 1986, Vietnam started to move from a centrally-planned towards a market-oriented system. It underwent several major economic and trade reforms – a process which is still not completed. At the same time, it also started to open its economy. Vietnam has become a member of the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA), signed several bilateral trade agreements and is currently negotiating accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). First positive results of the reform process became visible in the early 1990s when poverty declined to a large extent. Since then, the Vietnamese agricultural sector has also experienced high growth and impressive export achievements. The country changed from a food importer to one of the major exporters worldwide. The question...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural policies; Markets; Free trade; Trade agreements; World Trade Organization; Poverty; Agribusiness; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60456
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Agricultural Prices and Income Distribution among Farmers: A Whole-Household, Multi-Country, Multi-Year Analysis AgEcon
Rios, Ana R.; Shively, Gerald E.; Masters, William A..
Recent studies have emphasized that the poorest farmers are often net buyers of key commodities and therefore harmed by rising prices. We use LSMS data from Tanzania, Vietnam and Guatemala to test the degree of net purchases or sales by income level. We find that poorer farmers may be net buyers of individual crops, but only the poorest are net buyers of all crops. More generally, net sales among poor farmers are low. We conclude that agricultural price changes have a diverse but limited influence on poor farmers’ welfare, because their farm sales tend to be offset by food purchases.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Market participation; Poverty; Inequality; Multi-continent multicountry; Agricultural Finance.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49314
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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND URBAN POVERTY IN INDIA AgEcon
Fan, Shenggen.
Using a similar analytical approach to a study in China, this paper analyzes the impact of agricultural research on urban poverty reduction in India. State level data from 1970 to 1995 were used in the empirical analysis. It is found that in addition to its large impact on rural poverty reduction, agricultural research investments have also played a major role in the reduction of urban poverty. Agricultural research investments increase agricultural production, and increased production in turn lowers food prices. The urban poor often benefit proportionately more than the non-poor since they spend 50-80% of their income on food. Among all the rural investments considered in this study, agricultural research has the largest impact on urban poverty reduction...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Developing countries; India; Agricultural research; Urban; Poverty; Food price; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16079
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Agricultural Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Tunisia: Micro-simulation in a General Equilibrium Framework AgEcon
Chemingui, Mohamed Abdelbasset; Thabet, Chokri.
The study tries to answer the following questions: Will exposure to world agricultural prices generate more poverty or less? To what extent will households be affected by changes in agricultural trade polices? Do multilateral agricultural liberalization matter more than bilateral changes? Results of simulations using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model linked to household survey data suggest that trade liberalization has only modest effects on the level of GDP, but it has a substantial effect in reducing poverty. Moreover, the combined effects of global and domestic liberalization are more pro-poor than the effect of domestic liberalization alone. As a net importer of agricultural commodities, Tunisia may be expected to experience terms-oftrade...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Tunisia; Agricultural trade liberalization; Poverty; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44466
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Agriculture and poverty: Farming for food or farming for money? AgEcon
Pauw, Kalie.
The dualistic nature of the South African economy manifests itself to a large extent in the agricultural sector, where ownership and access to land was previously reserved and is still mainly controlled by white farmers. This has contributed to the huge disparities in the income levels of black and white agricultural households. In this paper two South African household surveys are used to analyse agricultural inequality using various decomposition techniques. It is found that inequalities within agriculture are higher and more pronounced along racial lines than inequalities among non-agricultural households. Agricultural inequalities also differ structurally from those in the rest of society and are explained largely by differences in the ownership of...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural sector; Poverty; Inequality; Household income sources; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10122
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Agriculture in Post-War Bosnia and Herzegovina: Social Buffer vs. Development AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan.
This paper draws attention to the specific post-civil-war situation in agriculture and the food sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). These developments are presented in an association with the overall situation in the country. Due to economic and non-economic reasons, B&H faces a general problem of a lack of international competitiveness. In a current situation, there are rare products to be internationally competitive and the country relies on imports of food and other products. During the post-civil-war emergency and reconstruction stage, the bulk of food and agricultural inputs, were donated or granted by different governments, humanitarian organizations, and donors to mitigate the effects of widespread poverty caused by the war destructions...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty; Social buffer; Land leasing; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Agribusiness; Q15; Q18; O13; O52.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24726
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AMERICA'S FORGOTTEN PEOPLE AND PLACES: ENDING THE LEGACY OF POVERTY IN THE RURAL SOUTH AgEcon
Allen-Smith, Joyce E.; Wimberley, Ronald C.; Morris, Libby V..
This study focuses on the longstanding impoverishment of the rural South and three of its subregions-Appalachia, the Mississippi Delta, and the Black Belt. The poor quality of life in rural Appalachia and along the Mississippi Delta has been publically acknowledged by programs and commissions for improving conditions. However, the more comprehensive Black Belt subregion that links parts of Southern Appalachia and the Southern Delta has not received such regional policy attention. While the South as a whole is more rural and impoverished than other U.S. regions, this is largely due to the poor conditions in the Black Belt. In addition to region and rurality, a third feature of the pattern is race. It is in the Black Belt that the South's poor socioeconomic...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Appalachia; Black Belt; Mississippi Delta; Policy; Poverty; Quality of life; Rural; South; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15499
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An Empirical Evaluation of Poverty Mapping Methodology: Explicitly Spatial versus Implicitly Spatial Approach AgEcon
Olivia, Susan; Gibson, John; Smith, Aaron D.; Rozelle, Scott; Deng, Xiangzheng.
Poverty maps provide information on the spatial distribution of welfare and can predict poverty levels for small geographic units like counties and townships. Typically regression methods are used to estimate coefficients from the detailed information in household surveys, which are then applied to the more extensive coverage of a census. One problem with standard regression techniques is that they do not take into account the ‗spatial dependencies‘ that often exist in the data. Ignoring spatial autocorrelation in the regression providing the coefficient estimates could lead to misleading predictions of poverty, and estimates of standard errors. Household survey data usually lack exact measures of location so it is not possible to fully account for this...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: China; Poverty; Small Area Estimation; Survey Methods; Spatial Models.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47651
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AN OPERATIONAL METHOD FOR ASSESSING THE POVERTY OUTREACH PERFORMANCE OF DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS: RESULTS FROM FOUR CASE STUDIES IN AFRICA, ASIA AND LATIN AMERICA AgEcon
Zeller, Manfred; Sharma, Manohar P.; Henry, Carla; Lapenu, Cecile.
Many development projects seek to reach the poorest in the provision of agricultural inputs, extension, credit, education, and many other services. However, low-cost and reliable methods for assessing whether a project reaches the poor are lacking at present. In this paper, we present an operational method that was designed during a two-year research project from 1999-2001 with the support of an international donor-coordination office. The objective of the research was to develop and test a new method that could be later used by development practitioners to assess the poverty level of beneficiaries of development projects that target the poor in relation to the general population in the intervention area. The method constructs a poverty index using...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty; Targeting; Evaluation; Principle component analysis; Food Security and Poverty; International Development.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25907
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An overview of the development challenges and constraints of the Niger Basin and possible intervention strategies AgEcon
Namara, Regassa E.; Barry, Boubacar; Owusu, Eric S.; Ogilvie, Andrew.
The Niger River Basin covers 7.5% of the African continent and is shared between nine riparian countries. The human population of the basin is growing at an average annual rate of about 3%, which makes the Niger River Basin one of the areas with the highest fertility rates in the world. The desert margin is expanding; climate change is negatively impacting rainfall; and urbanization, industrialization, and the human and livestock population are threatening the quantity and quality of available water resources. The basin population already suffers from chronic poverty. Based on a literature review, this paper suggests some key water-related and other interventions that are capable of easing the basin's development challenges.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: River basin development; Poverty; Social aspects; Climate change; Agriculture sector; Water governance; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118299
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ANÁLISE DAS MEDIDAS DE RENDA, DISTRIBUIÇÃO E POBREZA DOS MUNICÍPIOS DA ÁREA DE INFLUÊNCIA DA BARRAGEM CASTANHÃO CEARÁ AgEcon
Campos, Roberio Telmo; Campos, Kilmer Coelho.
Objetiva-se realizar o macrodiagnóstico econômico-social dos municípios que compõem a área de influência do reservatório da barragem Castanhão no Estado do Ceará. Utilizam-se dados secundários e o método descritivo para análise e discussão dos resultados, após cálculos de freqüências, tabelas e outras informações estatísticas selecionadas. Os resultados mostram que, em termos gerais, os municípios apresentaram rendas per capita muito baixas; a desigualdade de renda piorou para todos os municípios da amostra; no período de 1991 a 2002 houve melhora do IDH para todos os municípios do estudo; a percentagem de indigentes, a percentagem de pobres e as percentagens de crianças indigentes e pobres reduziram-se durante o período de 1991 a 2000; e, há um elevado...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Renda; Distribuição de renda; Pobreza; Barragem Castanhão; Income; Income distribution; Poverty; Castanhão dam; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102219
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ANÁLISE EXPLORATÓRIA DE DADOS ESPACIAL DA INCIDÊNCIA DE POBREZA NA ILHA DE SANTIAGO DE CABO VERDE AgEcon
Baptista, Antonio Jose Medina dos Santos; Santos, Cristiane Marcia.
Combater a pobreza sempre foi um objetivo presente em grande parte das políticas publicas implementadas em Cabo Verde. Esse tema tem despertado atenção da comunidade de investigadores, que ao longo do tempo enriqueceram o acervo de documentos de analise da pobreza. O presente artigo teve a pretensão de analisar a incidência da pobreza em Cabo Verde especificamente na identificação de cluster de pobreza e indicação da dependência espacial da incidência da pobreza na Ilha de Santiago. Os resultados permitiram evidenciar a existência de padrões espaciais distintos em relação à incidência da pobreza. Os vizinhos tendem a apresentar valores semelhantes entre, si e diferentes das demais localidades relativamente mais afastadas. Uma das principais conclusões do...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Pobreza; Cabo Verde; Heterogeneidade espacial; Dependência espacial; Poverty; Cape Verde; Space heterogeneity; Spatial dependence; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113180
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Análisis de la políticas públicas desde la perspectiva de género, el caso del programa de desarrollo rural de alianza para el campo, en el municipio de Texcoco Colegio de Postgraduados
Buendía Rodríguez, Alma Delia.
La presente investigación analiza los subprogramas PAPIR, PRODESCA Y PROFEMOR del Programa de Desarrollo Rural de Alianza para el Campo en el municipio de Texcoco desde la perspectiva de género. El objetivo central es conocer el enfoque (MED o GED) con que opera el Programa a través de las instituciones gubernamentales que lo norman y administran. La categoría teórica-metodológica utilizada es la perspectiva de género que analiza la construcción social de la diferencia sexual, cuestiona las relaciones desiguales de poder y propone el cambio hacia la equidad e igualdad de género. Las herramientas empleadas son de tipo cualitativo y cuantitativo y se aplicaron a los diferentes actores y actrices que participan en la operación del Programa tales...
Tipo: Tesis Palavras-chave: Política pública; Desarrollo rural; Pobreza; Equidad; MED; GED; Maestría; Desarrollo Rural; Public policy; Rural development; Poverty; Fairness.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1403
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ANÁLISIS DEL DESEMPLEO, LA MIGRACIÓN Y LA POBREZA EN MÉXICO AgEcon
Figueroa Hernandez, Esther; Ramirez Abarca, Orsohe; Gonzalez Elias, J. Martin; Perez Soto, Francisco; Espinosa Torres, Luis Enrique.
Undeveloped economies are dealing with very big issues such as low or null economic growth, higher rates of unemployment, high index of migration and millions of people living in extreme poverty. Therefore, the present investigation aims to analyze unemployment, migration and poverty in Mexico; since unemployment in Mexico has a rate of 5.5% according to INEGI, followed by migration and extreme poverty. One of the most important effects from the previous matters is that they have stimulated people to migrate. Because of the unemployment increase and the low wages in the country it has been stimulated the population to migrate. In addition, in the USA, the unemployment rate of Mexican migrants has raised from 8.0 to 12.0% (2009) approximately, inducing a...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Unemployment; Migration; Poverty; Remittances and income.; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120465
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