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Registros recuperados: 122
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A Global Model for Agriculture and Bioenergy: Application to Biofuel and Food Security in Peru and Tanzania AgEcon
Elbehri, Aziz; McDougall, Robert; Horridge, Mark.
This paper describes a global model for agriculture and bioenergy (GLOMAB) that incorporates biomass, biofuels and bioelectricity sectors into the GTAP-Energy model by expanding the global GTAP database, production and consumption structures. Biofuels are separated between first- generation (sugar ethanol, starch ethanol) and second- generation (cellulosic ethanol) biofuels and associated biomass feedstocks (maize, sugar cane, crop residues, woody biomass). Beside biofuels, the model also incorporates bioelectricity (as separate form conventional electricity) which competes for the same biomass feedstocks with cellulosic ethanol sector (agricultural residues, woody biomass). With this broad-based representation of the bioenergy system likely to prevail...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Renewable Energy; Biomass; Agricultural Markets; Computable General Equilibrium (CGE); Food Security and Poverty; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C68; Q18; Q42; R14.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51914
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A Theory of Dynamic Biofuel Tax Credit AgEcon
Ye, Fanglin; Lu, Liang; Du, Xiaoxue.
In this paper, we set up a social cost minimization problem for a government. Using dynamic optimization tools, we analytically shows how exogenous parameters could affect the optimal social cost and the optimal tax credit policy path.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Optimal Control; Biofuel; Tax Credit; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q42; Q48.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123750
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Advanced Biofuel Production in Louisiana Sugar Mills: an Application of Real Options Analysis AgEcon
Darby, Paul M.; Mark, Tyler B.; Detre, Joshua D.; Salassi, Michael E..
In order to more fully study the risks and uncertainty involved in cellulosic ethanol production, we examine a simulated plant in South Louisiana using Real Options Analysis
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Real options; Risk; Uncertainty; Cellulosic ethanol; Energy cane; Sorghum; Bagasse; Simulation; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty; Q42; Q14; Q16; D81; G31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103747
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Ambiguous Aggregation of Expert Opinions: The Case of Optimal R&D Investment AgEcon
Athanassoglou, Stergios; Bosetti, Valentina; Maere d'Aertrycke, Gauthier de.
How should a decision-maker allocate R&D funds when a group of experts provides divergent estimates on a technology's potential effectiveness? To address this question, we propose a simple decision-theoretic framework that takes into account ambiguity over the aggregation of expert opinion and a decision-maker's attitude towards it. In line with the paper's focus on R&D investment, decision variables in our model may affect experts' subjective probability distributions of the future potential of a technology. Using results from convex optimization, we are able to establish a number of analytical results including a closed-form expression of our model's value function, as well as a thorough investigation of its differentiability properties. We apply...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Ambiguity; Expert Opinions; R&D; Convex/Conic Optimization; Aggregation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C61; D81; Q42.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121719
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Are there Carbon Savings from US Biofuel Policies? Accounting for Leakage in Land and Fuel Markets AgEcon
Bento, Antonio M.; Klotz, Richard; Landry, Joel R..
This paper applies the insights of the carbon leakage literature to study the emissions consequences of biofuel policies. We develop a simple analytic framework to decompose the intended emissions impacts of biofuel policy from four sources of carbon leakage: domestic fuel markets, domestic land markets, world land markets and world crude oil markets. A numerical simulation model illustrates the magnitude of each source of leakage for combinations of two current US biofuel policies: the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit (VEETC) and the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). In the presence of both land and fuel market leakage, current US biofuel policies are unlikely to reduce greenhouse gases. Four of the five policy scenarios we consider lead to increases in...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Multi-market; Carbon leakage; Biofuels; Greenhouse gases; Agricultural and Food Policy; Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q42; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/104008
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Aspekte des Gewässerschutzes und der Gewässernutzung beim Anbau von Energiepflanzen - Ergebnisse eines Forschungsvorhabens im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes AgEcon
Nitsch, Heike; Osterburg, Bernhard; Buttlar, Christine von; Buttlar, Hans-Bernhard von.
Zusammenfassung: Der vorliegende Arbeitsbericht entstand im Rahmen eines Forschungsvorhabens im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes und beleuchtet mit dem Thema „Gewässerschutz und Energiepflanzen“ einen Aspekt, der bisher nicht im Fokus der Diskussionen um den Energiepflanzenanbau stand. In dieser Studie wurden relevante Verwertungsketten für die energetische Nutzung von landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse in Deutschland anhand potenzieller Auswirkungen auf die Gewässer bewertet. Mögliche negative Wirkungen auf die Gewässer sind häufig auch aus Klimaschutzgründen relevant. Vorgestellt werden zudem Möglichkeiten des gewässerschonenden Anbaus. Die Analyse stützt sich auf die Auswertung von Literatur sowie schriftlicher und telefonischer Befragungen verschiedener...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Energiepflanzen; Gewässerschutz; Biogasanlagen; Landnutzung; Steuerungsinstrumente; Energy crops; Water protection; Biogas plants; Regulation instruments; Land use; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; K32; Q18; Q24; Q25; Q42.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103662
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Assessing China’s Energy Conservation and Carbon Intensity: How Will the Future Differ from the Past? AgEcon
Zhang, ZhongXiang.
As an important step towards building a “harmonious society” through “scientific development”, China has incorporated for the first time in its five-year economic plan an energy input indicator as a constraint. While it achieved a quadrupling of its GDP while cutting its energy intensity by about three quarters between 1980 and 2000, China has had limited success in achieving its own 20% energy-saving goal set for 2010 to date. Despite this great challenge at home, just prior to the Copenhagen climate summit, China pledged to cut its carbon intensity by 40-45% by 2020 relative its 2005 levels to help to reach an international climate change agreement at Copenhagen or beyond. This raises the issue of whether such a pledge is ambitious or just represents...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Energy Saving; Renewable Energy; Carbon Intensity; Post-Copenhagen Climate Negotiations; Climate Commitments; China; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q42; Q43; Q48; Q52; Q53; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92837
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Assessment of Alternative Fuel Production from Switchgrass: An Example from Arkansas AgEcon
Popp, Michael P..
As the hunt for renewable energy sources from agriculture intensifies, many agricultural producers are contemplating what crops to grow in the foreseeable future. On the one hand, there are traditional food crops, such as soybean, corn, and wheat, which have recently enjoyed a spike in prices, primarily because of the seemingly ever-growing demands of the corn to ethanol industry. On the other hand, there are the lesser-known perennial energy crops, such as switchgrass. Although much information on various aspects of switchgrass production exists, this paper discusses the adaptation of existing production and processing information to Arkansas conditions as a potential alternative to crop production.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Production costs; Switchgrass; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q42.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6523
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Assessment of two alternative switchgrass harvest and transport methods AgEcon
Popp, Michael P.; Hogan, Robert J., Jr..
As the search for renewable energy sources from agriculture intensifies, many agricultural producers are contemplating production of a native perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum Vigratum, L.). While much information on various aspects of switchgrass production exists, this paper discusses implications of two alternative harvesting and transportation methods that may be suitable for Arkansas conditions. Results suggested that module building compared to the simpler round baling technology may be a promising alternative.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Switchgrass; Production; Cellulosic biofuel; Storage and transport costs; Crop Production/Industries; Q42.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48774
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Bioenergy and the Rise of Sugarcane-Based Ethanol in Brazil AgEcon
Martines-Filho, Joao Gomes; Burnquist, Heloisa Lee; Vian, Carlos Eduardo de Freitas.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q42; O54; 013.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94416
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Bio-energy from Mountain Pine Beetle Timber and Forest Residuals: The Economics Story AgEcon
Niquidet, Kurt; Stennes, Brad; van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
In light of the large volumes of pine killed in the Interior forests in British Columbia by the mountain pine beetle, many are keen to employ forest biomass as an energy source. To assess the feasibility of a wood biomass-fired power plant in the BC Interior it is necessary to know both how much physical biomass might be available over the life of a plant, but also its location because transportation costs are likely to be a major operating cost for any facility. To address these issues, we construct a mathematical programming model of fiber flows in the Quesnel Timber Supply Area of BC over a 25-year time horizon. The focus of the model is on minimizing the cost of supplying feedstock throughout space and time. Results indicate that over the life of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Forest economics; Biomass and bio-energy; Forest pests; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; Q23; Q42.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45476
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Biofuel Economics in a Setting of Multiple Objectives & Unintended Consequences AgEcon
Jaeger, William K.; Egelkraut, Thorsten M..
This paper examines biofuels from an economic perspective and evaluates the merits of promoting biofuel production in the context of the policies’ multiple objectives, life-cycle implications, pecuniary externalities, and other unintended consequences. The policy goals most often cited are to reduce fossil fuel use and to lower greenhouse gas emissions. But the presence of multiple objectives and various indirect effects complicates normative evaluation. To address some of these complicating factors, we look at several combinations of policy alternatives that achieve the same set of incremental gains along the two primary targeted policy dimensions, making it possible to compare the costs and cost-effectiveness of each combination of policies. For example,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biofuel; Biodiesel; Cost-Effectiveness; Indirect Land Use Change Effects; Net Energy; Multiple Objectives; Ethanol; Ghg; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q42; Q48; Q54.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108203
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Biofuels Potential in Latin America and the Caribbean: Quantitative Considerations and Policy Implications for the Agricultural Sector AgEcon
Ludena, Carlos E.; Razo, Carlos; Saucedo, Alberto.
Rising oil prices has led to increased interest to replace domestic demand for liquid fuels for transport (petrol and diesel) with biofuel production (ethanol and biodiesel). One of the pioneers in biofuel production is Brazil, which since the 1970s has established a government program that promotes the production and consumption of ethanol. Currently, Brazil is the leading producer of ethanol in the world and has started also programs for biodiesel production based on soybeans, oil palm and other crops. Other countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have also expressed interest in biofuel production, and have started programs, and in some cases the legislation that promotes biofuel production. However, most of the analysis of biofuel crops has been...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Land availability; Price effect; Agricultural structure; Latin America; Caribbean; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q42; Q48; Q11; Q15.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9986
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Biological Carbon Sinks: Transaction Costs and Governance AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Activities that remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in forest and agricultural ecosystems can generate CO2-offset credits that can thus substitute for CO2 emissions reduction. Are biological CO2-uptake activities competitive with CO2 offsets from reduced fossil fuel use? In this paper, it is argued that transaction costs impose a formidable obstacle to direct substitution of carbon uptake offsets for emissions reduction in trading schemes, and that separate caps should be set for emissions reduction and sink-related activities. While a tax/subsidy scheme is preferred to emissions trading for incorporating biologically-generated CO2 offsets, contracts that focus on the activity and not the amount of carbon sequestered are most likely to lead to the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon sequestration; Transaction costs; Climate change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Q54; Q23; Q42; H23; D23.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45505
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Biomass Supply for Biofuel Production: Estimates for the United States and Canada AgEcon
Kumarappan, Subbu; Joshi, Satish V.; MacLean, Heather.
Published in BioResources, Volume 4, Number 3, 2009, Pages 1070-1087.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biomass Supply; Resource Assessment; Lignocellulosic Biomass; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q42; Q11; Q2; Q20; Q29.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51427
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Breaking the Impasse in International Climate Negotiations: A New Direction for Currently Flawed Negotiations and a Roadmap for China to 2050 AgEcon
Zhang, ZhongXiang.
China’s unilateral pledge to cut its carbon intensity by 40-45 percent by 2020 relative to its 2005 levels raises both the stringency issue, and given that China’s pledge is in the form of carbon intensity, reliability issues concerning China’s statistics on energy and GDP. Moreover, as long as China’s commitments differ in form from those of other major greenhouse gas emitters, China is constantly confronted with both criticism on its carbon intensity commitment being less stringent and the threats of trade measures. In response to these concerns and to put China in a positive position, this paper will map out a realistic roadmap for China’s specific climate commitments towards 2050, with its main distinguishing features including China taking on absolute...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon Intensity; Post-Copenhagen Climate Change Negotiations; Climate Commitments; China; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q42; Q43; Q48; Q52; Q53; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108263
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Bush Meets Hotelling: Effects of Improved Renewable Energy Technology on Greenhouse Gas Emissions AgEcon
Hoel, Michael.
Replaced with revised version of paper 02/20/09.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Exhaustible Resources; Renewable Energy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q30; Q42; Q5.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47175
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Carbon Abatement in the Fuel Market with Biofuels: Implications for Second-Best Policies AgEcon
Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu.
A carbon tax would penalize carbon intensive fuels like gasoline and shift fuel consumption to less carbon intensive alternatives like biofuels. Since biofuel production competes for land with agriculture, a carbon tax could raise land rents, divert land towards fuel production, and raise agricultural prices. This paper analyzes the welfare effect of a carbon tax on fuel with gasoline and biofuel as available fuel choices, in the presence of a labor tax and biofuel subsidy. The second-best optimal carbon tax is also quantified. Findings show that when biofuels is part of the fuel mix, the carbon tax has a commodity price effect which arises from tax-induced changes in land rent. The commodity price effect could exacerbate or attenuate the tax interaction...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Carbon tax; Optimal fuel tax; Biofuel; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q42; Q48; Q54; H23.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60894
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Carbon Markets and Methane Digesters: Potential Implications for the Dairy Sector AgEcon
Key, Nigel D.; Sneeringer, Stacy E..
Anaerobic digesters that capture and burn manure methane can provide a renewable source of energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Paying producers for these emission reductions—either directly or through a carbon offset market—could substantially increase digester adoption. However, there is likely to be wide variation in the scale, location, and characteristics of adopters, so these policies could have long run structural implications for the livestock sector. Using a model of digester profits and data from a nationally-representative survey of dairy operations we estimate the likely distribution of digester adoption and profits under different carbon price scenarios.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Anaerobic digester; Carbon offsets; Climate change; Distribution; Livestock; Methane; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q12; Q16; Q42; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117952
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Cash Ethanol Cross-Hedging Opportunities AgEcon
Franken, Jason R.V.; Parcell, Joseph L..
Increased use of alternative fuels and low commodity prices have contributed to the recent expansion of the U.S. ethanol industry. As with any competitive industry, some level of output price risk exists in the form of volatility; yet, no actively traded ethanol futures market exists to mitigate output price risk. This study reports estimated minimum variance cross-hedge ratios between Detroit spot cash ethanol and the New York Mercantile Exchange unleaded gasoline futures for 1-, 4-, 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 24-, and 28-week hedge horizons. The research suggests that a one-to-one cross-hedge ratio is not appropriate for some horizons.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Cross-hedging; Ethanol; Gas; G13; Q13; Q42.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43152
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