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Registros recuperados: 38
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A Multifunctional Comparison of Conventional versus Alternative Olive Systems in Spain by Using AHP AgEcon
Parra-Lopez, Carlos; Calatrava-Requena, Javier.
Sustainability of agriculture is strongly related to the multifunctional role implicitly or explicitly recognized to it in the framework of the European Union CAP. This multifunctional role entails a multicriteria approach when assessing the performance and value for society of farming systems. Multicriteria assessment of agricultural systems is characterized by the existence of many criteria often conflicting among then, many stakeholders and decision-makers with competing interests, and lack of information. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a multicriteria methodology that allows dealing with these problems, in a relatively easy, flexible and economical manner, and therefore it is a potentially useful tool in this field, although its application with...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Organic farming; Integrated farming; Olive-growing systems; AHP; Multicriteria analysis.; Crop Production/Industries; Q50; Q57; Q51; Q56; C6.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25417
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A PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL OF THE LINKAGES BETWEEN ANIMAL WELFARE, TRADE AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN SCOTLAND AgEcon
Toma, Luiza; Ashworth, Cheryl J.; Stott, Alistair W..
This research analyses the impacts of a scientific advance that improves animal welfare, upon the environment and trade in Scotland using partial equilibrium (PE) modelling. The science improves pig neonatal survival through improved (high fibre) sow diets used before mating. Our model simulates the effects of animal welfare changes on the pig production systems (pig meat) and further on trade flows (trade in pig meat) and environment (water and air pollution). We consider two animal welfare simulation scenarios, namely the status quo – no animal welfare change as regards pig neonatal mortality (baseline scenario) and the case of improving pig neonatal survival (alternative scenario) and compare the impacts on trade and environment between the two...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Pig Welfare; Trade; Environment; Scotland; Partial Equilibrium Model.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Q18; Q50.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44825
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A Spatiotemporal Fixed Effects Estimation of U.S. State-Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions AgEcon
Burnett, J. Wesley; Bergstrom, John C..
One of the major shortcommings of past environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) studies is that the spatiotemporal aspects within the data have largely been ignored. By ignoring the spatial aspect of pollution emissions past estimates of the EKC implicitly assume that a region’s emissions are unaffected by events in neighboring regions (i.e., assume there are no transboundary pollution emissions between neighbors). By ignoring the spatial aspects within the data several past estimates of the EKC could have generated biased or inconsistent regression results. By ignoring the temporal aspect within the data several past estimates of the EKC could have generated spurious regression results or misspecified t and F statistics. To address this potential...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Pollution Economics; Environmental Kuznets Curve; Spatial Econometrics; Dynamic Panel Data; Carbon Dioxide Emissions; Global Climate Change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C33; C51; Q43; Q50; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103580
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Análisis económico de la “bio-carbonización” como práctica de manejo agrícola AgEcon
Ramirez, Juan Andres; Rosales Alvarez, Ramon.
Las altas concentraciones de gases de efecto invernadero, específicamente CO2, han sido señaladas como la principal causa del cambio climático. La adopción de prácticas agrícolas capaces de incrementar el contenido de carbono en el suelo, ha sido propuesta como una estrategia de bajo costo y disponibilidad inmediata para enfrentar este fenómeno. La Bio-carbonización es una de estas prácticas agrícolas, la cual implica la aplicación de carbón vegetal al suelo, de modo que el carbono queda capturado en una forma altamente recalcitrante al tiempo que se mejora la calidad del suelo. Este artículo es el primero en evaluar la viabilidad financiera y considerar algunos de los efectos económicos de la práctica, estimados para una finca tipo en la altillanura...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultura sostenible; Altillanura colombiana; Análisis costobeneficio; Programación lineal; Secuestro de carbono; Servicios ambientales.; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; C6; D60; O30; Q10; Q24; Q50.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60734
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Changing the direction of environmental investment in Australia: Learnings from implementing INFFER AgEcon
Marsh, Sally P.; Curatolo, April; Pannell, David J.; Park, Geoff; Roberts, Anna M.; Alexander, Jennifer.
Investment in natural resource management (NRM) by regional organisations in Australia has been widely criticised for failing to achieve substantial environmental outcomes. The Investment Framework for Environmental Resources (INFFER) is a tool for developing and prioritising projects to address environmental issues such as water quality, biodiversity decline, environmental pest impacts and land degradation. INFFER is an asset-based, targeted, and outcome-focussed approach to environmental investment, and as such is a very different and more rigorous approach to prioritising possible environmental projects than used previously by most catchment management organisations (CMOs) in Australia. From 2008 to 2010 INFFER has been trialled with CMOs. Evaluation...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: NRM investment planning; NRM investment prioritisation; Regional catchment management organisations; NRM policy; Environmental planning; Environmental prioritisation; Environmental policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q50; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100584
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Conservation Value AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then lends to a discussion of the value of conserving natural resources in order to meet the moral obligations of present generations to future generations. Anthropogenic views of the value of conserving natural resources (for example, derived from utilitarian ethics) are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Anthropogenic values; Conservation value; Deontological ethics; Ecocentric values; Economic sustainability; Intergenerational equity; Natural resources; Neo-Malthusianism; Precautionary motive; Sustainability; Sustainable development; User costs; Utilitarian ethics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q01; Q20; Q30; Q50; Q51.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90879
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Consumer Preferences for Refrigerators Manufactured by “Climate Leaders” AgEcon
Li, Xiaogu; Clark, Christopher D.; Jensen, Kimberly L.; Yen, Steven T..
In 2002, EPA established a voluntary program called the Climate Leaders Program (CL Program) designed for organizations to complete a corporate greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, set a goal for reducing GHG emissions, and achieve that goal. The program was never implemented as a product labeling program. In 2010, EPA announced the program’s phase out. This study examines whether the CL Program could have been effectively used as a consumer product labeling program to assist consumers in choosing products manufactured by firms that have voluntarily set and achieved targeted GHG emission reductions.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer Preferences; Climate Leaders; Willingness-to-Pay; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q50; Q58.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123756
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Consumption and Precautionary Saving: An Empirical Analysis under Both Financial and Environmental Risks AgEcon
Baiardi, Donatella; Manera, Matteo; Menegatti, Mario.
This paper studies the empirical relationship between consumption and saving under two different sources of uncertainty: financial risk and environmental risk. The analysis is carried out using time series data for six advanced economies in the period 1965-2007. The results support the theoretical conclusions that both financial risk alone and the interaction between financial and environmental risks affect consumption. Moreover, we suggest a solution to some shortcomings which concern the empirical analysis performed with one-argument utility functions. Finally, we provide new estimates of indexes of relative risk aversion and relative prudence, and relative preference of environmental quality.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumption; Precautionary Saving; Financial Risk; Environmental Risk; Prudence; Relative Risk Aversion; Uncertainty; Environmental Economics and Policy; D81; E21; Q50.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115845
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Creating Carbon Offsets in Agriculture through No-Till Cultivation: A Meta-Analysis of Costs and Carbon Benefits AgEcon
Manley, James G.; van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Moeltner, Klaus; Johnson, Dale W..
Carbon terrestrial sinks are often seen as a low-cost alternative to fuel switching and reduced fossil fuel use for lowering atmospheric CO2. To determine whether this is true for agriculture, one meta-regression analysis (52 studies, 536 observations) examines the costs of switching from conventional tillage to no-till, while another (51 studies, 374 observations) compares carbon accumulation under the two practices. Costs per ton of carbon uptake are determined by combining the two results. The viability of agricultural carbon sinks is found to vary by region and crop, with no-till representing a low-cost option in some regions (costs of less than $10/tC), but a high-cost option in others (costs of $100-$400/tC). A particularly important finding is that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Costs of soil carbon credits; Conventional and zero tillage systems; Carbon accumulation in soil; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q10; Q50.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36994
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Demand and price volatility: rational habits in international gasoline demand AgEcon
Scott, K. Rebecca.
The combination of habits and a forward outlook suggests that consumers will be sensitive not just to prices but to price dynamics. In particular, rational habits models suggest 1. that price volatility and uncertainty will reduce demand for a habit-forming good and 2. that such volatility will dampen demand’s responsiveness to price. These two implications can be tested by augmenting a traditional partial-adjustment or error-correction model of demand. I apply this augmented model to data on gasoline consumption, as rational habits provide a succinct representation for the investment and behavioral decisions that determine gasoline usage. The trade-o¤s among 2SLS, system GMM, and pooled mean group (PMG) estimators are considered, and my preferred PMG...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Gasoline demand; Rational habits; Price elasticity; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; H30; Q40; Q41; Q50; R40.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122891
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Demand and price volatility: rational habits in international gasoline demand AgEcon
Scott, K. Rebecca.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Gasoline demand; Rational habits; Price elasticity; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; H30; Q40; Q41; Q50; R40.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121931
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Determinants of Romanian Farmers' Participation in Agri-Environmental Programmes AgEcon
Toma, Luiza; Mathijs, Erik.
The paper aims to identify the factors underlying farmers' propensity to participate in agri-environmental programmes in a Romanian rural region that confronts non-point source pollution. For this, we employ structural equation modelling with latent variables using data collected through an agri-environmental farm survey in 2001. The model includes one 'behavioural intention' latent variable ('propensity to participate in agri-environmental programmes') and five 'attitude' and 'socioeconomic' latent variables ('demo-social characteristics', 'economic characteristics', 'agri-environmental information access', 'environmental risk perception' and 'general environmental concern'). The results indicate 'environmental risk perception' as the strongest...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-environmental programme; Structural equation modelling with latent variables; Environmental risk perception; Romania; Environmental Economics and Policy; C30; Q20; Q50.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24574
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Distributing pollution rights in cap-and-trade programs: are outcomes independent of allocation? AgEcon
Fowlie, Meredith; Perloff, Jeffrey M..
According to the Coase theorem, if property rights to pollute are clearly established and emissions permit markets nearly eliminate transaction costs, the permit market equilibrium will be independent of how the permits are initially distributed among …firms. Testing the independence of …firms' permit allocations and emissions is difficult because of endogeneity and omitted variable bias. We exploit the random assignment of …firms to different permit allocation cycles in Southern California's RECLAIM Program to test for a causal relationship between facility-level emissions and initial permit allocations. Our primary …finding is that a null hypothesis of zero effect cannot be rejected.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Emissions trading; Transaction costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; D21; D23; H11; Q50; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47002
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Economics of Natural Resource Scarcity: The State of the Debate AgEcon
Krautkraemer, Jeffrey A..
Whether economic growth can be sustained in a finite natural world is one of the earliest and most enduring questions in economic literature. Even with unprecedented growth in human population and resource consumption, humans have been quite adept at finding solutions to the problem of scarce natural resources, particularly in response to signals of increased scarcity. Because environmental resources generally are not generally traded on markets, however, scarcity signals for these resources may be inadequate, and appropriate policy responses are difficult to implement and manage. In the debate over the economic scarcity of natural resources, one significant change in recent years has been a greater focus on the ecosystem services and the resource...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Natural resource scarcity; Environmental amenities; Resource substitution; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q01; Q10; Q20; Q30; Q40; Q50.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10562
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Efectos distributivos de las compensaciones por inactividad concedidas al sector pesquero afectado por la marea negra del Prestige AgEcon
Castro, Daniel Fuentes.
Resumen En el presente trabajo se analizan las ayudas paliativas de primera hora destinadas a compensar la disminución de rentas derivada de la inactividad provocada por la marea negra del Prestige en el sector pesquero y marisquero gallego. En particular se analiza el diseño uniforme de dichas ayudas y sus efectos redistributivos entre los subsectores de actividad afectados. Asimismo se estima el coste total soportado por las administraciones públicas y se muestra cómo una sencilla re-evaluación de las ayudas hubiese permitido ajustar las compensaciones a la realidad económica de cada subsector de actividad afectado, corrigiendo de este modo la notable distorsión en la asignación de los recursos públicos. Keywords: Marea negra; Prestige; Compensaciones;...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Oil Slick; Prestige; Indemnities; Distributional Effects; Pollution Control Costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q52; Q54; Q50.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28769
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El control de la contaminacion por nitratos en el regadio AgEcon
Martinez, Yolanda Martinez; Karaj, Skender Uku; Murillo, Jose Albiac.
RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan los efectos de algunas políticas de gestión del agua y de las técnicas de riego sobre el rendimiento de las actividades de cultivo y la contaminación del agua en la zona de regadío de Flumen-Monegros. El análisis se basa en la obtención de la respuesta del rendimiento de los cultivos al agua de riego y al abonado de nitrógeno. Las funciones de rendimiento se estiman mediante el programa de crecimiento de cultivos EPIC que incorpora información de las características locales de clima, suelo, manejo y sistema de riego de las actividades de cultivo. En los resultados se examina la relación entre los rendimientos y el uso del agua y del nitrógeno, y se cuantifica el coste para los agricultores de la reducción de la...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Nitrogen pollution; Water management; Water and nitrogen crop response functions.; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q50.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28762
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Environmental Amenities and Optimal Agricultural Land Use: The Case of Israel AgEcon
Kan, Iddo; Haim, David; Rapaport-Rom, Mickey; Shechter, Mordechai.
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of changing land allocation among crops as a mechanism for increasing social welfare, where production profits and amenity benefits are augmented. A positive mathematical programming model is calibrated and applied to the northern part of Israel, using a crop-discriminating amenity-benefits function. Changes in land allocation increase social welfare by 2.4% nationwide, and by up to 15% on the regional level. Regional scale farming-profit losses amount to up to 6%. Due to the decreasing-return-to-scale nature of the amenity-benefits function, the inter-regional variability appears sensitive to the manner in which the country is divided into regions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural land use; Environmental amenities; Optimizing social welfare; Q10; Q24; Q50.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42832
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Environmental Kuznets Curves for Carbon Emissions: A Critical Survey AgEcon
Aslanidis, Nektarios.
The empirical finding of an inverse U-shaped relationship between per capita income and pollution, the so-called Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), suggests that as countries experience economic growth, environmental deterioration decelerates and thus becomes less of an issue. Focusing on the prime example of carbon emissions, the present article provides a critical review of the new econometric techniques that have questioned the baseline polynomial specification in the EKC literature. We discuss issues related to the functional form, heterogeneity, “spurious” regressions and spatial dependence to address whether and to what extent the EKC can be observed. Despite these new approaches, there is still no clear-cut evidence supporting the existence of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Kuznets Curve; Carbon Emissions; Functional Form; Heterogeneity; “Spurious” Regressions; Spatial Dependence; Environmental Economics and Policy; C20; Q32; Q50; O13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54299
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Evaluacion comparativa multifuncional de sistemas agrarios mediante AHP: aplicacion al olivar ecologico, integrado y convencional en Andalucía AgEcon
Lopez, Carlos Parra; Calatrava-Requena, Javier; Gimenez, Tomas De Haro.
Aunque el concepto de multifuncionalidad está plasmado, implícita o explícitamente, en el diseño de las políticas agrarias actuales, su consideración a la hora de analizar y evaluar sistemas agrarios es aún relativamente escasa en la literatura. Para tal fin se propone utilizar el Proceso Analítico Jerárquico (Analytic Hierarchy Process - AHP), técnica de decisión multicriterio discreta que se utiliza para la toma de decisiones complejas. La metodología AHP es expuesta junto con un procedimiento propuesto para medir el acuerdo relativo entre decisores y la uniformidad de las alternativas en la toma de decisiones en grupo. Finalmente, AHP es aplicado a la evaluación del olivar ecológico, integrado y convencional de Andalucía considerando criterios de...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Multifunctionality; Analytic Hierarchy Process; AHP; Multicriteria decision making; Group decision making; Relative agreement indices; Relative uniformity indices; Olive grove; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q01; C65; Q50.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28771
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In or Out: Efficient inclusion of installations in an Emissions Trading Scheme? AgEcon
Betz, Regina; Sanderson, Todd; Ancev, Tihomir.
Regulators around the world are currently considering national emissions trading systems (ETS) as a cost-effective way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ETS installations coverage is one of the numerous design issues confronting them. ‘Blanket coverage’ that includes all an economy’s industrial emitters of greenhouse gases has some intuitive appeal. Although it seems equitable it does not, however, take into full account all the costs related to the extent of coverage. This report shows how an alternative approach of ‘efficient coverage’ can achieve the same emission reduction outcome at lower social cost. The approach is based on maximising the benefits of including installations in an ETS, while at the same time taking into account all relevant...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Emissions Trading Scheme; Environmental Policy; Installation Coverage; Transaction costs.; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q50; Q58; H23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94877
Registros recuperados: 38
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