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Registros recuperados: 241
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A Good Opening: The Key to Make the Most of Unilateral Climate Action AgEcon
Bosetti, Valentina; De Cian, Enrica.
In this paper we argue that when a subgroup of countries cooperate on emission reduction, the optimal response of non-signatory countries reflects the interaction between three potentially opposing factors, the incentive to free-ride on the benefits of cooperation, the incentive to expand the demand of fossil fuels, and the incentive to adopt cleaner technologies introduced by the coalition. Using an Integrated Assessment Model with a game theoretic structure we find that cost-benefit considerations would lead OECD countries to undertake a moderate, but increasing abatement effort (in line with the pledges subscribed in Copenhagen). Even if emission reductions are moderate, OECD countries find it optimal to allocate part of their resources to energy...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Technology Spillovers; Climate Change; Partial Cooperation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q54; Q55; C72.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119104
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A Numerical Analysis of Optimal Extraction and Trade of Oil under Climate Policy AgEcon
Massetti, Emanuele; Sferra, Fabio.
We introduce endogenous investments for increasing conventional and non-conventional oil extraction capacity in the integrated assessment model WITCH. The international price of oil emerges as the Nash equilibrium of a non-cooperative game. When carbon emissions are not constrained, oil is used throughout the century, with unconventional oil taking over conventional oil from mid-century onward. When carbon emissions are constrained, oil consumption drops dramatically and the oil price is lower than in the BaU. Unconventional oil is not extracted. Regional imbalances in the distribution of stabilisation costs are magnified and the oil-exporting countries bear, on average, costs three times larger than in previous estimates.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Policy; Integrated Assessment; Oil Production; Oil Revenues; Oil Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; E17; F17; Q32; Q43; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96495
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A Participatory Approach to Assess the Effectiveness of Responses to Cope with Flood Risk AgEcon
Ceccato, Lucia; Giannini, Valentina; Giupponi, Carlo.
This work illustrates the preliminary findings of a participatory research process aimed at identifying responses for sustainable water management in a climate change perspective, in two river basins in Europe and Asia. The paper describes the methodology implemented through local workshops, aimed at eliciting and evaluating possible responses to flood risk. Participatory workshops allowed for the identification of four categories of possible responses and a set of nine evaluation criteria, three for each of the three pillars of sustainable development. The main outcome of such activities consists in the ranking of broad response categories instrumental to the objective of the Brahmatwinn research project, i.e. the identification of Integrated Water...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Participatory Process; Climate Change; Flood Risk; Decision Support System; Multi Criteria Analysis; MCA; Eliciting Responses; Evaluating Responses; Integrated Water Resources Management; IWRM; Mulino Decision Support System; MDSS; Environmental Economics and Policy; C61; Q01; Q54; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60662
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A Proposal for the Design of the Successor to the Kyoto Protocol AgEcon
Karp, Larry S.; Zhao, Jinhua.
The successor to the Kyoto Protocol should impose national ceilings on rich countries’ greenhouse gas emissions and promote voluntary abatement by developing countries. Our proposal gives signatories the option of exercising an escape clause that relaxes their requirement to abate. This feature helps to solve the participation and compliance problems that have weakened the Protocol. We support the use of carefully circumscribed trade restrictions in order to reduce the real or perceived problem of carbon leakage.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Kyoto protocol; Escape clause; Emissions trade; Clean development mechanism; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q54; Q58; F13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42878
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A Tale of Two Countries: Emissions Scenarios for China and India AgEcon
Massetti, Emanuele.
The aim of the paper is to present evidence that China and India are, and will remain, two very different actors in international negotiations to control global warming. We base our conclusions on historical data and on scenarios until 2050. The Business-as-Usual scenario (BaU) is compared to four Emissions Tax scenarios to draw insights on major transformations in energy use and in energy supply and to assess the possible contribution of China and India to a future international climate architecture. We study whether or not the Copenhagen intensity targets require more action than the BaU scenario and we assess whether the emissions reductions induced by the four tax scenarios are compatible with the G8 and MEF pledge to reduce global emissions by 50% in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; China; India; Energy Efficiency; Energy and Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q32; Q43; Q54; Q43; O53; P52.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101378
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Abatement and Allocation in the Pilot Phase of the EU ETS AgEcon
Anderson, Barry; Di Maria, Corrado; Convery, Frank J..
We use historical industrial emissions data to assess the level of abatement and overallocation that took place across European countries during the pilot phase (2005-2007)of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. Using a dynamic panel data model, we estimate the counterfactual (business-as-usual) emissions scenario for EU member states. Comparing this baseline to allocated and verified emissions, we conclude that both overallocation and abatement occurred, along with under-allocation and emissions inflation. Over the three trading years of the pilot phase we find over-allocation of approximately 376 million EUAs (6%) and total abatement at the member state level of 107 Mt CO2 (1.8%). However, due to over-allocation and possible uncertainty about...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions Trading Scheme; Climate Policy; Dynamic Panel Data Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; C23; O13; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55831
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Adaptation approaches to climate change in China: An operational framework AgEcon
Jiahua, Pan; Yan, Zheng; Markandya, Anil.
Climate change poses great risks for China, which makes adaptation an essential response. However, adaptation planning and implementation are still at a preliminary stage with respect to the theoretical framework and methodology. This article focuses on the status, problems and basic needs as regards adaptation to climate change, and outlines the operational framework that the government is seeking to pursue for China’s adapting to climate change. The conclusion is that, to satisfy the basic needs of development, it is necessary to clarify development-oriented and incremental adaptation. Furthermore measures to enhance adaptive capacity can be classified as infrastructure-based, technology-based and institutional. Lastly the authors stress the importance...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Incremental adaptation; Development-oriented adaptation; Approaches for adaptation; Economic analysis of adaptation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q54; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117619
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Adaptation Can Help Mitigation: An Integrated Approach to Post-2012 Climate Policy AgEcon
Bosello, Francesco; Carraro, Carlo; De Cian, Enrica.
The latest round of international negotiations in Copenhagen led to a set of commitments on emission reductions which are unlikely to stabilise global warming below or around 2°C. As a consequence, in the absence of additional ambitious policy measures, adaptation will be needed to address climate-related damages. What is the role of adaptation in this setting? How is it optimally allocated across regions and time? To address these questions, this paper analyses the optimal mix of adaptation and mitigation expenditures in a cost-effective setting in which countries cooperate to achieve a long-term stabilisation target (550 CO2-eq). It uses an Integrated Assessment Model (AD-WITCH) that describes the relationships between different adaptation modes...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change Impacts; Mitigation; Adaptation; Integrated Assessment Model; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q54; Q56; Q43.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116907
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Afforestation and Timber Management Compliance Strategies in Climate Policy. A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Michetti, Melania; Nunes Rosa, Renato.
This paper analyzes the role of afforestation-reforestation and timber management activities, and their major and secondary economic effects in stabilizing climate during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. In particular, with a Computable General Equilibrium framework, the ICES model, it is inferred how forest carbon sequestration fits within the European domestic portfolio of a 2020-20 and 2020-30 climate stabilization policy. Afforestation and land use are accounted for by introducing their effects in the model. This is done by relying on carbon sequestration curves provided by Sohngen (2005), which describe the average annual cost of sequestration for selected world regions. Results show that afforestation and timber management could...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; General Equilibrium Modelling; Forestry; Afforestation; Environmental Economics and Policy; D58; Q23; Q24; Q52; Q54.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99641
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Agricultural Insurances Based on Meteorological Indices: Realizations, Methods and Research Agenda AgEcon
Leblois, Antoine; Quirion, Philippe.
In many low-income countries, agriculture is mostly rain-fed and yields highly depend on climatic factors. Furthermore, farmers have little access to traditional crop insurance, which suffers from high information asymmetry and transaction costs. Insurances based on meteorological indices could fill this gap since they do not face such drawbacks. However their implementation has been slow so far. In this article, we first describe the most advanced projects that have taken place in developing countries using these types of crop insurances. We then describe the methodology that has been used to design such projects, in order to choose the meteorological index, the indemnity schedule and the insurance premium. We finally draw an agenda for research in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Insurance; Climatic Risk; Environmental Economics and Policy; G21; O12; Q12; Q18; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91004
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Agricultural Productivity, Drought, and Economic Growth in Sahel AgEcon
Boubacar, Inoussa.
A standardized precipitation index is used in a regression analysis to quantify the impact of climate change on agricultural productivity in Sahel. I first estimate a Malmquist productivity index and its efficiency and technical change components. I further assess the statistical significance of the indices by estimating some confidence intervals via a bootstrap method. In the second stage of the analysis, I use a Probit model to estimate the extent to which climate variables affect agricultural productivity. It appears that agricultural performance has been disastrous in many Sahelian countries from 1970 to 2000. Using a comparable cross-country measure of drought, I provide evidence that precipitation variability is constraining not only Sahel’s...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Productivity; Agriculture; Sahel; International Development; Production Economics; O13; O55; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56321
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Agricultural Trade and Freshwater Resources AgEcon
Reimer, Jeffrey J..
Approximately 75% of all water used by humans goes towards food production, much of which is traded internationally. This study formally models how this works in the case of crop agriculture, making use of recent advances in international trade theory and new data on the productivity by which countries use water for crop agriculture. The strength of the model lies in its ability to predict, when there is a shock to the system, how trade between pairs of specific countries changes for products that use water intensively. In one application of the model, international trade in final products is shown to be a means for countries to deal with short- and long-run shocks to water resources that are too big for one country to handle by itself in isolation. In...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Simulation; Trade liberalization; Water; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; F11; F18; Q25; Q54.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123944
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Agriculture and Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade AgEcon
Adams, Damian C..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; Q18; Q48; Q54.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93679
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An analysis of the determinants of flood damages AgEcon
Ferreira, Susana.
In this paper we analyze mortality caused by 2,194 large flood events between 1985 and 2008 in 108 countries. Unlike previous studies that looked at natural-disaster mortality, we find that year-to-year changes in income and institutional determinants of vulnerability do not affect flood mortality directly. Income and institutions influence mortality only indirectly, through their impact on the intensity and frequency of floods. Population exposure affects the number of deaths both directly and indirectly. Higher population exposure results in more deaths once the flood has occurred, but it is associated with smaller floods. In developing countries it also reduces the count of floods.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Natural Disasters; Floods; Mortality; Adaptation; Climate Change; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development; Land Economics/Use; Risk and Uncertainty; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98381
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An Economic Analysis of Bushfires Management Programs AgEcon
Ganewatta, Gaminda; Grahlmann, Linda; Handmer, John.
Allocating scare resources for fire management strategies requires information on the extent of economic losses from bushfires and the efficiency of alternatives. Despite the severity of bushfires, there is no agreed approach in Australia for estimating economic losses from fires nor for evaluating the economic efficiency of alternative suppression strategies. The poster proposes approaches to assess the economic effects of bushfires on local and state economies and sets out models to evaluate the economic efficiency of two key bushfire management strategies: presuppression and suppression. The first model arises from questions concerning the value of pre-suppression (before the fire) fuel reduction activities, and the estimation of an economically optimal...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; A11; H4; Q51; Q54.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25278
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An Economic Analysis of Water Infrastructure Investments, Agricultural Productivity and Climate Change in the Mekong Delta: Adapting to Increased Salinity and Sea Level Rise AgEcon
Corderi Novoa, David; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Howitt, Richard E.; Lund, Jay R..
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/24/11.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Adaptation; Agriculture; Water resources; Dynamic programming; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development; Production Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; Q54; Q25; Q15.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103875
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An Economic Assessment of the Impacts of the MOSE Barriers on Venice Port Activities AgEcon
Vergano, Lucia; Umgiesser, Georg; Nunes, Paulo A.L.D..
Due to its hydro-geological features, the lagoon of Venice is especially vulnerable to climate change. In particular, it is strongly affected by gradual global warming that brings about the so-called ‘acqua alta’ (high water) phenomenon with greater frequency and intensity. In order to protect the city of Venice from the more and more frequent phenomenon of flooding, some protective measures have been adopted. Among them, the system of mobile barriers commonly known as MOSE: however, by separating the lagoon from the Adriatic Sea, it interferes with ship traffic and has negative impacts on port activities. Against this background, the aim of the present work is to provide an estimate of the direct costs of ship traffic interruption due to the functioning...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; ‘Acqua Alta’; MOSE; Ship Traffic; Direct Costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q51; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59474
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An Experimental Economic Analysis of Carbon Trading Options for Australia AgEcon
Tisdell, John G.; Grainger, Corinne.
Australia is currently developing a carbon emissions trading program. The Garnaut report recommendations include options for the allocation of carbon credits, trading schemes, banking and borrowing, and self reporting mechanisms. This paper reports the results of a series of economic experiments in which we explored spot and future markets given high and low levels of carbon credit reductions. The results provide important insights to the current debate in Australia and highlight the importance of well crafted market design.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Emissions trading; Compliance; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q53; Q54.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51044
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An interdisciplinary framework of limits and barriers to climate change adaptation in agriculture AgEcon
Kolikow, Steven; Kragt, Marit Ellen; Mugera, Amin W..
This paper has been published in a peer-reviewed conference as: Kragt, M.E., Mugera, A. & Kolikow, S. (2013) An interdisciplinary framework of limits and barriers to agricultural climate change adaptation. In: Piantadosi, J., Anderssen, R.S. & Boland J. (Eds) MODSIM2013, 20th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand, Adelaide, 1-6 December 2013, pp. 593–599. ISBN: 978-0-9872143-3-1. Session B2: http://www.mssanz.org.au/modsim2013/B2/kragt.pdf
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Agriculture; Australia; Broad-acre Farming; Conceptual Modelling; Climate Change; Epistemology; Interdisciplinary Research; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Q12; Q54.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120467
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Aportaciones desde la economía de la adaptación a la toma de decisiones sobre cambio climático: un ejemplo para la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco AgEcon
Galarraga, Ibon; Oses, Nuria; Markandya, Anil; Chiabai, Aline; Khantun, Kaysara.
As a consequence of Climate Change sea level rise as well as a change in the intensity and propensity of rain are expected in the Basque Country. Valuing the costs and benefits of adapting to these changes becomes an important piece of information for the planning process. This paper develops two methodological frameworks. The first one devoted to estimating the economic impacts to urban areas of an increase in the risk of flooding. The values estimated for the Nervión river in the city of Amurrio (Álava) indicate that the average expected damage will increase in 15 per cent as a consequence of CC (from €56,097 to €64,451). For an extreme episode the total loss could increase to €20 million. The second framework is oriented towards the valuation of the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Climate change impacts; Economic valuation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q51; Q54.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117620
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