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AZ EURÓPAI AGRÁRPOLITIKA ESZMÉNYEI ÉS REALITÁSAI AgEcon
Udovecz, Gabor.
A mezőgazdaságra, s általában az élelemtermelésre is egyre élesedő, globali-zálódó verseny vár. Ez magyarázza, hogy az európai agrárpolitika eszményei és realitásai mindinkább konfliktusba kerülnek, és ez az oka a KAP állandó re-formjainak, ezzel függenek össze a verseny torzításai, valamint a KAP követke-zetlenségei is. A magyar helyzetet, s a fejlődési lehetőségeket is – ezeken túlme-nően – az örökölt versenyhátrányok és a felemás csatlakozási felkészülés miatti új kihívások is befolyásolják. A versenyben való leszakadás megelőzése szem-pontjából fontos év 2007, amikor is át kell alakítani a nemzeti támogatási rend-szert; a nemzeti kiegészítő támogatások (top up) rendszerét; illetve elő kell készí-teni az uniós közvetlen támogatási rendszer, az ún. SAPS...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Közös Agrárpolitika; SPS; Vidékfejlesztés; Szív és ész konfliktusa; Common Agricultural Policy; SPS; Regional development; Conflict of hearts and minds; Agricultural and Food Policy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57658
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Az Európai Unió agrártámogatási rendszere és a hazai földpiac AgEcon
Alvincz, Jozsef.
Az EU-15-ök mezőgazdasága a tulajdoni és a vállalati rendszert illetően is sokkal stabilabb,mint amilyen a hazai. Ezért számolni célszerű azzal,hogy a bevezetni szándékozott SPS támogatási rendszer hazánkban a jövedelmeket,a földárakat és a bérleti díjakat illetően is minden bizonnyal mélyebb hatású lesz,mint a tőlünk nyugatabbra lévő családi gazdaságoknál tapasztalható. Egyben számolni lehet e szabályozási elem önmagán túlmutató hatásával,nevezetesen azzal,hogy a termőföld árára gyakorolt hatásán keresztül az Európai Unió piaci rendtartásának gyökeres megváltoztatását követően is nyomot hagy majd a birtokszerkezetben. Az Egységes Gazdatámogatási Rendszer (SPS) hazai bevezetése körüli bizonytalanságok legfőbb oka a birtokrendezés és az üzemszabályozás...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: SPS; Üzemrendszer; Birtokrendezés; Földforgalom; Üzemszabályozás. SPS; Farm system; Redistribution of landed property; Land turnover; Farming regulations.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57739
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Commodity-based Trade and Market Access for Developing Country Livestock Products: The Case of Beef Exports from Ethiopia AgEcon
Rich, Karl M.; Perry, Brian D.; Kaitibie, Simeon.
While Ethiopia is Africa’s largest livestock producer, sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) barriers and animal diseases have traditionally constrained market access. A system dynamics model examined the feasibility of a proposed SPS certification system under a number of scenarios. Model results indicate that the system may not be viable for beef exports to Middle Eastern markets. However, the binding constraint is high domestic input costs rather than the costs of SPS compliance. Sensitivity analyses reveal that while investments in feed efficiency and animal productivity would enhance Ethiopia’s export competitiveness, the competitive nature of international beef markets may still prevent market access.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: SPS; Livestock; Market access; System dynamics; Ethiopia; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing; Q10; Q13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53794
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Determinants of World Demand for U.S. Corn Seeds: The Role of Trade Costs AgEcon
Jayasinghe, Sampath; Beghin, John C.; Moschini, GianCarlo.
The United States is a large net exporter of corn seeds. Seed trade, including corn, has been expanding but its determinants are not well understood. This paper econometrically investigates the determinants of world demand for U.S. corn seeds with a detailed analysis of trade costs impeding exports flows to various markets. Trade costs include costs associated with distance, tariffs, and sanitary-phytosanitary (SPS) regulations imposed by foreign countries on U.S. corn seed exports. SPS policy information comes from the Excerpt data base of USDA-APHIS. The analysis relies on a gravity-like model based on an explicit specification of derived demand for seed by foreign corn producers. A SPS count variable is incorporated as a shifter in the unit cost of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Seeds; Corn; SPS; Phytosanitary; Exports; Trade cost; Technical barriers; Tariffs; TBT.; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6402
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Determinants of World Demand for U.S. Corn Seeds: The Role of Trade Costs AgEcon
Jayasinghe, Sampath; Beghin, John C.; Moschini, GianCarlo.
The United States is a large net exporter of corn seeds. Seed trade, including that of corn, has been expanding, but its determinants are not well understood. This paper econometrically investigates the determinants of world demand for U.S. corn seeds with a detailed analysis of trade costs impeding export flows to various markets, including costs associated with distance, tariffs, and sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) regulations. The analysis relies on a gravity-like model based on an explicit specification of derived demand for seed by foreign corn producers, estimated based on data from 48 countries and for the years 1989 to 2004. An SPS count variable is incorporated as a shifter in the unit cost of seeds faced by foreign users. A sample selection...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corn; Distance; Phytosanitary; Seeds; SPS; Tariff; Technical barriers; Trade cost.; Demand and Price Analysis; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46589
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Disentangling the Demand-enhancing Effect and Trade-cost Effect of Technical Measures in Agricultural Trade among OECD countries AgEcon
Xiong, Bo; Beghin, John C..
Domestic technical measures such as SPS and TBTs can enhance import demand via information disclosure and quality improvement, or hamper foreign export supply via imposing sizeable compliance costs, or both. The traditional gravity equation model estimates the net effect of these measures on international trade with a loss of useful inference on separate effects. We stipulate a generalized gravity equation model to disentangle the two effects. We apply the augmented approach to agricultural trade among OECD countries in 2004. We find that technical measures in agriculture often jointly enhance import demand and hinder export supply with the net effect of promoting the propensity to trade. Further disaggregated data analysis reveals heterogeneity across...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Sanitary and phytosanitary; SPS; Technical measures; NTM; TBT; Standards; Gravity equation; Protectionism; OECD; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116898
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Economic Issues of Invasive Pests and Diseases and Food Safety AgEcon
Evans, Edward A.; Spreen, Thomas H.; Knapp, J.L..
The problem of invasive pests and diseases has become more urgent and far more complex today than in the recent past. Increased trade and movement of people, and the opening up of new trade routes have increased opportunities for the spread of invasive species. In addition, mono-cropping systems of cultivation; globalization; increased resistance of pests to pesticides and food safety and environmental concerns have all contributed to the growing complexity of the problem on hand. The economic dimensions of the problem can be viewed from at least two perspectives. First, with regard to the spread and impact of invasive species, particularly how best to provide more comprehensive assessments of impacts of invasions, so as to improve the cost effectiveness...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sanitary and phytosanitary measures; SPS; Invasive species; WTO; Economic impact of invasive species; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15696
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EU-wide Distributional Effects of EU Direct Payments Harmonization analyzed with CAPRI AgEcon
Gocht, Alexander; Britz, Wolfgang; Ciaian, Pavel; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio.
We argue in this paper that available econometric estimates of farmers’ risk aversion do not measure true farmers’ preferences towards risky outcomes. Available analyses are mostly of static nature and indeed measure the parameters of the synthetic optimal value function rather than the deep parameters of the utility functions. We derive analytical and empirical results in a simple dynamic and stochastic framework showing that that there is not a simple relationship between utility functions and value functions when agents have many decision variables. In particular we find that the value function does not necessarily exhibit DARA when the instantaneous utility function satisfies DARA and conversely. We recommend performing dynamic econometric estimation...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Distributional effects; SPS; Flat-rate payment; CAP reform; Farm level model; CAPRI farm type layer; International Relations/Trade; Q11; Q12; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114624
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Nontariff Barriers AgEcon
Beghin, John C..
Nontariff barriers (NTBs) refer to the wide range of policy interventions other than border tariffs that affect trade of goods, services, and factors of production. Most taxonomies of NTBs include market-specific trade and domestic policies affecting trade in that market. Extended taxonomies include macro-economic policies affecting trade. NTBs have gained importance as tariff levels have been reduced worldwide. Common measures of NTBs include tariff-equivalents of the NTB policy or policies and count and frequency measures of NTBs. These NTB measures are subsequently used in various trade models, including gravity equations, to assess trade and/or welfare effects of the measured NTBs.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Externality and trade; Nontariff barrier; NTB; Protectionism; Sanitary and phytosanitary; SPS; Standards; TBT; Technical barrier to trade; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18436
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Post-Moratorium EU Regulation of Genetically Modified Products: Trade Concerns AgEcon
Viju, Crina; Yeung, May T.; Kerr, William A..
Trade in genetically modified (GM) products remains a major issue in agricultural trade policy. In particular, the European Union has sought to deny market access to GM-products. In the wake of a WTO case brought by Canada and the US, among others, against an import ban imposed on genetically modified agricultural products by the European Union (EU) – which the EU lost – the import ban was dropped and the EU put in place a new regulatory regime for GM-products. The EU suggests that the post-moratorium regulatory regime is compliant with its WTO obligations. As of June 2011, the operation of this new import regime has not been formally assessed. The first GM-crops are just now working their way through the post-moratorium regulatory system and an assessment...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: EU regulatory regime; Genetically Modified (GM) products; Science; SPS; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116848
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Quantification of Sanitary, Phytosanitary, and Technical Barriers to Trade for Trade Policy Analysis AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Bureau, Jean-Christophe.
This paper presents promising methodologies for modeling and quantifying nontariff barriers (NTB) to trade in the agricultural and food sectors. We limit the analysis to sanitary, phytosanitary, and technical regulations that can have an impact on trade and to methods that provide some quantitative estimates of the impact of such barriers on market equilibrium, trade flows, economic efficiency, and welfare. Given the heterogeneous nature of these regulations, a unifying methodology does not exist. Quantification of the effects of such measures has focused on a particular product and has relied on methods that belong to different fields of the economic literature. We provide a concise description and evaluation of the various methods available for a more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Non-tariff barriers; NTB; Policy; Sanitary and phytosanitary; SPS; TBT; Technical barriers to trade; Trade; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18620
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Science-based Rules of Trade: A Mantra for Some, An Anathema for Others AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
The concept of science-based rules for the establishment of trade barriers was a new development that arose from the Uruguay Round. It is an attempt to de-politicise decision making in the complex areas of human, animal and plant health as well as aspects relating to the environment. In the short time it has been in operation it has become a mantra for some but an anathema to others with an interest in trade policy. It is now at the heart of a major trade dispute between the EU and the United States over trade in the products of biotechnology. The paper discusses the controversies relating to the science-based system and provides suggestions to improve its efficacy.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Independence; Precautionary principle; Science-based; Scientific consensus; SPS; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23883
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Standards, a catalyst for the winners - a barrier for the losers? An empirical analysis of the impact of higher SPS measures on the trade performance of developing countries AgEcon
Chemnitz, Christine; Kuenkel, Nana.
Within the debate about developing countries export competitiveness the increasing importance of food safety and quality standards especially in OECD countries appeals to be one of the major sources of concern. The paper analyses the trade performance of 73 developing countries within the context of stricter SPS measures. The analysis concentrates on the meat and fruit / vegetable sectors as especially high value product sectors are determined by standards. The periods under consideration are 1993- 1995, as a period before the implementation of the SPS Agreement and 2002- 2004, as a period after the implementation. A cluster analysis groups the countries according to the variables "ratio" and "difference" of the export value to OECD countries including the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Safety; SPS; Developing Countries; Cluster Analysis; Competitiveness.; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10039
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Tariff Equivalent of Technical Barriers to Trade with Imperfect Substitution and Trade Costs AgEcon
Yue, Chengyan; Beghin, John C.; Jensen, Helen H..
The price-wedge method yields a tariff-equivalent estimate of technical barriers to trade (TBT). An extension of this method accounts for imperfect substitution between domestic and imported goods and incorporates recent findings on trade costs. We explore the sensitivity of this revamped tariff equivalent estimate to its determinants (substitution elasticity, preference for home good, trade cost, and the reference data chosen). We use the approach to investigate the ongoing U.S.-Japan apple trade dispute and find that removing the Japanese TBT would yield limited export gains to the United States. We then draw policy implications of our findings.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: SPS; WTO; Technical barriers; Japan; Trade cost; International Relations/Trade; F1; F18; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24765
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Tariff Equivalent of Technical Barriers to Trade with Imperfect Substitution and Trade Costs AgEcon
Yue, Chengyan; Beghin, John C.; Jensen, Helen H..
The price-wedge method yields a tariff-equivalent estimate of technical barriers to trade (TBT). An extension of this method accounts for imperfect substitution between domestic and imported goods and incorporates recent findings on trade costs. We explore the sensitivity of this revamped TBT estimate to its key determinants (substitution elasticity, preference for home good, and trade cost). We use the augmented approach to investigate the ongoing US-Japan apple trade dispute and find that removing the Japanese TBT would yield limited export gains to the United States. We then draw policy implications of our findings.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Apple; Japan; SPS; TBT; Technical barriers to trade; Trade cost; Trade dispute; WTO; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18338
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The Economics of Agricultural and Wildlife Smuggling AgEcon
Ferrier, Peyton Michael.
The United States bans imports of certain agricultural and wildlife goods that can carry pathogens or diseases or whose harvest can threaten wildlife stocks or endanger species. Despite these bans, contraband is regularly uncovered in inspections of cargo containers and in domestic markets. This study characterizes the economic factors affecting agricultural and wildlife smuggling by drawing on inspection and interdiction data from USDA and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and existing economic literature. Findings reveal that agricultural and wildlife smuggling primarily include luxury goods, ethnic foods, and specialty goods, such as traditional medicines. Incidents of detected smuggling are disproportionately higher for agricultural goods originating...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Smuggling; Illicit trade; SPS; Quarantine; Endangered species; CITES; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55951
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The New Food Safety Regime in the US: How Will it Affect Canadian Competitiveness AgEcon
Nakuja, Tekuni; Akhand, M.; Hobbs, Jill E.; Kerr, William A..
The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) which was signed into law in January, 2011 represents a major initiative to improve food safety in the US. The legislation mandates the US Food and Drug Administration with developing a regulatory system to implement the Act. As yet, the full effect of the Act cannot be evaluated because the regulatory requirements are yet to be developed. There is little doubt, however, that those firms, both domestic and foreign, that wish to supply US consumers with food will face a considerable increase in regulatory costs. This paper outlines the major requirements of the FSMA and suggests how the regulatory burden may fall on foreign versus US domestic suppliers. Areas where Canadian firms may be disadvantaged relative to US...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Competitiveness; Food safety; Regulatory burden; SPS; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116847
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Trade Liberalisation and the Red Meat Sector AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
Trade liberalisation in the livestock sector is not likely to benefit to any great degree from the trade negotiations on agriculture at the WTO that commenced in the spring of 2000. This is because the major barriers to trade in livestock and red meat are not related to tariffs and other traditional border measures that restrict trade or subsidisation; rather, they are governed by the WTO's SPS Agreement and the GATT's contingency protection provisions relating to dumping and countervailing duties. Negotiations on these issues will have to await a general WTO negotiating round. As SPS and contingency protection questions have many interested sectors, progress is likely to be slow and the prospects for further formal liberalisation remote in the near...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Antidumping; Argentina; Countervail; Red meat; SPS; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23858
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Trade-distorting SPS and TBT regulations in the EU? A qualitative assessment from the market for live plants and cut flowers. AgEcon
Drogue, Sophie; Gozlan, Estelle.
Using specific estimation of ad-valorem equivalents, the paper compares sectors where observed trade flows are significantly lower than predicted flows, with sectors where a SPS/TBT measure is notified in the TRAINS database. Only three sectors are found where a significant negative coefficient matches a notified regulation. Focusing on the market for live plants and cut flowers, the paper provides a description of existing EU import requirements and discusses recent trends in relevant private standards and certification schemes. The trade-restrictiveness of EU and private standards is then assessed based on the results of a survey conducted among exporters of flowers in developing countries.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: SPS; TBT; Private standards; Trade in ornamental products; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7216
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Transparency of Complex Regulation: How Should WTO Trade Policy Reviews Deal with Sanitary and Phytosanitary Policies? AgEcon
Zahrnt, Valentin.
Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures that protect human, animal, and plant health are impeding trade and provoking high-profile disputes. This paper argues that the WTO’s Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM) could play an important role in defusing the trade-disrupting potential of SPS regulation. The most promising avenue is to review in greater detail the policy-making procedures that lead to SPS measures. How transparent and independent are countries’ risk assessments of health hazards? Which provisions have countries taken to account for trade effects when selecting SPS measures? Do countries give foreign interests adequate possibility to voice their concerns over proposed SPS regulation? If reviews motivate countries to improve their...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: SPS; Food safety; Transparency; TPRM; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50365
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