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Registros recuperados: 36
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A Three‐way Balance in The Beaufort Gyre: The Ice‐Ocean Governor, Wind Stress, and Eddy Diffusivity ArchiMer
Doddridge, Edward W.; Meneghello, Gianluca; Marshall, John; Scott, Jon; Lique, Camille.
The Beaufort Gyre (BG) is a large anticyclonic circulation in the Arctic Ocean. Its strength is directly related to the halocline depth, and therefore also to the storage of freshwater. It has recently been proposed that the equilibrium state of the BG is set by the Ice‐Ocean Governor, a negative feedback between surface currents and ice‐ocean stress, rather than a balance between lateral mesoscale eddy fluxes and surface Ekman pumping. However, mesoscale eddies are present in the Arctic Ocean; it is therefore important to extend the Ice‐Ocean Governor theory to include lateral fluxes due to mesoscale eddies. Here, a non‐linear ordinary differential equation is derived that represents the effects of wind stress, the Ice‐Ocean Governor, and eddy fluxes....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Beaufort Gyre; Ice-Ocean Governor; Mesoscale eddies; Arctic; Sea ice.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00487/59844/62994.pdf
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An assessment of the Arctic Ocean in a suite of interannual CORE-II simulations. Part II: Liquid freshwater ArchiMer
Wang, Qiang; Ilicak, Mehmet; Gerdes, Ruediger; Drange, Helge; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Bailey, David A.; Bentsen, Mats; Biastoch, Arne; Bozec, Alexandra; Boening, Claus; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Curry, Beth; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Danilov, Sergey; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Iovino, Doroteaciro; Jahn, Alexandra; Jung, Thomas; Large, William G.; Lee, Craig; Lique, Camille; Lu, Jianhua; Masina, Simona; Nurser, A. J. George; Rabe, Benjamin; Roth, Christina; Salas Y Melia, David; Samuels, Bonita L.; Spence, Paul; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Xuezhu; Yeager, Steve G..
The Arctic Ocean simulated in 14 global ocean-sea ice models in the framework of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments, phase II (CORE-II) is analyzed in this study. The focus is on the Arctic liquid freshwater (FW) sources and freshwater content (FWC). The models agree on the interannual variability of liquid FW transport at the gateways where the ocean volume transport determines the FW transport variability. The variation of liquid FWC is induced by both the surface FW flux (associated with sea ice production) and lateral liquid FW transport, which are in phase when averaged on decadal time scales. The liquid FWC shows an increase starting from the mid-1990s, caused by the reduction of both sea ice formation and liquid FW export, with the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Arctic Ocean; Freshwater; Sea ice; CORE II atmospheric forcing.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00313/42463/41835.pdf
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An Ocean Theme for the IGOS Partnership OceanDocs
The Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P) established, in 1999, a thematic approach to the implementation of the IGOS. Recognising that other themes will emerge, the “Ocean Theme” was chosen to be the “pathfinder” in this approach and an Ocean Theme Team was assembled to formulate guidance. One goal of the Ocean Theme Team is to consider and study the full range of current and planned observations, while identifying potential gaps in future observations that might compromise ocean observational records. This document presents a proposed set of long-term ocean observations and identifies a number of challenges for the improvement of knowledge about both the oceans and observing techniques. The overall strategy is to create an observing...
Tipo: Proceedings Paper Palavras-chave: Oceanography; Surface temperature; Wind vectors; Sea ice; Salinity; Salinity; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_6751.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/2631
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An Ocean Theme for the IGOS Partnership OceanDocs
The Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P) established, in 1999, a thematic approach to the implementation of the IGOS. Recognising that other themes will emerge, the “Ocean Theme” was chosen to be the “pathfinder” in this approach and an Ocean Theme Team was assembled to formulate guidance. One goal of the Ocean Theme Team is to consider and study the full range of current and planned observations, while identifying potential gaps in future observations that might compromise ocean observational records. This document presents a proposed set of long-term ocean observations and identifies a number of challenges for the improvement of knowledge about both the oceans and observing techniques. The overall strategy is to create an observing...
Tipo: Conference Material Palavras-chave: Oceanography; Wind vectors; Surface temperature; Sea ice.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/2810
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Antarctic icebergs melt over the Southern Ocean : climatology and impact on sea ice ArchiMer
Merino, Nacho; Le Sommer, Julien; Durand, Gael; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Madec, Gurvan; Mathiot, Pierre; Tournadre, Jean.
Recent increase in Antarctic freshwater release to the Southern Ocean is suggested to contribute to change in water masses and sea ice. However, climate models differ in their representation of the freshwater sources. Recent improvements in altimetry-based detection of small icebergs and in estimates of the mass loss of Antarctica may help better constrain the values of Antarctic freshwater releases. We propose a model-based seasonal climatology of iceberg melt over the Southern Ocean using state-of-the-art observed glaciological estimates of the Antarctic mass loss. An improved version of a Lagrangian iceberg model is coupled with a global, eddy-permitting ocean/sea ice model and compared to small icebergs observations. Iceberg melt increases sea ice...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Icebergs; Southern Ocean; Sea ice; Freshwater fluxes.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00335/44579/44294.pdf
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Antarctic Sea Ice Proxies from Marine and Ice Core Archives Suitable for Reconstructing Sea Ice over the past 2000 Years ArchiMer
Thomas, Elizabeh R; Allen, Claire S; Etourneau, Johan; King, Amy Cf; Severi, Mirko; Winton, V. Holly L.; Mueller, Juliane; Crosta, Xavier; Peck, Victoria L..
Dramatic changes in sea ice have been observed in both poles in recent decades. However, the observational period for sea ice is short, and the climate models tasked with predicting future change in sea ice struggle to capture the current Antarctic trends. Paleoclimate archives, from marine sedimentary records and coastal Antarctic ice cores, provide a means of understanding sea ice variability and its drivers over decadal to centennial timescales. In this study, we collate published records of Antarctic sea ice over the past 2000 years (2 ka). We evaluate the current proxies and explore the potential of combining marine and ice core records to produce multi-archive reconstructions. Despite identifying 92 sea ice reconstructions, the spatial and temporal...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Sea ice; Antarctica; Paleoclimate; Ice cores; Marine sediments.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00595/70709/68916.pdf
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Arctic Ocean response to Greenland Sea wind anomalies in a suite of model simulations ArchiMer
Muilwijk, Morven; Ilicak, Mehmet; Cornish, Sam B.; Danilov, Sergey; Gelderloos, Renske; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Haid, Verena; Haine, Thomas W.n.; Johnson, Helen L.; Kostov, Yavor; Kovács, Tamás; Lique, Camille; Marson, Juliana M.; Myers, Paul G.; Scott, Jon; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Talandier, Claude; Wang, Qiang.
Multi‐model Arctic Ocean ``Climate Response Function” (CRF) experiments are analyzed in order to explore the effects of anomalous wind forcing over the Greenland Sea (GS) on poleward ocean heat transport, Atlantic Water (AW) pathways, and the extent of Arctic sea ice. Particular emphasis is placed on the sensitivity of the AW circulation to anomalously strong or weak GS winds in relation to natural variability, the latter manifested as part of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). We find that anomalously strong (weak) GS wind forcing, comparable in strength to a strong positive (negative) NAO index, results in an intensification (weakening) of the poleward AW flow, extending from south of the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre, through the Nordic Seas, and all...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Arctic Ocean; Atlantic Water; Sea ice; Wind forcing; Model intercomparison; FAMOS.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00510/62126/66338.pdf
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ASCAT/MetOp scatterometer data : first results for sea ice study ArchiMer
Ardhuin, Fanny; Ezraty, Robert; Croize-fillon, Denis.
Backscatter values from scatterometers are commonly used to estimate wind field over oceans, their ability to monitor sea ice coverage, age and drift has been also demonstrated. Here, ASCAT backscatter coefficient has been processed for sea ice geophysical interpretation in order to increase the long time series of ice parameters already available. It has been shown that incidence- adjustment is mandatory for geophysical meaning, the backscatter maps enable the discrimination between multi year ice and first year ice, these maps can also be used as a basic product for sea ice drift estimation. (Copyright : European Space Agency ISBN 978-92-9221-239-1 ISSN 1609-042X)
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Sea ice; Wind; Scatterometer; ASCAT; MetOp; Glaces de mer; Vent; Diffusiomètre; ASCAT; MetOp.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/acte-6970.pdf
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Caracterización de la temperatura superficial del mar en los sitios de visita turística de la Reserva Marina de Galápagos OceanDocs
Ortega, J.; Jara, V.; Alvarez, M.; Rentería, W..
El presente estudio consiste en un análisis descriptivo de los parámetros físicos (temperatura-salinidad) y corrientes superficiales y sub-superficiales, obtenidos en los sitios de visita turística de la Reserva Marina de Galápagos (RMG), los cuales describen las condiciones oceanográficas de dichos lugares. Estos datos han sido procesados con el propósito de establecer una caracterización de la temperatura superficial del mar en estos sitios, y sus variaciones a lo largo del 2011. Esta caracterización será soportada con el uso de los datos del Análisis Operacional de Temperatura Superficial del Mar y de Hielo Marino (UKMO-L4HRfnd-GLOB-OSTIA) a fin de conseguir una continuidad en la serie de tiempo anual.
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Temperature; Salinity; Surface temperature; Sea ice; Marine parks; Surface currents currents.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/4658
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Chemical characterization of exopolysaccharides from Antarctic marine bacteria ArchiMer
Nichols, Carol; Lardiere, Sandrine; Bowman, John; Nichols, Peter; Gibson, John; Guezennec, Jean.
Exopolysaccharides (EPS) may have an important role in the Antarctic marine environment, possibly acting as ligands for trace metal nutrients such as iron or providing cryoprotection for growth at low temperature and high salinity. Ten bacterial strains, isolated from Southern Ocean particulate material or from sea ice, were characterized. Whole cell fatty acid profiles and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates included representatives of the genera Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, Polaribacter, and Flavobacterium as well as one strain, which constituted a new bacterial genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae. The isolates are, therefore, members of the "Gammaproteobacteria" and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides, the taxonomic groups that have been...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marine particulates; Sea ice; Marine bacteria; Antarctica; Exopolysaccharides.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/publication-623.pdf
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Defining a Sea Ice Flag for Envisat Altimetry Mission ArchiMer
Tran, N; Ardhuin, Fanny; Ezraty, Robert; Feng, H; Femenias, P.
This letter presents the development of a sea ice flag algorithm for the Envisat altimetry mission to detect sea ice corrupted sea surface height data within quality control processing. The algorithm takes advantage of having both passive and active microwave sensors on the same platform with coregistered measurements. Its performances have been evaluated based on collocations between the along-track Envisat data with reference maps built from combination of daily grids of sea ice concentration from SSM/I sensors and backscatter cross section from SeaWinds scatterometer on QuikSCAT satellite.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Sea ice; Remote sensing; Microwave measurements; Altimetry.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-5289.pdf
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Effects of incubation temperature on growth and production of exopolysaccharides by an Antarctic sea ice bacterium grown in batch culture ArchiMer
Nichols, Carol; Bowman, John; Guezennec, Jean.
The sea ice microbial community plays a key role in the productivity of the Southern Ocean. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) is a major component of the exopolymer secreted by many marine bacteria to enhance survival and is abundant in sea ice brine channels, but little is known about its function there. This study investigated the effects of temperature on EPS production in batch culture by CAM025, a marine bacterium isolated from sea ice sampled from the Southern Ocean. Previous studies have shown that CAM025 is a member of the genus Pseudoalteromonas and therefore belongs to a group found to be abundant in sea ice by culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Batch cultures were grown at -2 degrees C, 10 degrees C, and 20 degrees C, and cell number, optical...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: EPS yield; Psychrotolerant; Sea ice; Marine bacteria; Antarctica; Exopolymer; Exopolysaccharides.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/publication-625.pdf
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Emerging trends in the sea state of the Beaufort and Chukchi seas ArchiMer
Thomson, Jim; Fan, Yalin; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Stopa, Justin; Erick Rogers, W.; Girard-ardhuin, Fanny; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Shen, Hayley; Perrie, Will; Shen, Hui; Ackley, Steve; Babanin, Alex; Liu, Qingxiang; Guest, Peter; Maksym, Ted; Wadhams, Peter; Fairall, Chris; Persson, Ola; Doble, Martin; Graber, Hans; Lund, Bjoern; Squire, Vernon; Gemmrich, Johannes; Lehner, Susanne; Holt, Benjamin; Meylan, Mike; Brozena, John; Bidlot, Jean-raymond.
The sea state of the Beaufort and Chukchi seas is controlled by the wind forcing and the amount of ice-free water available to generate surface waves. Clear trends in the annual duration of the open water season and in the extent of the seasonal sea ice minimum suggest that the sea state should be increasing, independent of changes in the wind forcing. Wave model hindcasts from four selected years spanning recent conditions are consistent with this expectation. In particular, larger waves are more common in years with less summer sea ice and/or a longer open water season, and peak wave periods are generally longer. The increase in wave energy may affect both the coastal zones and the remaining summer ice pack, as well as delay the autumn ice-edge advance....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Sea ice; Arctic Ocean; Ocean surface waves.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00345/45590/45202.pdf
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Enhanced Arctic Sea Ice Drift Estimation Merging Radiometer and Scatterometer Data ArchiMer
Ardhuin, Fanny; Ezraty, Robert.
Satellites enable daily and global coverage of the polar oceans and provide a unique monitoring capability of sea ice dynamics. Sea ice drift maps can be estimated in Arctic from several satellite sensors, particularly from scatterometers and radiometers. This study presents the benefits of combining single drift fields at the same resolution into a "merged" field, built at three-and six-day lags during winters with a 62.5-km resolution. It is shown that combining these drift fields not only increases the reliability of the displacement estimation and the number of estimated vectors to almost a full ice covered area but also expands the time period over which these estimations are reliable from freeze until the melt onset. The autumn-winter-spring sea ice...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Arctic; Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT); Drift; Merging; Scatterometry; Sea ice.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00088/19895/17729.pdf
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Estimates of ocean wave heights and attenuation in sea ice using the SAR wave mode on Sentinel-1A ArchiMer
Ardhuin, Fabrice; Collard, Fabrice; Chapron, Bertrand; Ardhuin, Fanny; Guitton, Gilles; Mouche, Alexis; Stopa, Justin.
Swell evolution from the open ocean into sea ice is poorly understood, in particular the amplitude attenuation expected from scattering and dissipation. New synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from Sentinel-1A wave mode reveal intriguing patterns of bright oscillating lines shaped like instant noodles. We investigate cases in which the oscillations are in the azimuth direction, around a straight line in the range direction. This observation is interpreted as the distortion by the SAR processing of crests from a first swell, due to the presence of a second swell. Since deviations from a straight line should be proportional to the orbital velocity toward the satellite, swell height can be estimated, from 1.5 to 5 m in the present case. The evolution of this...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ocean waves; SAR; Sea ice.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00256/36718/35332.pdf
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Etude de l'impact des icebergs Antarctiques sur l'Océan Austral ArchiMer
Bouhier, Nicolas.
The Antarctic polar ice cap constrains a freshwater flaux into the Austral Ocean through two equally important pathways : a localized and immediate injection through the melting of ice-shelves bases, and a delayed offshore injection through the calving and subsequent melt of icebergs. Some studies reckon that melting icebergs have the capacity to alter the hydrological and biogeo-chemical characteristics of the water column. The numerical models trying to evaluate this impact have shown contrasting results. Yet, they might suffer from a poor representation of the icebergs, namely due to our limited knowledge on both the spatial and size distributions of the icebergs, or even the processes involved in their mass loss. A new method using satellite altimetry...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ntarctique; Calotte polaire; Plate-forme glaciaire; Océan austral; Flux d’eau douce; Télédétection; Banquise; Fonte; Fracturation; Distribution de taille; Antarctica; Ice cap; Ice shelf; Southern Ocean; Iceberg; Freshwater flux; Remote sensing; Sea ice; Melting; Fragmentation; Fracturing; Size distribution.
Ano: 2017 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00497/60905/64253.pdf
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Etude des échanges entre l’Océan Arctique et l’Atlantique Nord : Origine, Variabilité et Impact sur les mers Nordiques ArchiMer
Lique, Camille.
While perhaps the most obvious, ice retreat is just one aspect of a changing Arctic system. The Arctic Ocean is also undergoing unprecedented modifications, that mostly affect its heat and freshwater budgets. As the signal of Arctic change is expected to have its major climatic impact by reaching south the subarctic seas, on either side of Greenland, to modulate the Atlantic thermohaline circulation, the objective of this thesis is to investigate the variability of the exports of volume, heat, freshwater and sea-ice from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic. First, a realistic simulation from 1958 to 2002 run with a global ocean/sea-ice model is used to investigate some aspects of the variability of the Arctic freshwater budget, trying to understand...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Océan Arctique; Bilan d'eau douce; Flux d'eau douce; Glace de mer; Modèle numérique - Analyse Lagrangienne - Forçages atmosphériques; Arctic Ocean; Freshwater budget; Freshwater flux; Sea ice; Numerical model; Lagrangian analysis; Atmospheric forcing.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00015/12597/9474.pdf
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GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission Concept ArchiMer
Cardellach, Estel; Wickert, Jens; Baggen, Rens; Benito, Javier; Camps, Adriano; Catarino, Nuno; Chapron, Bertrand; Dielacher, Andreas; Fabra, Fran; Flato, Greg; Fragner, Heinrich; Gabarro, Carolina; Gommenginger, Christine; Haas, Christian; Healy, Sean; Hernandez-pajares, Manuel; Hoeg, Per; Jaggi, Adrian; Kainulainen, Juha; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Lemke, Norbert M. K.; Li, Weiqiang; Nghiem, Son V.; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Portabella, Marcos; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Rius, Antonio; Sasgen, Ingo; Semmling, Maximilian; Shum, C. K.; Soulat, Francois; Steiner, Andrea K.; Tailhades, Sebastien; Thomas, Maik; Vilaseca, Roger; Zuffada, Cinzia.
The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg system (G-TERN) was proposed in response to ESA's Earth Explorer 9 revised call by a team of 33 multi-disciplinary scientists. The primary objective of the mission is to quantify at high spatio-temporal resolution crucial characteristics, processes and interactions between sea ice, and other Earth system components in order to advance the understanding and prediction of climate change and its impacts on the environment and society. The objective is articulated through three key questions. 1) In a rapidly changing Arctic regime and under the resilient Antarctic sea ice trend, how will highly dynamic forcings and couplings between the various components of the ocean,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Polar science; GNSS; Reflectometry; GNSS-R; Sea ice; Altimetry; Polarimetry; Radio-occultation; Low Earth Orbiter.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00438/54994/56411.pdf
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Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) analysis fields inter-comparisons-Part 2: Near real time web-based level 4 SST Quality Monitor (L4-SQUAM) ArchiMer
Dash, Prasanjit; Ignatov, Alexander; Martin, Matthew; Donlon, Craig; Brasnett, Bruce; Reynolds, Richard W.; Banzon, Viva; Beggs, Helen; Cayula, Jean-francois; Chao, Yi; Grumbine, Robert; Maturi, Eileen; Harris, Andy; Mittaz, Jonathan; Sapper, John; Chin, Toshio M.; Vazquez-cuervo, Jorge; Armstrong, Edward M.; Gentemann, Chelle; Cummings, James; Piolle, Jean-francois; Autret, Emmanuelle; Roberts-jones, Jonah; Ishizaki, Shiro; Hoyer, Jacob L.; Poulter, Dave.
There are a growing number of level 4 (L4; gap-free gridded) sea surface temperature (SST) products generated by blending SST data from various sources which are available for use in a wide variety of operational and scientific applications. In most cases, each product has been developed for a specific user community with specific requirements guiding the design of the product. Consequently differences between products are implicit. In addition, anomalous atmospheric conditions, satellite operations and production anomalies may occur which can introduce additional differences. This paper describes a new web-based system called the L4 SST Quality Monitor (L4-SQUAM) developed to monitor the quality of L4 SST products. L4-SQUAM intercompares thirteen L4...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Sea surface temperature; Intercomparison; Climate data; Sea ice; Data centers.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00101/21188/19798.pdf
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Influence of snow depth and surface flooding on light transmission through Antarctic pack ice ArchiMer
Arndt, Stefanie; Meiners, Klaus M.; Ricker, Robert; Krumpen, Thomas; Katlein, Christian; Nicolaus, Marcel.
Snow on sea ice alters the properties of the underlying ice cover as well as associated physical and biological processes at the interfaces between atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean. The Antarctic snow cover persists during most of the year and contributes significantly to the sea-ice mass due to the widespread surface flooding and related snow-ice formation. Snow also enhances the sea-ice surface reflectivity of incoming shortwave radiation and determines therefore the amount of light being reflected, absorbed, and transmitted to the upper ocean. Here, we present results of a case study of spectral solar radiation measurements under Antarctic pack ice with an instrumented Remotely Operated Vehicle in the Weddell Sea in 2013. In order to identify the key...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Light transmittance; Sea ice; Antarctic; Surface flooding; Snow; Shortwave radiation.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00386/49758/50279.pdf
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