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Registros recuperados: 26
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Adaptive Analysis of Locally Complex Systems in a Globally Complex World Ecology and Society
Lynam, Timothy; Tropical Resource Ecology Program, University of Zimbabwe; tlynam@science.uz.ac.zw.
Zambezi Valley agro-ecosystems are environmentally, economically, and institutionally variable. This variability means that it is not possible to measure everything necessary to develop a predictive understanding of them. In particular, because people and their environments are constantly changing, what was measured yesterday may change by tomorrow. Here, I describe elements of the approach that I have developed to address this problem. Called DAAWN, for Detail as and When Needed, the approach advocates an iterative and multiscaled methodology in which we first capture as broad an understanding of the system as possible and then use awareness developed at this scale to identify where to focus subsequent, more detailed, investigations. Because we cannot...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Comples adaptive systems; Household and resource economics; Livelihood strategies; Modeling; Multi-agent simulation models; Natural resource use; Participatory systems analysis; Southern Africa; Spidergrams.
Ano: 1999
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Agricultural Trade Flows among Developing Countries: Do Regional Preferential Trade Agreements make a Difference? AgEcon
Tembo, Gelson; Jayne, Thomas S..
Regional integration through trade is recognized as one way to foster economic growth and poverty reduction. This paper uses the gravity model and 11-year panel data (1996-2006) on Southern African Development Community (SADC) member countries to study Zambia’s regional agricultural trade flows and the impact of the SADC Trade Protocol (SADC-TP). Zambia’s volume of trade is significantly related to most of the standard gravity variables. The results indicate that Zambia has been largely trading below potential, especially with respect to exports. There have been improvements in Zambia’s trade flows during the SADC-TP period but only with a few countries. Further improvements will require re-examining protocol implementation and individual countries’...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Southern Africa; Regional trade; Gravity analysis; Zambia; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C23; C51; F12; F14; F15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51733
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Anticipating and Responding to Drought Emergencies in Southern Africa: Lessons from the 2002-2003 Experience AgEcon
Tschirley, David L.; Nijhoff, Jan J.; Arlindo, Pedro; Mwiinga, Billy; Weber, Michael T.; Jayne, Thomas S..
This paper examines the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency response in southern Africa through the lens of the 2002/03 food crisis in the region. The authors outline improvements in information and operational procedures needed to enhance the response to future events. They also discuss national and regional trade regime changes that would reduce the need for emergency response, and consider what lessons the 2002/03 crisis may have for the role of Strategic Grain Reserves (SGRs).
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Drought; Emergency; Southern Africa; Food Security and Poverty; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54564
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Comparative reproductive anatomy in the South African giant land snails (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Achatinidae) Naturalis
Mead, A.R..
The history and current taxonomic status of 62 nominal taxa are revised that have been associated in the literature with the subgenus Tholachatina Bequaert, 1950, of genus Archachatina Albers, 1850, and the genus Cochlitoma Férussac, 1821, in the land snail family Achatinidae Swainson, 1840. Tangible, reliable characters have been found in the detailed features of the reproductive anatomy in this family. The results of comparative anatomical study convincingly reflect phylogeny in contrast to the comparative study of only the shell characters. This latter more strongly reflects the effects of the intrinsically variable environment over time. In the present study, both sets of characters are needed to refine identification. Change, and therefore...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Mollusca; Gastropoda; Pulmonata; Achatinidae; Biogeography; Taxonomy; Genital anatomy; Southern Africa; East Africa; 42.73.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/214451
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Delivering the Goods: Scaling out Results of Natural Resource Management Research Ecology and Society
Harrington, Larry; International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT); l.harrington@cgiar.org; White, Jeffrey; ; j.white@cgiar.org; Grace, Peter; Sinclair Knight Merz, Brisbane, Australia; pgrace@skm.com.au; Hodson, David; ; d.hodson@cgiar.org; Hartkamp, Agnes Dewi; Product Organisation Grains, Seeds and Pulses, The Hague, Netherlands; d.hartkamp@wisint.org; Vaughan, Christopher; CO MET Directorate of Environmental Affairs, Namibia; kit@africaonline.com.na; Meisner, Craig; ; cmeisner@bttb.net.bd.
To help integrated natural resource management (INRM) research "deliver the goods" for many of the world's poor over a large area and in a timely manner, the authors suggest a problem-solving approach that facilitates the scaling out of relevant agricultural practices. They propose seven ways to foster scaling out: (1) develop more attractive practices and technologies through participatory research (2) balance supply-driven approaches with resource user demands, (3) use feedback to redefine the research agenda, (4) encourage support groups and networks for information sharing, (5) facilitate negotiation among stakeholders, (6) inform policy change and institutional development, and (7) make sensible use of information management tools, including models...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Mexico; South Asia; Southern Africa; Conservation tillage; Diffusion of research; Environments; Geographic information systems; Natural resource management; Participatory research; Scaling out; Simulation models; Technology transfer.
Ano: 2001
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Dynamics of the restructuring fresh produce food markets in the southern African region AgEcon
Louw, Andre; Chikazunga, Davison; Haankuku, Choolwe; Ndanga, Leah Z.B..
Agri-food markets are restructuring, characterised by an increased consolidation and concentration of the industry, as supermarkets continue to expand at an exponential rate throughout the region. Unlike the global phenomenon where the formal markets are replacing informal markets, this is not so in the region. The informal sector is also expanding characterised by a significant level of restructuring. The major supermarkets have restructured their procurement strategies through the introduction of private standards, centralised procurement systems and distribution centres. Despite the increase in agri-food commodities emanating from the expansion of the retail sector, there have been little or no opportunities for smallholder farmers. The restructuring...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Fresh produce; Restructuring markets; Southern Africa; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Marketing.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51638
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Evaluating Responses in Complex Adaptive Systems: Insights on Water Management from the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) Ecology and Society
Bohensky, Erin; University of Pretoria; ebohensky@zoology.up.ac.za; Lynam, Timothy; University of Zimbabwe; tlynam@science.uz.ac.zw.
Ecosystem services are embedded in complex adaptive systems. These systems are riddled with nonlinearities, uncertainties, and surprises, and are made increasingly complex by the many human responses to problems or changes arising within them. In this paper we attempt to determine whether there are certain factors that characterize effective responses in complex systems. We construct a framework for response evaluation with three interconnected scopes or spatial and temporal domains: the scope of an impact, the scope of the awareness of the impact, and the scope of the power or influence to respond. Drawing from the experience of the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA), we explore the applicability of this framework to the example of...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Responses; Complex adaptive systems; Ecosystem services; Southern Africa; Water management; Impact; Awareness; Power.
Ano: 2005
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Food Crises and Food Markets: Implications for Emergency Response in Southern Africa. AgEcon
Tschirley, David L.; Jayne, Thomas S..
Concern about humanitarian crises in southern Africa, especially in light of the surge in world food prices since 2007, has been accompanied by calls for direct government action in food markets. This paper reviews how Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique handled private food markets during the food crises of 2001/02, 2002/03, and 2005/06, which may provide important lessons for the management of future crises. Lack of trust between government and traders can lead to behavior that undermines the interests of each and harms consumers and farmers; Malawi and Zambia have persistently fallen into this trap while Mozambique has partially avoided it. Empirical policy analysis can make an important contribution to resolution only within a consultative process involving...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Southern Africa; Malawi; Mozambique; Zambia; Markets; Emergency response; Trust; Food Security and Poverty; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54559
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How Can Safety Nets Do More with Less? General Issues with Some Evidence from Southern Africa AgEcon
Haddad, Lawrence James; Zeller, Manfred.
This paper reviews design features by which safety nets might do more with less. It reviews the current evidence on their success in practice–including three brief reviews of southern Africa experience–and suggests a role for future policy research in furthering the goal of designing safety nets that reduce poverty in a cost-effective way. In doing so, the paper highlights a tension between the large gaps in our knowledge about the design of safety nets and the demand for short-run answers in this area.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Southern Africa; Welfare Economics; Safety Nets; Research; Poverty Alleviation; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97304
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Labor requirements and profitability of alternative soil fertility replenishment technologies in Zambia AgEcon
Ajayi, Olu Clifford; Akinnifesi, Festus K..
Low soil fertility is a major concern in agricultural productivity and development policy discourse in sub-saharan Africa. The problem is exacerbated by government withdrawal from fertilizer input markets and the inability of private sector operators to fill the gap. This warranted a search for other nutrient sources to supplement chemical fertilizers. Based on field data collected in Zambia, this study assessed the labor inputs implications of “improved tree fallows”, continuous maize cropping with and without mineral fertilizer and, evaluated the financial profitability of the different land use systems. Results show that agroforestry-based land use systems are more profitable (NPV between $233 and $309 per ha) than farmers’ practice of continuous maize...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agroforestry; Improved tree fallows; Financial analysis; Production economics; Southern Africa; Sustainable agriculture; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52185
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Learning from the 2002/03 Food Crisis in Southern Africa: Lessons for the Current Year AgEcon
Tschirley, David L.; Arlindo, Pedro; Nijhoff, Jan J.; Mwiinga, Billy; Weber, Michael T.; Jayne, Thomas S..
Research Results of SIMA (Market Information ) DEST (Statistics Department)t and DAP (Policy Analysis Department) of MINAG (the Ministry of Agriculture of Mozambique), Directorate of Economics
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Food crisis; Southern Africa; Trade; Food Security and Poverty; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55250
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<i>Namibnema papillata</i> gen. et sp. n. and <i>Axonolaimus deconincki</i> sp. n. (Nematoda, Axonolaimoidea) from marine and estuarine beaches of southern Africa OMA
Vincx, M.; Furstenberg, J.P..
<i>Namibnema papillata</i> gen. et sp.n. is closely related to <i>Nicascolaimus punctatus</i> Riemann, 1986. The presence of twelve stomatal rugae, the punctated cuticle and the shape of the pre-anal supplements indicate a relationship with species of the Chromadorina. <i>Axonolaimus deconincki</i> sp.n. is characterized by the complex nature of the gubernaculum.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Namibnema papillata Nicascolaimus punctatus Africa; Southern Africa.
Ano: 1989 URL: http://www.vliz.be/nl/open-marien-archief?module=ref&refid=7102
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Methods for Developing Multiscale Participatory Scenarios: Insights from Southern Africa and Europe Ecology and Society
Kok, Kasper; Wageningen University; Kasper.Kok@wur.nl; Biggs, Reinette (Oonsie); Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR); University of Wisconsin; biggs@wisc.edu; Zurek, Monika; Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); zurek@fao.org.
Scenario planning is increasingly recognized as a useful tool for exploring change in social-ecological systems on decadal to centennial time horizons. In environmental decision making, scenario development tends to include participatory methods for engaging stakeholders and is conducted at multiple scales. This paper presents insights from participatory scenario development in two separate multiscale environmental assessments. We find that, to engage stakeholders at multiple scales, it is important that the issues explored at each scale be relevant and credible to stakeholders at that scale. An important trade-off exists between maintaining relevance to stakeholders at different scales and maintaining consistency across scales to allow for comparison of...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Mediterranean; Multiscale scenario; Participation; Scale; Scenario; Southern Africa.
Ano: 2007
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Micro-Level Analysis of Farmers’ Adaptation to Climate Change in Southern Africa AgEcon
Nhemachena, Charles; Hassan, Rashid M..
Adaptation to climate change involves changes in agricultural management practices in response to changes in climate conditions. It often involves a combination of various individual responses at the farm-level and assumes that farmers have access to alternative practices and technologies available in the region. This study examines farmer adaptation strategies to climate change in Southern Africa based on a cross-section database of three countries (South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe) collected as part of the Global Environment Facility/World Bank (GEF/WB) Climate Change and African Agriculture Project. The study describes farmer perceptions to changes in long-term temperature and precipitation as well as various farm-level adaptation measures and barriers...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Adaptation; Southern Africa; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42399
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New species of Maerua (Capparaceae) from Angola Naturalis
Abreu, J.A.; Martins, E.S.; Catarino, L..
Genus Maerua has around 60 species represented on the African continent, of which three have been reported for Angola. Two new species of Maerua (Capparaceae) from Angola are here described. Both are closely similar to M. juncea subsp. juncea, being distinguished by floral traits such as the receptacle, androphore and gynophore (M. pintobastoae) or leaf traits such as venation, as well as size and shape of the ovary and disc shape (M. mendesii). A key for Maerua species occurring in Angola is provided, as well as a table summarizing and comparing the morphological characters for the new species and similar African species. With the description of these two new species, the genus Maerua comprises five species in Angola. Resumo O género Maerua tem cerca de...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Angola; Capparaceae; Endemism; Maerua; Southern Africa; Taxonomy.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/526215
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Pathogens, disease, and the social-ecological resilience of protected areas Ecology and Society
De Vos, Alta; Percy FitzPatrick Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Rhodes University, South Africa; a.devos@ru.ac.za; Cumming, Graeme S.; Percy FitzPatrick Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; ARC Centre of Excellence in Coral Reef Studies, Townsville, Queensland, Australia; graeme.cumming@jcu.edu.au; Cumming, David H. M.; Percy FitzPatrick Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Tropical Resource Ecology Programme, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; cumming@icon.co.zw; Ament, Judith M.; Percy FitzPatrick Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; judith.ament@uct.ac.za; Baum, Julia; Percy FitzPatrick Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; jubaum5@gmail.com; Clements, Hayley S; Percy FitzPatrick Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; clementshayley@gmail.com; Grewar, John D; Western Cape Government, Department of Agriculture, Elsenburg, South Africa; JohnG@elsenburg.com; Maciejewski, Kristine; Percy FitzPatrick Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Krismacski@gmail.com; Moore, Christine; Percy FitzPatrick Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, UK; christine.moore@ouce.ox.ac.uk.
It is extremely important for biodiversity conservation that protected areas are resilient to a range of potential future perturbations. One of the least studied influences on protected area resilience is that of disease. We argue that wildlife disease (1) is a social-ecological problem that must be approached from an interdisciplinary perspective; (2) has the potential to lead to changes in the identity of protected areas, possibly transforming them; and (3) interacts with conservation both directly (via impacts on wild animals, livestock, and people) and indirectly (via the public, conservation management, and veterinary responses). We use southern African protected areas as a case study to test a framework for exploring the connections between...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Disease; Identity; Pathogens; Protected areas; Resilience; Social-ecological systems; Southern Africa.
Ano: 2016
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Poverty in Malawi, 1998 AgEcon
Benson, Todd; Machinijili, Charles; Kachikopa, Lawrence.
This paper presents the poverty analysis of the 1997-98 Malawi Integrated Household Survey. The analysis developed basic needs poverty lines, using consumption-based measures of welfare to classify households and individuals as poor and nonpoor. Because consumption data were not of uniform quality across sample households, the analysis made adjustments to derive a more accurate assessment of the incidence of poverty across the country. The analysis provides poverty and inequality estimates for Malawi's population. About 65 percent were unable to meet their basic needs, and poverty was deep and pervasive. The distribution of household welfare was closely examined within the context of the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy to guide government action in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Southern Africa; Africa South of Sahara; Poverty; Poverty Analysis; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60940
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Regional Cooperation to Improve Food Security in Southern and Eastern African Countries AgEcon
Koester, Ulrich.
Success in ensuring a continuous, adequate supply of food is one of the most important bases on which governments of low-income countries are judged by their people. This is because downward fluctuations in food supplies wreak great privation on low-income people and redistribute real income away from them. In view of this, the International Food Trade and Food Security Program at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) has undertaken a series of studies of food supply management in developing countries. Among the policies considered have been schemes to compensate for fluctuations in food production and supply and in foreign exchange availability at the national, regional, and international levels. IFPRI's studies of food management...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food supply; Southern Africa; Tanzania; Economic integration; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42175
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Revision of the family Dipterocarpaceae in Angola Naturalis
Catarino, L.; Martins, E.S.; Abreu, J.A.; Figueira, R..
The diversity of Dipterocarpaceae in Angola is updated to 24 taxa, two species of Marquesia and 22 species and subspecies of Monotes. A new species is described and four new records (three species and one subspecies) are added to the Flora of Angola. The new species, Monotes paivae, occurs in the province of Bié, central Angola. Its diagnostic characters are a persistent indumentum on the entire upper surface of leaves and a woollytomentose indumentum in the lower surface of adult leaves. A key to the species and the respective descriptions is presented. The species of Monotes endemic in the country are mapped and their conservation status is discussed.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Dipterocarpaceae; Endemism; Marquesia; Monotes; New species; Southern Africa; Taxonomy.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/525571
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Rural Growth Linkages in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa AgEcon
Ngqangweni, Simphiwe.
This report addresses the impact of rising smallholder incomes on local nonagricultural development in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. It determines how increased rural incomes are spent on a mix of goods and services, and debates the implications of these spending patterns for growth in rural areas through the alleviation of demand constraints. These results make it possible to identify areas of intervention necessary for sustaining growth originating from stimulus to tradable agriculture from economic reforms. This report thus contributes to an emerging literature on the possible impact of promoting smallholder agriculture in South Africa on rural livelihoods.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Income; Agricultural development; Southern Africa; Consumer behavior; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97391
Registros recuperados: 26
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