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Registros recuperados: 26
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Agricultural Trade Preferences and the Developing Countries AgEcon
Wainio, John; Shapouri, Shahla; Trueblood, Michael A.; Gibson, Paul R..
Nonreciprocal trade preference programs originated in the 1970s under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) as an effort by high-income developed countries to provide tariff concessions for low-income countries. The goal of the programs was to increase export earnings, promote industrialization, and stimulate economic growth in the lower income countries. This study analyzes detailed trade and tariff data for the United States and the European Union (the two largest nonreciprocal preference donors) to determine the extent to which the programs have increased exports from beneficiary countries. For those products where the margins of preference are large and where beneficiaries have a comparative advantage and the capacity to expand production, these...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Tariff; Agricultural trade; Preferences; Least developed countries; Market access; World Trade Organization; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7258
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An analysis of trade related international regulations of genetically modified food and their effects on developing countries AgEcon
Gruere, Guillaume P..
This paper reviews current trade-related regulations of genetically modified (GM) food and discusses their effects on developing countries. There is a large heterogeneity in current import approval and marketing policies of GM food worldwide. At the international level, the harmonization efforts are led by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the World Trade Organization. While internationally harmonized guidelines for safety approval have been finalized, we show that there is no clear consensus on labeling regulations for GM food, and there is an increasing risk of conflicts among international agreements. We analyze the GM food regulations of two large rich importers, Japan and the European Union (EU) and discuss...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Genetically modified food; Developing countries; Biotechnology; Biosafety; Trade regulation; Labeling; International trade; Tariff; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55422
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DETERMINAÇÃO DA TARIFA DE REUSO DE ÁGUA NO DISTRITO INDUSTRIAL DE FORTALEZA SOB A ÓTICA DO CUSTO MARGINAL DE LONGO PRAZO E DO MÉTODO DE AVALIAÇÃO CONTINGENTE AgEcon
Fontenele, Raimundo Eduardo Silveira.
In the last years sanitation companies have restrained their investments, not just due to the fact that the necessary resources of the sector exceed by far the classic possibilities of the national budgets financing, but also due to the fact that the traditional solution of external financings have their restrictions. It is also observed that the charges of tariffs, not considering the cost of the services done, have caused imbalances which also represent subsidized allocation of resources, mainly to private sector. From the application of two distinct methodologies - the long-term marginal cost and the contingent valuation method, this article has aimed to present tariff values to be charged from users of the Water Reuse of the Industrial District of...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Water reuse; Tariff; Long term marginal cost; Evaluation..
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43708
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Determinants of World Demand for U.S. Corn Seeds: The Role of Trade Costs AgEcon
Jayasinghe, Sampath; Beghin, John C.; Moschini, GianCarlo.
The United States is a large net exporter of corn seeds. Seed trade, including that of corn, has been expanding, but its determinants are not well understood. This paper econometrically investigates the determinants of world demand for U.S. corn seeds with a detailed analysis of trade costs impeding export flows to various markets, including costs associated with distance, tariffs, and sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) regulations. The analysis relies on a gravity-like model based on an explicit specification of derived demand for seed by foreign corn producers, estimated based on data from 48 countries and for the years 1989 to 2004. An SPS count variable is incorporated as a shifter in the unit cost of seeds faced by foreign users. A sample selection...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corn; Distance; Phytosanitary; Seeds; SPS; Tariff; Technical barriers; Trade cost.; Demand and Price Analysis; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46589
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ESTIMATIVA DA DEMANDA DE ÁGUA RESIDENCIAL URBANA NO ESTADO DO CEARÁ AgEcon
Fontenele, Raimundo Eduardo Silveira; Rosa, Antonio Lisboa Teles da; Nogueira, Claudio Andre Gondim.
This study determined a function demand for residential water. The data were stratified by geographic areas according to the level of regularity of water supply to the households. Income, price, number of rooms and persons in the households were found to be the main variables influencing the level of water consumption. Differences between: i) households connected to the water and sewage systems and those connected only to the water system; ii) households with up to 20 m3 of water consumption and those with consumption between 20 and 50 m3 and finally those with consumption above 50 m3 were surveyed. The results of the residential water demand were, in general, statistically significant and the coefficients presented the expected sign. These results are...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Demand; Water; Tariff; Ceará; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90692
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Ethanol Trade between Brazil and the United States AgEcon
Devadoss, Stephen; Kuffel, Martin.
The United States has used tax credit and mandate to promote ethanol production. To offset the tax credit availed by the imported ethanol, the United States instituted an import tariff. This study ascertains the appropriate U.S. ethanol import tariff corresponding to the U.S. domestic policies by setting the policy-induced ethanol price equal to the free market price. The theoretical results from a horizontally-related ethanol-gasoline partial equilibrium model of three countries (the United States, Brazil, and the Rest of the World) show that the United States should provide an import subsidy rather than impose a tariff. The empirical results quantify that this import subsidy is $0.10, instead of a $0.57 import tariff, per gallon of ethanol.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ethanol imports; Mandate; Subsidy; Tariff; Tax credit; International Relations/Trade; F13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60889
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EU-China Agricultural Trade in Relation to China's WTO Membership AgEcon
Niemi, Jyrki S.; Huan-Niemi, Ellen.
China's trade with the world doubled after joining the WTO. This study attempts to identify and measure quantitatively the effects of changing economic environment and trade policies on China's global agricultural imports as well as imports from the EU. The approach is to model behavioral relationships in the agricultural trade between China and the EU by using annual trade data from 1986 to 2005. The results indicate that Chinese agricultural imports are relatively inelastic to absolute price changes, but relative price changes significantly affect the market shares of EU exports due to price competition. Trade liberalization in the form of tariff reductions is trivial in changing the quantity of China's agricultural imports from the EU. Rapid income...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: China; EU; WTO; Agricultural imports; Income; Tariff; Price; Model; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8163
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Habit Effects and Producer Welfare in the Fresh Vegetable Trade AgEcon
Ferrier, Peyton Michael; Zhen, Chen.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade; Vegetable; Free trade agreement; Tariff; Habits; NAFTA; Andean Trade Preference Act; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103286
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History of U.S. orange juice tariff AgEcon
Brown, Carolyn.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Tariff; Orange juice; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52886
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How Trade Politics Affect Invasive Species Control AgEcon
Margolis, Michael; Shogren, Jason F..
Trade has become the main mode of transport for many invasive species including diseases and agricultural pests. Most species are brought to their new homes unintentionally, which constitute a market failure rooted in international trade. Unless it is practical to drive invasion risk to zero, the external costs may justify a tariff. In this paper we analyze the political process likely to govern the formation of tariffs so justified, using a straightforward incorporation of an invasive species externality into Grossman and Helpman's well-known political economy model. We show our measure of disguised protectionism -the gap between the optimal tariff and that set in the equilibrium of the political economy game- is equal to the tariff that would be set if...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Invasive species; Protectionism; Tariff; Political economy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q17; Q56; Q57.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10770
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Impacts of the Doha Round on Korea's Agricultural Tariff Profile AgEcon
Lim, Song-Soo.
The purpose of this paper is to simulate the proposed modality in market access and estimate its potential impacts on Korea's tariff profile. By accommodating a tiered formula for tariff reduction, the modality attempts to harmonize tariffs across products and countries. When no flexibility in tariff cuts is taken into account, Korea would face up to 68 percent reduction in tariffs in an average term (the baseline). The provision of sensitive products in which the tariff cuts are allowed to deviate from the tiered formula by two-thirds at a maximum is likely to bring about 11 percentage points of maximum tariff saving effects compared with the baseline case. Besides, Korea would be able to maximize savings in tariff reductions by 25 percentage points by...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Tariff; Tiered formula; Modality; Market access; Doha Round; Korea; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45677
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Impacts of the European Union Tariff On the Florida Price for Grapefruit Juice AgEcon
Brown, Mark G..
GJ exports account for a major part of Florida as well as U.S. GJ sales, accounting for 41.5% and 36.9% of total Florida GJ sales in 2008-09 and 2009-10. The largest export market in many of the recent years has been the EU. The EU imposes a 12% ad valorem tariff on GJ imports, resulting in a higher price for GJ there and a lower volume demanded than would be expected otherwise. Based on the analysis of this study, it is estimated that removal of the EU tariff would result in increased sales of GJ in the EU, benefitting consumers in Europe, and a higher price for Florida growers. The Florida grower price and annual revenue were estimated to increase by $.06 per SSE gallon and $3.6 million, respectively, if the EU tariff were removed.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: European Union; Tariff; Grapefruit juice price; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/104336
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Income effects of alternative trade policy adjustments on Philippine rural households: a general equilibrium analysis AgEcon
Bautista, Romeo M.; Thomas, Marcelle.
Caption title. "October 1997"--Cover. Includes bibliographical references (leaf 11).
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Import quotas; Income distribution; Tariff; Trade liberalization; Philippines; Consumer/Household Economics; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97560
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Is the U.S. Import Tariff on Brazilian Ethanol Justifiable? AgEcon
Devadoss, Stephen; Kuffel, Martin.
The United States has used tax credits and mandates to promote ethanol production. To offset the tax credits received by imported ethanol, the United States instituted an import tariff. This study provides insights about the quantitative nature of a U.S. trade policy that would establish a free-market price for ethanol, given the U.S. ethanol mandate and tax credit. The theoretical results from a horizontally related ethanol-gasoline partial equilibrium model show that the United States should provide an import subsidy rather than impose a tariff. The empirical results quantify that this import subsidy is 9 cents, instead of a 57 cent import tariff, per gallon of ethanol.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Ethanol imports; Mandate; Subsidy; Tariff; Tax credit; International Relations/Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99107
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MARKET ACCESS FOR HIGH-VALUE FOODS AgEcon
Regmi, Anita; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Wainio, John; Vollrath, Thomas L.; Johnston, Paul V.; Kathuria, Nitin.
Market access remains a major impediment for expansion of global trade in high-value foods, particularly processed foods. Countries use tariffs and other measures that effectively stimulate imports of relatively unprocessed agricultural commodities at the expense of processed products. Tariff escalation, in which tariffs rise with the level of processing, discourages trade in high-value foods, and trade remedy measures, such as antidumping duties, are concentrated among high-value products. Globalization has provided countries with easier access to capital and technology needed to produce processed food, further affecting trade patterns and markets for high-value foods. A uniform cut in tariffs increases trade in high-value foods more than trade in raw...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food trade; Processed food; High-value foods; Tariff; Tariff escalation; Trade remedy measures; Sanitary and phytosanitary measures; Safeguard measures; Revealed comparative advantage; Trade complementarities; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33999
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MEASURING INEFFICIENCY IN THE PRESENCE OF AN EXPORT TAX, AN IMPORT TARIFF, AND A STATE TRADING ENTERPRISE AgEcon
Schmitz, Troy G..
Agricultural sales cooperative unions (ASCUs) in Turkey are heavily influenced by both domestic and international government policies. Both export taxes and import tariffs are used as policy tools to regulate cotton markets. Domestic price support programs, water subsidies, fertilizer subsidies, and credit subsidies have also been used as domestic policy tools. These types of subsidies are not uncommon among developing countries. This paper provides empirical estimates of the degree of economic inefficiency associated with government intervention in Turkish cotton markets. A two-region partial equilibrium model of cotton exports and imports is developed under the "small country assumption" to obtain empirical estimates of the deadweight welfare loss...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Export tax; Tariff; Agricultural policy; Turkey; Cotton; Agricultural cooperatives; Welfare; State trading enterprises; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15510
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Price Equivalent Impacts of the DDA in the Korean Raw-milk Market AgEcon
Jeon, Sang-Gon.
This study estimates the potential impacts of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) on the Korean raw-milk market. The DDA has not reached an agreement yet. Although there are different attitudes about several issues such as Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM), Sensitive Products (SP), and Tariff Rate Quota (TRQ) creation, WTO member countries have reached an agreement for major issues of the modalities in the DDA. Hence, this study estimates the impacts of the DDA that will finally reach an agreement sooner or later. For estimating the impacts of the DDA, this study makes a dairy trade model for the Korean dairy industry and measures the impacts of the DDA in terms of raw-milk price for fluid use incurred by further tariff cuts in the Korean dairy market by the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: DDA; Dairy; Milk; Tariff; Price equivalent; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90681
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Shipping the good beef out: EU trade liberalization to Mercosur exports AgEcon
Ramos, Maria Priscila; Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Salvatici, Luca.
The European Union tariff schedule includes a large number of specific and composite tariffs as well as many tariff-rate quotas (TRQs), which affect the composition of imports. By altering price ratios between products with different unit values, both can generate the typical Alchian-Allen ’shipping the good apples out’ effect in foreign countries’ exports to the EU. Different patterns of trade liberalization, either through tariff reduction or an expansion in preferential-access quotas, might have different consequences for producers and consumers because of changes in the composition of trade. We illustrate the issues at stake in the beef sector, focusing on Mercosur exports to the EU. We model import demand for different qualities in the presence of a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Mercosur; European Union; Quality; Trade; Tariff; Tariff-rate quota; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries; F13; F15; F17; Q17.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7215
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The effect of tariffs in markets with vertical restraints AgEcon
Fargeix, Andre; Perloff, Jeffrey M..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Competition; Economics; Equilibrium; Marketing; Mathematical models; Monopolies; Tariff; Welfare economics; Marketing; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1987 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47040
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THE EXPECTED COST OF AN INCOME SUPPORT PROGRAM FOR PROCESSING ORANGES AgEcon
Weldon, Richard N.; VanSickle, John J..
The Florida citrus industry operates in a competitive global market. However, unlike program crops, producers in this industry do not benefit from direct income support under the new Farm Bill. There is concern about the impact of elimination of the orange juice tariff on the financial health of the Florida orange industry. The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of government expenditure that would be needed to provide income support to orange producers if the orange juice tariff were eliminated. For the span of the Bill direct payments to corn are estimated to total $25.1 billion. By comparison the direct expenditures incurred for an income support program for oranges would be substantially less. In the early years with the tariff in place the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Income support program; Oranges; Tariff; FSRIA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15683
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