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Registros recuperados: 8
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Biofuels: Potential Production Capacity, Effects on Grain and Livestock Sectors, and Implications for Food Prices and Consumers AgEcon
Hayes, Dermot J.; Babcock, Bruce A.; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Tokgoz, Simla; Elobeid, Amani E.; Yu, Tun-Hsiang (Edward); Dong, Fengxia; Hart, Chad E.; Chavez, Eddie C.; Pan, Suwen; Carriquiry, Miguel A.; Dumortier, Jerome.
We examined four evolution paths of the biofuel sector using a partial equilibrium world agricultural sector model in CARD that includes the new RFS in the 2007 EISA, a two-way relationship between fossil energy and biofuel markets, and a new trend toward corn oil extraction in ethanol plants. At one extreme, one scenario eliminates all support to the biofuel sector when the energy price is low, while the other extreme assumes no distribution bottleneck in ethanol demand growth when the energy price is high. The third scenario considers a pure market force driving ethanol demand growth because of the high energy price, while the last is a policy-induced shock with removal of the biofuel tax credit when the energy price is high. Standard results hold where...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biofuel; EISA; Ethanol; Tax credit; World agricultural sector model; Agribusiness; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries; Political Economy; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q13; Q18; Q38.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53093
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Biofuels: Potential Production Capacity, Effects on Grain and Livestock Sectors, and Implications for Food Prices and Consumers AgEcon
Hayes, Dermot J.; Babcock, Bruce A.; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Tokgoz, Simla; Elobeid, Amani E.; Yu, Tun-Hsiang (Edward); Dong, Fengxia; Hart, Chad E.; Chavez, Eddie C.; Pan, Suwen; Carriquiry, Miguel A.; Dumortier, Jerome.
We examine four scenarios for the evolution of the biofuel sector using a partial equilibrium model of the world agricultural sector. The model includes the new Renewable Fuels Standard in the 2007 energy act, the two-way relationship between fossil energy and biofuel markets, and a new trend toward corn oil extraction in ethanol plants. At one extreme, one scenario eliminates all support to the biofuel sector when the energy price is low, while the other extreme assumes no distribution bottleneck in ethanol demand growth when the energy price is high. Of the remaining two scenarios, one considers a pure market force driving ethanol demand growth because of the high energy price while the other is a policy-induced shock with removal of the biofuel tax...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biofuels; EISA; Ethanol; Tax credit; World agricultural sector model.; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48597
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Ethanol Trade between Brazil and the United States AgEcon
Devadoss, Stephen; Kuffel, Martin.
The United States has used tax credit and mandate to promote ethanol production. To offset the tax credit availed by the imported ethanol, the United States instituted an import tariff. This study ascertains the appropriate U.S. ethanol import tariff corresponding to the U.S. domestic policies by setting the policy-induced ethanol price equal to the free market price. The theoretical results from a horizontally-related ethanol-gasoline partial equilibrium model of three countries (the United States, Brazil, and the Rest of the World) show that the United States should provide an import subsidy rather than impose a tariff. The empirical results quantify that this import subsidy is $0.10, instead of a $0.57 import tariff, per gallon of ethanol.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ethanol imports; Mandate; Subsidy; Tariff; Tax credit; International Relations/Trade; F13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60889
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Is the U.S. Import Tariff on Brazilian Ethanol Justifiable? AgEcon
Devadoss, Stephen; Kuffel, Martin.
The United States has used tax credits and mandates to promote ethanol production. To offset the tax credits received by imported ethanol, the United States instituted an import tariff. This study provides insights about the quantitative nature of a U.S. trade policy that would establish a free-market price for ethanol, given the U.S. ethanol mandate and tax credit. The theoretical results from a horizontally related ethanol-gasoline partial equilibrium model show that the United States should provide an import subsidy rather than impose a tariff. The empirical results quantify that this import subsidy is 9 cents, instead of a 57 cent import tariff, per gallon of ethanol.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Ethanol imports; Mandate; Subsidy; Tariff; Tax credit; International Relations/Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99107
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The Implications of Alternative Biofuel Policies on Carbon Leakage AgEcon
Drabik, Dusan; de Gorter, Harry; Just, David R..
We show how leakage differs, depending on the biofuel policy and market conditions. Carbon leakage is shown to have two components: a market leakage effect and an emissions savings effect. We also distinguish domestic and international leakage and show how omitting the former like the IPCC does can bias leakage estimates. International leakage is always positive, but domestic leakage can be negative. The magnitude of market leakage depends on the domestic and foreign gasoline supply and fuel demand elasticities, and on consumption and production shares of world oil markets for the country introducing the biofuel policy. Being a small country in world oil markets does not automatically imply that leakage is 100 percent or above that of a large country. We...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Market leakage; Carbon leakage; Emissions savings; Domestic leakage; Tax credit; Mandate; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q27; Q41; Q42; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102689
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The Implications of Alternative Biofuel Policies on Carbon Leakage AgEcon
Drabik, Dusan; de Gorter, Harry; Just, David R..
We show carbon leakage depends on the type of biofuel policy (tax credit versus mandate), the domestic and foreign gasoline supply and fuel demand elasticities, and on consumption and production shares of world oil markets for the country introducing the biofuel policy. The components of carbon leakage – market leakage and emissions savings – are counteracting: carbon leakage increases with market leakage but decreases with emissions savings. We also distinguish domestic and international leakage where the latter is always positive, but domestic leakage can be negative with a mandate. The IPCC definition of leakage omits domestic leakage, resulting in biased estimates. Leakage with a tax credit always exceeds that of a mandate, while the combination of a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Tax credit; Mandate; Market leakage; Carbon leakage; Emissions savings; Domestic leakage; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q27; Q41; Q42; Q54.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114432
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The Socially Optimal Import Tariff and Tax Credit for Ethanol with Farm Subsidies AgEcon
de Gorter, Harry; Just, David R.; Tan, Qinwen.
We determine how the U.S. ethanol tax credit and import tariff affect the corn-ethanol-gasoline markets and how farm subsidies interact with these policies. We show how the ethanol tax credit and import tariff each uniquely affect the ethanol and gasoline prices. The ethanol import tariff alone increases the terms of trade in ethanol imports and corn exports, but decreases the terms of trade in gasoline imports and the tax costs of farm price supports. With price-contingent farm subsidies in place, the optimal tariff and tax credit will depend on the price level. When farm subsidy expenditures are high, import subsidies for ethanol may increase social welfare due to the substantial size of the fuel market relative to the corn market.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Ethanol; Tariffs; Tax credit; Welfare; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49865
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Welfare Changes from the U.S. Ethanol Tax Credit: The Role of Uncertainty and Interlinked Commodity Markets AgEcon
Baker, Mindy L..
A model of the corn, soybean, and wheat markets calculates welfare effects of the U.S. ethanol tax credit. Crop yields are uncertain, and demand consists of feed, food, energy, and exports. Modeling uncertainty in crop yields allows the valuation of deficiency payments as options. Disaggregating demand records who benefits from the tax credit and by how much; incorporating linked crop markets captures indirect effects important for determining the transfer from consumers to producers. There is $600 million in net welfare loss, increased taxpayer liability, and a large transfer from consumers to farmers. A brief comparison of recent literature is included.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biofuel; Commodity; Ethanol; Tax credit; Uncertainty; Welfare.; Risk and Uncertainty; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45627
Registros recuperados: 8
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